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/* test/libburner.c , API illustration of burning data or audio tracks to CD */
/* Copyright (C) 2005 - 2010 Thomas Schmitt <> */
/* Provided under GPL, see also "License and copyright aspects" at file end */
/** Overview
libburner is a minimal demo application for the library libburn as provided
on . It can list the available devices, can
blank a CD-RW or DVD-RW, can format DVD-RW and BD, can burn to CD-R,
Not supported yet: DVD-R/DL.
It's main purpose, nevertheless, is to show you how to use libburn and also
to serve the libburnia team as reference application. libburner.c does indeed
define the standard way how above three gestures can be implemented and
stay upward compatible for a good while.
Before you can do anything, you have to initialize libburn by
and provide some signal and abort handling, e.g. by the builtin handler, by
as it is done in main() at the end of this file. Then you aquire a
drive in an appropriate way conforming to the API. The two main
approaches are shown here in application functions:
libburner_aquire_by_adr() demonstrates usage as of cdrecord traditions
libburner_aquire_by_driveno() demonstrates a scan-and-choose approach
With that aquired drive you can blank a CD-RW or DVD-RW
or you can format a DVD-RW to profile "Restricted Overwrite" (needed once)
or an unused BD to default size with spare blocks
With the aquired drive you can burn to CD, DVD, BD
When everything is done, main() releases the drive and shuts down libburn:
FreeBSD does not work well with the convenient synchronous signal handler. So
the waiting loops for blanking, formatting, and writing use the asynchronous
mode of the libburn signal handler. It will not shutdown the library and
abort the program, but rather tell the ongoing drive operation to stop as
soon as possible. After the loops and at the end of the program there is a
call to determine whether an abort happened:
Applications must use 64 bit off_t. E.g. by defining
#define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
or take special precautions to interface with the library by 64 bit integers
where libburn/libburn.h prescribes off_t.
This program gets fed with appropriate settings externally by libburn's
autotools generated build system.
/** See this for the decisive API specs . libburn.h is The Original */
/* For using the installed header file : #include <libburn/libburn.h> */
/* This program insists in the own headerfile. */
#include "../libburn/libburn.h"
/* libburn is intended for Linux systems with kernel 2.4 or 2.6 for now */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
/** For simplicity i use global variables to represent the drives.
Drives are systemwide global, so we do not give away much of good style.
/** This list will hold the drives known to libburn. This might be all CD
drives of the system and thus might impose severe impact on the system.
static struct burn_drive_info *drive_list;
/** If you start a long lasting operation with drive_count > 1 then you are
not friendly to the users of other drives on those systems. Beware. */
static unsigned int drive_count;
/** This variable indicates wether the drive is grabbed and must be
finally released */
static int drive_is_grabbed = 0;
/** A number and a text describing the type of media in aquired drive */
static int current_profile= -1;
static char current_profile_name[80]= {""};
/* Some in-advance definitions to allow a more comprehensive ordering
of the functions and their explanations in here */
int libburner_aquire_by_adr(char *drive_adr);
int libburner_aquire_by_driveno(int *drive_no);
/* ------------------------------- API gestures ---------------------------- */
/** You need to aquire a drive before burning. The API offers this as one
compact call and alternatively as application controllable gestures of
whitelisting, scanning for drives and finally grabbing one of them.
If you have a persistent address of the drive, then the compact call is
to prefer because it only touches one drive. On modern Linux kernels,
there should be no fatal disturbance of ongoing burns of other libburn
instances with any of our approaches. We use open(O_EXCL) by default.
On /dev/hdX it should cooperate with growisofs and some cdrecord variants.
On /dev/sgN versus /dev/scdM expect it not to respect other programs.
int libburner_aquire_drive(char *drive_adr, int *driveno)
int ret;
if(drive_adr != NULL && drive_adr[0] != 0)
ret = libburner_aquire_by_adr(drive_adr);
ret = libburner_aquire_by_driveno(driveno);
if (ret <= 0 || *driveno <= 0)
return ret;
burn_disc_get_profile(drive_list[0].drive, &current_profile,
if (current_profile_name[0])
printf("Detected media type: %s\n", current_profile_name);
return 1;
/** If the persistent drive address is known, then this approach is much
more un-obtrusive to the systemwide livestock of drives. Only the
given drive device will be opened during this procedure.
int libburner_aquire_by_adr(char *drive_adr)
int ret;
char libburn_drive_adr[BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN];
/* Some not-so-harmless drive addresses get blocked in this demo */
if (strncmp(drive_adr, "stdio:/dev/fd/", 14) == 0 ||
strcmp(drive_adr, "stdio:-") == 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Will not work with pseudo-drive '%s'\n",
return 0;
/* This tries to resolve links or alternative device files */
ret = burn_drive_convert_fs_adr(drive_adr, libburn_drive_adr);
if (ret<=0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Address does not lead to a CD burner: '%s'\n",
return 0;
fprintf(stderr,"Aquiring drive '%s' ...\n", libburn_drive_adr);
ret = burn_drive_scan_and_grab(&drive_list, libburn_drive_adr, 1);
if (ret <= 0) {
fprintf(stderr,"FAILURE with persistent drive address '%s'\n",
} else {
drive_is_grabbed = 1;
return ret;
/** This method demonstrates how to use libburn without knowing a persistent
drive address in advance. It has to make sure that after assessing the list
of available drives, all unwanted drives get closed again. As long as they
are open, no other libburn instance can see them. This is an intended
locking feature. The application is responsible for giving up the locks
by either burn_drive_release() (only after burn_drive_grab() !),
burn_drive_info_forget(), burn_drive_info_free(), or burn_finish().
@param driveno the index number in libburn's drive list. This will get
set to 0 on success and will then be the drive index to
use in the further dourse of processing.
@return 1 success , <= 0 failure
int libburner_aquire_by_driveno(int *driveno)
int ret, i;
printf("Beginning to scan for devices ...\n");
while (!burn_drive_scan(&drive_list, &drive_count))
if (drive_count <= 0 && *driveno >= 0) {
printf("FAILED (no drives found)\n");
return 0;
Interactive programs may choose the drive number at this moment.
drive[0] to drive[drive_count-1] are struct burn_drive_info
as defined in libburn/libburn.h . This structure is part of API
and thus will strive for future compatibility on source level.
Have a look at the info offered.
Caution: do not take .location for drive address. Always use
burn_drive_get_adr() or you might become incompatible
in future.
Note: bugs with struct burn_drive_info - if any - will not be
easy to fix. Please report them but also strive for
workarounds on application level.
printf("\nOverview of accessible drives (%d found) :\n",
for (i = 0; i < drive_count; i++) {
if (burn_drive_get_adr(&(drive_list[i]), adr) <=0)
strcpy(adr, "-get_adr_failed-");
printf("%d --drive '%s' : '%s' '%s'\n",
On multi-drive systems save yourself from sysadmins' revenge.
Be aware that you hold reserved all available drives at this point.
So either make your choice quick enough not to annoy other system
users, or set free the drives for a while.
The tested way of setting free all drives is to shutdown the library
and to restart when the choice has been made. The list of selectable
drives should also hold persistent drive addresses as obtained
above by burn_drive_get_adr(). By such an address one may use
burn_drive_scan_and_grab() to finally aquire exactly one drive.
A not yet tested shortcut should be to call burn_drive_info_free()
and to call either burn_drive_scan() or burn_drive_scan_and_grab()
before accessing any drives again.
In both cases you have to be aware that the desired drive might get
aquired in the meantime by another user resp. libburn process.
/* We already made our choice via command line. (default is 0)
So we just have to keep our desired drive and drop all others.
No other libburn instance will have a chance to steal our drive.
if (*driveno < 0) {
printf("Pseudo-drive \"-\" given : bus scanning done.\n");
return 2; /* the program will end after this */
if (drive_count <= *driveno) {
"Found only %d drives. Number %d not available.\n",
drive_count, *driveno);
return 0; /* the program will end after this */
/* Drop all drives which we do not want to use */
for (i = 0; i < drive_count; i++) {
if (i == *driveno) /* the one drive we want to keep */
ret = burn_drive_info_forget(&(drive_list[i]),0);
if (ret != 1)
fprintf(stderr, "Cannot drop drive %d. Please report \"ret=%d\" to\n",
i, ret);
printf("Dropped unwanted drive %d\n",i);
/* Make the one we want ready for blanking or burning */
ret= burn_drive_grab(drive_list[*driveno].drive, 1);
if (ret != 1)
return 0;
drive_is_grabbed = 1;
return 1;
14 years ago
/** Makes a previously used CD-RW or unformatted DVD-RW ready for thorough
To our knowledge it is hardly possible to abort an ongoing blank operation
because after start it is entirely handled by the drive.
So expect signal handling to wait the normal blanking timespan until it
can allow the process to end. External kill -9 will not help the drive.
int libburner_blank_disc(struct burn_drive *drive, int blank_fast)
enum burn_disc_status disc_state;
struct burn_progress p;
double percent = 1.0;
disc_state = burn_disc_get_status(drive);
"Drive media status: %d (see libburn/libburn.h BURN_DISC_*)\n",
if (current_profile == 0x13) {
; /* formatted DVD-RW will get blanked to sequential state */
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_BLANK) {
"IDLE: Blank media detected. Will leave it untouched\n");
return 2;
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_FULL ||
disc_state == BURN_DISC_APPENDABLE) {
; /* this is what libburner is willing to blank */
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_EMPTY) {
fprintf(stderr,"FATAL: No media detected in drive\n");
return 0;
} else {
"FATAL: Unsuitable drive and media state\n");
return 0;
if(!burn_disc_erasable(drive)) {
"FATAL : Media is not of erasable type\n");
return 0;
/* Switch to asynchronous signal handling for the time of waiting */
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0x30);
printf("Beginning to %s-blank media.\n", (blank_fast?"fast":"full"));
burn_disc_erase(drive, blank_fast);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &p) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if(p.sectors>0 && p.sector>=0) /* display 1 to 99 percent */
percent = 1.0 + ((double) p.sector+1.0)
/ ((double) p.sectors) * 98.0;
printf("Blanking ( %.1f%% done )\n", percent);
if (burn_is_aborting(0) > 0)
return -1;
/* Back to synchronous handling */
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0);
return 1;
/** Formats unformatted DVD-RW to profile 0013h "Restricted Overwrite"
which needs no blanking for re-use but is not capable of multi-session.
Expect a behavior similar to blanking with unusual noises from the drive.
Formats unformatted BD-RE to default size. This will allocate some
reserve space, test for bad blocks and make the media ready for writing.
Expect a very long run time.
Formats unformatted blank BD-R to hold a default amount of spare blocks
for eventual mishaps during writing. If BD-R get written without being
formatted, then they get no such reserve and will burn at full speed.
int libburner_format(struct burn_drive *drive)
struct burn_progress p;
double percent = 1.0;
int ret, status, num_formats, format_flag= 0;
off_t size = 0;
unsigned dummy;
enum burn_disc_status disc_state;
if (current_profile == 0x13) {
fprintf(stderr, "IDLE: DVD-RW media is already formatted\n");
return 2;
} else if (current_profile == 0x41 || current_profile == 0x43) {
disc_state = burn_disc_get_status(drive);
if (disc_state != BURN_DISC_BLANK && current_profile == 0x41) {
"FATAL: BD-R is not blank. Cannot format.\n");
return 0;
ret = burn_disc_get_formats(drive, &status, &size, &dummy,
if (ret > 0 && status != BURN_FORMAT_IS_UNFORMATTED) {
"IDLE: BD media is already formatted\n");
return 2;
size = 0; /* does not really matter */
format_flag = 3<<1; /* format to default size, no quick */
} else if (current_profile == 0x14) { /* sequential DVD-RW */
size = 128 * 1024 * 1024;
format_flag = 1; /* write initial 128 MiB */
} else {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Can only format DVD-RW or BD\n");
return 0;
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0x30);
printf("Beginning to format media.\n");
burn_disc_format(drive, size, format_flag);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &p) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if(p.sectors>0 && p.sector>=0) /* display 1 to 99 percent */
percent = 1.0 + ((double) p.sector+1.0)
/ ((double) p.sectors) * 98.0;
printf("Formatting ( %.1f%% done )\n", percent);
if (burn_is_aborting(0) > 0)
return -1;
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0);
burn_disc_get_profile(drive_list[0].drive, &current_profile,
if (current_profile == 0x14 || current_profile == 0x13)
printf("Media type now: %4.4xh \"%s\"\n",
current_profile, current_profile_name);
if (current_profile == 0x14) {
"FATAL: Failed to change media profile to desired value\n");
return 0;
return 1;
/** Brings preformatted track images (ISO 9660, audio, ...) onto media.
To make sure a data image is fully readable on any Linux machine, this
function adds 300 kiB of padding to the (usualy single) track.
Audio tracks get padded to complete their last sector.
A fifo of 4 MB is installed between each track and its data source.
Each of the 4 MB buffers gets allocated automatically as soon as a track
begins to be processed and it gets freed as soon as the track is done.
The fifos do not wait for buffer fill but writing starts immediately.
In case of external signals expect abort handling of an ongoing burn to
last up to a minute. Wait the normal burning timespan before any kill -9.
For simplicity, this function allows memory leaks in case of failure.
In apps which do not abort immediately, one should clean up better.
int libburner_payload(struct burn_drive *drive,
char source_adr[][4096], int source_adr_count,
int multi, int simulate_burn, int all_tracks_type)
struct burn_source *data_src, *fifo_src[99];
struct burn_disc *target_disc;
struct burn_session *session;
struct burn_write_opts *burn_options;
enum burn_disc_status disc_state;
struct burn_track *track, *tracklist[99];
struct burn_progress progress;
time_t start_time;
int last_sector = 0, padding = 0, trackno, unpredicted_size = 0, fd;
int fifo_chunksize = 2352, fifo_chunks = 1783; /* ~ 4 MB fifo */
off_t fixed_size;
char *adr, reasons[BURN_REASONS_LEN];
struct stat stbuf;
if (all_tracks_type != BURN_AUDIO) {
all_tracks_type = BURN_MODE1;
/* a padding of 300 kiB helps to avoid the read-ahead bug */
padding = 300*1024;
fifo_chunksize = 2048;
fifo_chunks = 2048; /* 4 MB fifo */
target_disc = burn_disc_create();
session = burn_session_create();
burn_disc_add_session(target_disc, session, BURN_POS_END);
for (trackno = 0 ; trackno < source_adr_count; trackno++) {
tracklist[trackno] = track = burn_track_create();
burn_track_define_data(track, 0, padding, 1, all_tracks_type);
/* Open file descriptor to source of track data */
adr = source_adr[trackno];
fixed_size = 0;
if (adr[0] == '-' && adr[1] == 0) {
fd = 0;
} else {
fd = open(adr, O_RDONLY);
if (fd>=0)
if (fstat(fd,&stbuf)!=-1)
fixed_size = stbuf.st_size;
if (fixed_size==0)
unpredicted_size = 1;
/* Convert this filedescriptor into a burn_source object */
data_src = NULL;
if (fd>=0)
data_src = burn_fd_source_new(fd, -1, fixed_size);
if (data_src == NULL) {
"FATAL: Could not open data source '%s'.\n",adr);
fprintf(stderr,"(Most recent system error: %s )\n",
return 0;
/* Install a fifo object on top of that data source object */
fifo_src[trackno] = burn_fifo_source_new(data_src,
fifo_chunksize, fifo_chunks, 0);
if (fifo_src[trackno] == NULL) {
"FATAL: Could not create fifo object of 4 MB\n");
return 0;
/* Use the fifo object as data source for the track */
if (burn_track_set_source(track, fifo_src[trackno])
"FATAL: Cannot attach source object to track object\n");
return 0;
burn_session_add_track(session, track, BURN_POS_END);
printf("Track %d : source is '%s'\n", trackno+1, adr);
/* Give up local reference to the data burn_source object */
14 years ago
} /* trackno loop end */
/* Evaluate drive and media */
disc_state = burn_disc_get_status(drive);
if (disc_state != BURN_DISC_BLANK &&
disc_state != BURN_DISC_APPENDABLE) {
if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_FULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Closed media with data detected. Need blank or appendable media.\n");
if (burn_disc_erasable(drive))
fprintf(stderr, "HINT: Try --blank_fast\n\n");
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_EMPTY)
fprintf(stderr,"FATAL: No media detected in drive\n");
"FATAL: Cannot recognize state of drive and media\n");
return 0;
burn_options = burn_write_opts_new(drive);
burn_write_opts_set_perform_opc(burn_options, 0);
burn_write_opts_set_multi(burn_options, !!multi);
printf("\n*** Will TRY to SIMULATE burning ***\n\n");
burn_write_opts_set_simulate(burn_options, simulate_burn);
burn_drive_set_speed(drive, 0, 0);
burn_write_opts_set_underrun_proof(burn_options, 1);
if (burn_write_opts_auto_write_type(burn_options, target_disc,
reasons, 0) == BURN_WRITE_NONE) {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Failed to find a suitable write mode with this media.\n");
fprintf(stderr, "Reasons given:\n%s\n", reasons);
return 0;
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0x30);
printf("Burning starts. With e.g. 4x media expect up to a minute of zero progress.\n");
start_time = time(0);
burn_disc_write(burn_options, target_disc);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, NULL) == BURN_DRIVE_SPAWNING)
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &progress) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if (progress.sectors <= 0 ||
(progress.sector >= progress.sectors - 1 &&
!unpredicted_size) ||
(unpredicted_size && progress.sector == last_sector))
"Thank you for being patient since %d seconds.",
(int) (time(0) - start_time));
else if(unpredicted_size)
printf("Track %d : sector %d", progress.track+1,
printf("Track %d : sector %d of %d",progress.track+1,
progress.sector, progress.sectors);
last_sector = progress.sector;
if (progress.track >= 0 && progress.track < source_adr_count) {
int size, free_bytes, ret;
char *status_text;
ret = burn_fifo_inquire_status(
fifo_src[progress.track], &size, &free_bytes,
if (ret >= 0 )
printf(" [fifo %s, %2d%% fill]", status_text,
(int) (100.0 - 100.0 *
((double) free_bytes) /
(double) size));
for (trackno = 0 ; trackno < source_adr_count; trackno++) {
if (burn_is_aborting(0) > 0)
return -1;
if (multi && current_profile != 0x1a && current_profile != 0x13 &&
current_profile != 0x12 && current_profile != 0x43)
/* not with DVD+RW, formatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE */
printf("NOTE: Media left appendable.\n");
if (simulate_burn)
printf("\n*** Did TRY to SIMULATE burning ***\n\n");
return 1;
/** The setup parameters of libburner */
static char drive_adr[BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN] = {""};
static int driveno = 0;
static int do_blank = 0;
static char source_adr[99][4096];
static int source_adr_count = 0;
static int do_multi = 0;
static int simulate_burn = 0;
static int all_tracks_type = BURN_MODE1;
/** Converts command line arguments into above setup parameters.
int libburner_setup(int argc, char **argv)
int i, insuffient_parameters = 0, print_help = 0;
for (i = 1; i < argc; ++i) {
if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--audio")) {
all_tracks_type = BURN_AUDIO;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--blank_fast")) {
do_blank = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--blank_full")) {
do_blank = 2;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--burn_for_real")) {
simulate_burn = 0;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--drive")) {
if (i >= argc) {
fprintf(stderr,"--drive requires an argument\n");
return 1;
} else if (strcmp(argv[i], "-") == 0) {
drive_adr[0] = 0;
driveno = -1;
} else if (isdigit(argv[i][0])) {
drive_adr[0] = 0;
driveno = atoi(argv[i]);
} else {
if(strlen(argv[i]) >= BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN) {
fprintf(stderr,"--drive address too long (max. %d)\n",
return 2;
strcpy(drive_adr, argv[i]);
} else if ((!strcmp(argv[i], "--format_overwrite")) ||
(!strcmp(argv[i], "--format"))) {
do_blank = 101;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--multi")) {
do_multi = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--stdin_size")) { /* obsoleted */
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--try_to_simulate")) {
simulate_burn = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--help")) {
print_help = 1;
} else if (!strncmp(argv[i], "--",2)) {
fprintf(stderr, "Unidentified option: %s\n", argv[i]);
return 7;
} else {
if(strlen(argv[i]) >= 4096) {
fprintf(stderr, "Source address too long (max. %d)\n", 4096-1);
return 5;
if(source_adr_count >= 99) {
fprintf(stderr, "Too many tracks (max. 99)\n");
return 6;
strcpy(source_adr[source_adr_count], argv[i]);
insuffient_parameters = 1;
if (driveno < 0)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (source_adr_count > 0)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (do_blank)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (print_help || insuffient_parameters ) {
printf("Usage: %s\n", argv[0]);
printf(" [--drive <address>|<driveno>|\"-\"] [--audio]\n");
printf(" [--blank_fast|--blank_full|--format] [--try_to_simulate]\n");
printf(" [--multi] [<one or more imagefiles>|\"-\"]\n");
printf("A bus scan (needs rw-permissions to see a drive):\n");
printf(" %s --drive -\n",argv[0]);
printf("Burn a file to drive chosen by number, leave appendable:\n");
printf(" %s --drive 0 --multi my_image_file\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn a file to drive chosen by persistent address, close:\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc my_image_file\n", argv[0]);
printf("Blank a used CD-RW (is combinable with burning in one run):\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --blank_fast\n",argv[0]);
printf("Blank a used DVD-RW (is combinable with burning in one run):\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --blank_full\n",argv[0]);
printf("Format a DVD-RW, BD-RE or BD-R:\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --format\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn two audio tracks (to CD only):\n");
printf(" lame --decode -t /path/to/track1.mp3\n");
printf(" test/dewav /path/to/track2.wav -o\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --audio\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn a compressed afio archive on-the-fly:\n");
printf(" ( cd my_directory ; find . -print | afio -oZ - ) | \\\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc -\n", argv[0]);
printf("To be read from *not mounted* media via: afio -tvZ /dev/hdc\n");
if (insuffient_parameters)
return 6;
return 0;
int main(int argc, char **argv)
int ret;
/* A warning to programmers who start their own projekt from here. */
if (sizeof(off_t) != 8) {
"\nFATAL: Compile time misconfiguration. off_t is not 64 bit.\n\n");
ret = libburner_setup(argc, argv);
if (ret)
printf("Initializing ...\n");
if (burn_initialize())
else {