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.TH CDRSKIN 1 "Version 1.5.4, Jan 30, 2021"
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cdrskin \- burns preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD via libburn.
.B cdrskin
.RI [ options | track_source_addresses ]
.\" TeX users may be more comfortable with the \fB<whatever>\fP and
.\" \fI<whatever>\fP escape sequences to invode bold face and italics,
.\" respectively.
\fBcdrskin\fP is a program that provides some of cdrecord's options
in a compatible way for CD media. With DVD and BD it has its own ways.
You do not need to be superuser for its daily usage.
.B Overview of features:
Blanking of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
Burning of data tracks or audio tracks with CD-TEXT to CD,
either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
or in Session at Once mode for seamless tracks.
Multi session on CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
Single session Disk-at-once on DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL.
Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
on overwriteable DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE
or on data file or block device.
Extraction of audio tracks and CD-TEXT to hard disk files.
Bus scan, burnfree, speed options, retrieving media info, padding, fifo.
See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.
.B General information paragraphs:
Track recording model
Write mode selection
Recordable CD Media
Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
Drive preparation and addressing
Emulated drives
.B Track recording model:
The input-output entities which get processed are called tracks.
A \fBtrack\fP stores a stream of bytes.
More than one track can be burned by a single run of cdrskin.
In the terms of the MMC standard all tracks written by the same run constitute
a \fBsession\fP.
Normally, each track is initiated by one track source address argument,
which may either be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable file.
Alternatively, option cuefile= may be used to read a session description
from a text file and to read the session content from a single data file.
If no write mode
is given explicitly then one will be chosen which matches the peculiarities
of track sources and the state of the output media.
Some media types can be kept appendable so that further tracks can
be written to them in subsequent runs of cdrskin (see option -multi).
Info about the addresses of burned tracks is kept in a table of
content (TOC) on media and can be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.
This information is also used by the operating systems' CD-ROM read drivers.
In general there are two types of tracks: data and audio. They differ in
sector size, throughput and readability via the systems' CD-ROM drivers
and by music CD players. With DVD and BD there is only type data.
If not explicitly option -audio is given, then any track is burned as type
data, unless the track source is a file with suffix ".wav" or ".au" and has a
header part which identifies it as MS-WAVE or SUN Audio with suitable
parameters. Such files are burned as audio tracks by default.
While audio tracks just contain a given time span of acoustic vibrations,
data tracks may have an arbitrary meaning. Nevertheless, ISO-9660 filesystems
are established as a format which can represent a tree of directories and
files on all major operating systems. Such filesystem images can be
produced by programs mkisofs or genisoimage or xorriso.
They can also be extended by follow-up tracks if prepared properly.
See the man pages of said programs.
cdrskin is able to fulfill the needs about their option -C.
Another type of data track content are archive formats which originally
have been developed for magnetic tapes. Only formats which mark a detectable
end-of-archive in their data are suitable, though. Well tested are
the archivers afio and star. Not suitable seems GNU tar.
.B Write mode selection:
In general there are two approaches for writing media:
A permissive mode selected by option
.B -tao
which needs no predicted track size and can use
multi-session capabilities if offered by drive and medium.
A more restrictive mode
.B -sao
(alias -dao) which usually demands a predictable track size and is not
necessarily capable of multi-session. It can be used to write CD-TEXT and
it is the only one that works with option cuefile=.
If none of the options -dao, -tao or -sao is given then the program will
try to choose a write mode which matches the defined recording job,
the capabilities of the drive and the state of the present media.
So the mentioning of write modes in the following paragraphs and in the
examples is not so much a demand that the user shall choose one explicitly,
but rather an illustration of what to expect with particular media types.
.B Recordable CD Media:
CD-R can be initially written only once and eventually extended until they
get closed (or are spoiled because they are overly full). After that they are
read-only. Closing is done automatically unless option
.B -multi
is given which keeps the media appendable.
Write mode
-tao is able to use track sources of unpredictable length (like stdin) and
to write further sessions to appendable media.
-sao produces audio sessions with seamless tracks but needs predicted track
sizes and cannot append sessions to media.
CD-RW media can be blanked to make them re-usable for another
round of overwriting. Usually
.B blank=fast
is the appropriate option.
Blanking damages the previous content but does not
make it completely unreadable. It is no effective privacy precaution.
Multiple cycles of blanking and overwriting with random numbers might be
.B Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media:
Currently DVD-RW, DVD-R[DL], DVD+R[DL], and BD-R can be used for the Sequential
recording model. It resembles the model of CD media. Only DVD-RW can be
blanked and re-used from scratch.
DVD-RW are sequential media if they are in state "Sequential Recording".
The media must be either blank or appendable.
Newly purchased DVD-RW and DVD-R media are in this state.
Used DVD-RW get into blank sequential state by option
.B blank=deformat_sequential .
With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
Mode DAO has many restrictions. It does not work with
appendable media, cannot do -multi and writes only a single track.
The size of the
track needs to be known in advance. So either its source has to be a disk file
of recognizable size or the size has to be announced explicitly by options
.B tsize=
.B tao_to_sao_tsize= .
DAO is the only mode for DVD-R media which do not offer feature 21h Incremental
Streaming (e.g. DVD-R DL). DAO may also be selected explicitly by option
.B -sao .
Program growisofs uses DAO on sequential DVD-R[W] media for maximum
DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
The other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode if
it is available and if the restrictions of DAO would prevent the job.
Incremental Streaming may be selected explicitly by option
.B -tao
as it resembles much CD TAO by accepting track sources of
unpredicted length and being able to keep media appendable by option
.B -multi . It does not work with DVD-R DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.
The only restriction towards CD-R[W] is the lack of support for -audio tracks.
Multiple tracks per session are permissible.
The write modes for DVD+R[/DL] and BD-R resemble those with DVD-R except that
each track gets wrapped in an own session. There is no -dummy writing
with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
Quite deliberately write mode -sao insists in the tradition of a predicted
track size and blank media, whereas -tao writes the tracks open ended and
can be applied to appendable media.
BD-R may be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management which
might catch and repair some bad spots at the expense of slow speed
even with flawless media.
.B Note:
Option -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.
Best reader compatibility is achieved without it
(i.e. by single session media).
.B Overwriteable DVD or BD Media:
Currently types DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can be overwritten via
Option -audio is not allowed. Only one track is allowed.
Option -multi cannot mark a recognizable end of overwriteable media.
Therefore -multi is banned unless ISO-9660 images shall be expandable by help
of option
.B --grow_overwriteable_iso .
Without this option or without an ISO-9660 filesystem image present
on media, -toc does not return information about the media content and
media get treated as blank regardless whether they hold data or not.
Currently there is no difference between -sao and -tao. If ever, then -tao
will be the mode which preserves the current behavior.
DVD+RW and DVD-RAM media need no special initial formatting. They offer a
single continuous data area for blockwise random access. BD-RE need
explicit formatting before use. See
.B blank=as_needed
or blank=format_defectmgt .
DVD-RW are sold in state "Sequential Recording". To become suitable for the
Overwriteable DVD recording model they need to get formatted to state
"Restricted Overwrite". Then they behave much like DVD+RW. This formatting
can be done by option
.B blank=format_overwrite .
Several programs like dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim, or cdrskin
can bring a DVD-RW out of overwriteable state so
that it has to be formatted again. If in doubt, just give it a try.
.B Drive preparation and addressing:
The drives, CD, DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via addresses which
are specific to libburn and the operating system. Those addresses get listed
by a run of \fBcdrskin --devices\fP or \fBcdrskin --device_links\fP.
On Linux, they are device files which traditionally do not offer
w-permissions for normal users. Because libburn needs rw-permission,
it might be only the
.B superuser
who is able to get this list without further
It is consensus that \fBchmod a+rw /dev/sr0\fP or \fBchmod a+rw /dev/hdc\fP
is less security sensitive than chmod u+s,a+x /usr/bin/cdrskin. The risk for
the drive is somewhat higher but the overall system is much less at stake.
Consider to restrict rw-access to a single group which bundles the users who
are allowed to use the burner drive (like group "floppy").
For drive permission examples on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris,
see cdrskin/README.
If you only got one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin option
\fBdev=\fP. Else you should use this option to address the drive you want.
cdrskin option dev= not only accepts the listed addresses but also
traditional cdrecord SCSI addresses which consist of three numbers:
Bus,Target,Lun. On Linux there is also a related address family "ATA" which
accesses IDE drives not under control of Linux SCSI drivers:
See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style addresses.
Further are accepted: links to libburn-suitable device files,
device files which have the same major and minor device number,
and device files which have the same SCSI address parameters (e.g. /dev/sg0).
.B Emulated drives:
.B --allow_emulated_drives
enables addressing of pseudo-drives
which get emulated on top of filesystem objects. Regular data files and
block devices result in pseudo-drives which behave much like DVD-RAM.
If the given address does not exist yet but its directory exists, then
it gets created as regular file.
Other file types like character devices or pipes result in pseudo-drives
which behave much like blank DVD-R.
The target file address is given after prefix "stdio:".
E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
Addresses of the form "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special. The
number is read literally and used as open file descriptor. With
dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal standard output of the program is
redirected to stderr and the stream data of a burn run will appear on stdout.
Not good for terminals ! Redirect it.
Pseudo-drives support -dummy. Their reply with --tell_media_space can be utopic.
-dummy burn runs touch the file but do not modify its data content.
Note: --allow_emulated_drives is restricted to stdio:/dev/null if cdrskin
is run by the
.B superuser
or if it has changed user identity via the
.B setuid
bit of its access permissions. The ban for the superuser can be lifted by a
skillfully created file. See section FILES below.
.BI \-\-help
Show non-cdrecord compatible options.
.BI \-help
Show cdrecord compatible options.
Note that some of the help texts are quite wrong - for cdrecord as well as
for cdrskin (e.g. -format, blank=, -load). They are, nevertheless, traditional
indicators for the availability of the listed options. Some frontend programs
make decisions after reading them.
.BI \-version
Print cdrskin id line, compatibility lure line, libburn version, cdrskin
version, version timestamp, build timestamp (if available), and then exit.
Alphabetical list of options which are intended to be compatible with
original cdrecord by Joerg Schilling:
.BI \-atip
Retrieve some info about media state. With CD-RW print "Is erasable".
With DVD media print "book type:" and a media type text. With BD media
print "Mounted Media:" and media type text.
.BI \-audio
Announces that the subsequent tracks are to be burned as audio.
The source is supposed to be uncompressed headerless PCM, 44100 Hz, 16 bit,
stereo. For little-endian byte order (which is usual on PCs) use option
-swab. Unless marked explicitly by option -data, input files with suffix
".wav" are examined whether they have a header in MS-WAVE format confirming
those parameters and eventually raw audio data get extracted and burned as
audio track. Same is done for suffix ".au" and SUN Audio.
Option -audio may be used only with CD media and not with DVD or BD.
.BI blank= type
Blank a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
This is combinable with burning in the same run of cdrskin.
The type given with blank= selects the particular behavior:
Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If it needs formatting,
then format it. If it is not blank, then try to apply blank=fast.
It is a reason to abort if the media cannot assume thoroughly writeable state,
e.g. if it is non-blank write-once.
This leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format DVD-RW use
blank=format_overwriteable. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
(Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)
The following blank types are specific to particular media familes. Use them if special features are desired.
Blank an entire CD-RW or an unformatted DVD-RW.
(See also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)
Minimally blank an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.
(See also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)
Like blank=all but with the additional ability to blank overwriteable DVD-RW.
This will destroy their formatting and make them sequentially recordable.
Another peculiarity is the ability to blank media which appear already blank.
This is similar to option -force but does not try to blank media other than
recognizable CD-RW and DVD-RW.
(Note: blank=deformat_* are not original cdrecord options.)
Like blank=deformat_sequential but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.
This is faster than full blanking but may yield media incapable of
Incremental Streaming (-tao).
Format a media if it is not formatted yet,
and if cdrskin supports formatting for the media type,
and if formatting will not happen automatically during write.
This currently applies to unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE,
and blank unformatted BD-R.
Eventually the appropriate default formatting is chosen.
If other media or states are encountered then nothing happens.
The following formatting types are more specialized to particular
media families.
Format a DVD-RW to "Restricted Overwrite". The user should bring some patience.
(Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)
Like format_overwrite without creating a 128 MiB trailblazer session.
Leads to "intermediate" state which only supports sequential write
beginning from address 0.
The "intermediate" state ends after the first session of writing data.
For DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full media size
rather than just 128 MiB.
Most traditional formatting is attempted. No data get written.
Much patience is required.
This option treats already formatted media even if not option -force is given.
For DVD+RW this is the only supported explicit formatting type. It provides
complete "de-icing" so no reader slips on unwritten data areas.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve the default amount of spare blocks for
defect management.
The following format_defectmgt_* enable the user to submit wishes which
nevertheless have to match one of the available formats. These formats are
offered by the drive after examining the media.
Disable the usual media quality certification in order to save time and
format to default size.
The certification setting persists even if subsequent blank= options override
the size of the format selection.
Whether formatting without certification works properly depends much on the
drive. One should check the "Format status:" from --list_formats afterwards.
Re-enable the usual media quality certification and format to default size.
The certification setting persists like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
Whether there happens certification at all depends much on the media state
and the actually selected format descriptor.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare blocks.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare blocks.
It might be necessary to format format_defectmgt_none first in order to get
offered the most minmal spare blocks sizes for format_defectmgt_min.
Format DVD-RAM or BD-RE to the largest available payload in the hope to disable
defect management at all. This may or may not have a speed increasing effect.
Unformatted blank BD-R will be left unformatted.
Format DVD-RAM or BD. The text after "format_defectmgt_payload_" gives a
number of bytes, eventually with suffixes "s", "k", "m". The largest number
of spare blocks will be chosen which enables at least the given payload size.
The number after "format_by_index_" is used as index to the list of available
format descriptors. This list can be obtained by option --list_formats.
The numbers after text "Format idx" are the ones to be used with
format_by_index_. Format descriptor lists are volatile. Do neither eject
nor write the media between the run of --list_formats and the run of
blank=format_by_index_ or else you may get a different format than desired.
Print this list of blanking types.
.BI \-checkdrive
Retrieve some info about the addressed drive and then exit.
Exits with non-zero value if the drive cannot be found and opened.
.BI \-copy
Create the subsequent tracks with permission for an unlimited number of copies.
.BI cuefile= path
Read a session description from a cue sheet file in CDRWIN format.
Base the tracks on a single file which is given in the sheet by command FILE.
To enable CD-TEXT from the cue sheet file, cdrskin option -text has to be
cdrskin currently supports TRACK datatypes AUDIO and MODE1/2048 which may
not be mixed.
Data source may be of FILE type BINARY, MOTOROLA, or WAVE.
Non-CDRWIN commands ARRANGER, COMPOSER, MESSAGE are supported.
Cue sheet file commands CATALOG and ISRC may be overridden by option mcn=
and by input_sheet_v07t= purpose specifiers "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC".
This does not affect their appearance in CD-TEXT, but only on Q sub-channel.
The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.
.BI \-dao
Alias for option -sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode
or DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once mode.
.BI \-data
Subsequent tracks are data tracks. This option is default and only needed
to mark the end of the range of an eventual option -audio or -xa1.
Options -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get mapped to -data, not using the desired CD
sector formats and thus not taking advantage of eventual higher payload.
.BI \-xa1
Subsequent tracks are data tracks with input suitable for CD-ROM XA mode 2
form 1. This differs from -data input by 8 additional header bytes per block.
cdrskin will not write CD-ROM XA but rather strip the header bytes and write as
-data tracks.
.BI dev= target
Set the address of the drive to use. Valid are at least the
addresses listed with options --devices or --device_links,
X,Y,Z addresses listed with option -scanbus,
ATA:X,Y,Z addresses listed with options dev=ATA -scanbus,
and volatile libburn drive numbers (numbering starts at "0").
Other device file addresses which lead to the same drive might work too.
If no dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is assumed. That is the first
drive found being available. Better avoid this ambiguity on systems with more
than one drive.
The special target "help" lists hints about available addressing formats.
Be aware that deprecated option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr may change the meaning
of Bus,Target,Lun addresses.
.BI driveropts= opt
Set "driveropts=noburnfree" to disable the drive's eventual protection
mechanism against temporary lack of source data (i.e. buffer underrun).
A drive that announces no such capabilities will not get them enabled anyway,
even if attempted explicitly via "driveropts=burnfree".
.BI \-dummy
Try to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the inserted
media. There is no warranty that this will work with a particular combination
of drive, media, and write mode. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.
To avoid inadverted real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but
CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], or emulated stdio-drives.
.BI \-eject
Eject the disc after work is done.
.BI \-force
Assume that the user knows better in situations when cdrskin or libburn are
insecure about drive or media state. This includes the attempt to blank
media which are classified as unknown or unsuitable, and the attempt to use
write modes which libburn believes they are not supported by the drive.
Another application is to enforce blanking or re-formatting of media
which appear to be in the desired blank or format state already.
This option enables a burn run with option -dummy even if libburn believes
that drive and media will not simulate the write mode but will write for real.
It enables a burn run where cdrskin expects to exceed the available media
.B Caution:
Use this only when in urgent need.
.BI \-format
Same as blank=format_overwrite_full -force but restricted to DVD+RW.
.BI fs= size
Set the fifo size to the given value. The value may have appended letters which
multiply the preceding number:
"k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
Set size to 0 in order to disable the fifo (default is "4m").
The fifo buffers an eventual temporary surplus of track source data in order to
provide the drive with a steady stream during times of temporary lack of track
source supply.
The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can be
But a large fifo needs substantial time to fill up if not curbed via
option fifo_start_at=size.
.BI gracetime= seconds
Set the grace time before starting to write. (Default is 0)
.BI -immed
Equivalent to:
The name of this cdrecord option stems from the "Immed" bit which can make some
long running drive commands asynchronous and thus eases the load on some
wiring hardware types. Regardless of option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous
commands where possible and appropriate. To really disable asynchronous command
execution, use option use_immed_bit=off .
.BI index= list
Set a comma separated list of index start address numbers for the next track.
This applies to CD SAO sessions only.
The addresses count sectors from the start of the next track. The first number
is for index 1 and must be 0. The following numbers have to be larger than
their respective predecessors. Up to 99 numbers are allowed.
Sector numbers are computed from Min:Sec:Frame addresses by
Sector = ((Min*60)+Sec)*75+Frame
E.g.: "0,7512,20408" sets index 2 to 01:40:12 and index 3 to 04:32:08.
.BI -inq
Print the identification of the drive and then exit.
.BI -isosize
The next track following this option will try to obtain its source size from
the header information out of the first few blocks of the source data.
If these blocks indicate an ISO-9660 filesystem then its declared size
will be used under the assumption that it is a single session filesystem.
If not, then the burn run will be aborted.
The range of -isosize is exactly one track. Further tracks may be preceded
by further -isosize options, though. At least 15 blocks of padding will be
added to each -isosize track. But be advised to rather use padsize=300k.
This option can be performed on track sources which are regular files or block
devices. For the first track of the session it can be performed on any type
of source if there is a fifo of at least 64 kiB. See option fs= .
.BI isrc= text
Set the ISRC for the next track source to the given text, which must be exactly
13 characters long. It must comply to the format CCOOOYYSSSSS.
CC is the country code. OOO is the owner code. Both may consist of capital
letters A to Z and of decimal digits 0 to 9. YY depicts the year (00 to 99).
SSSSS is the serial number (00000 to 99999).
This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.
.BI -load
Load the media and exit. Exit value is 0 if any kind of media was found, non
zero else. Note: Option -eject will unload the media even if -load is given.
.BI -lock
Like option -load but leave the drive's eject button disabled if there is any
media found and not option -eject is given.
Use program "eject" or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out of the drive.
Runs of programs like cdrecord, growisofs, wodim, cdrskin will not be hampered
and normally enable the drive's eject button when they are done.
.BI mcn= text
Set the CD Media Catalog Number to text, which must be exactly 13 characters
long and should consist of decimal digits.
This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.
.BI minbuf= percentage
Equivalent to:
Percentage is permissible between 25 and 95.
.BI -minfo
Print information about the loaded media. This includes media type, writability
state, and a quite readable table of content.
.BI msifile= path
Run option -msinfo and copy the result line into the file given by path.
Unlike -msinfo this option does not redirect all normal output away from
standard output. But it may be combined with -msinfo to achieve this.
Note: msifile=path is actually an option of wodim and not of cdrecord.
.BI \-msinfo
Retrieve multi-session info for preparing a follow-up session by option -C
of programs mkisofs, genisoimage, or xorriso -as mkisofs.
Print result to standard output.
This option redirects to stderr all message output except the one of option
--tell_media_space and its own result string, which consists of two numbers.
The result string shall be used as argument of option -C with said programs.
It gives the start address of the most recent session and the predicted
start address of the next session to be appended. The string is empty if
the most recent session was not written with option -multi.
To have a chance for working on overwriteable media, this option has to be
accompanied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.
.BI \-multi
This option keeps CD, unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or BD-R appendable
after the current session has been written.
Without it the disc gets closed and may not be written any more - unless it
is a -RW and gets blanked which causes loss of its content.
The following sessions can only be written in -tao mode. -multi is prohibited
with DVD-R[W] DAO write mode and on DVD-R DL media.
Option --prodvd_cli_compatible eventually makes
-multi tolerable but cannot make it work.
In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual ISO-9660
filesystem of a follow-up
session needs to be prepared in a special way by the filesystem formatter
program. mkisofs and genisoimage expect particular info about the situation
which can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
To retrieve an archive file which was written as follow-up session,
you may use option -toc to learn about the "lba" of the desired track number.
This lba is the address of the 2048 byte block where the archive begins.
With overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.
So when adding a new session this end has to be determined from the payload.
Currently only ISO-9660 filesystems can be used that way. See option
.B \--grow_overwriteable_iso
for lifting the ban on -multi.
Note: -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.
.BI \-nocopy
Create subsequent tracks with permission for a single level of copies.
I.e. those copies would then be marked by -scms as offering no permission
for further copies.
.BI \-nopad
Do not add trailing zeros to the data stream. Nevertheless, since there seems
to be no use for audio tracks with incomplete last sector, this option applies
only to data tracks. There it is default.
.BI \-nopreemp
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered without pre-emphasis.
.BI \-pad
Add 30 kiB of trailing zeros to each data track. (This is not sufficient to
avoid problems with various CD-ROM read drivers.)
.BI padsize= size
Add the given amount of trailing zeros to the next data track. This option
gets reset to padsize=0 after that next track is written. It may be set
again before the next track argument. About size specifiers, see option fs=.
.BI \-preemp
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with pre-emphasis.
.BI \-sao
Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once
(DAO) mode.
With CD this mode is able to put several audio tracks on media without
producing audible gaps between them.
With DVD-R[W] this mode can only write a single track.
No -multi is allowed with DVD-R[W] -sao.
-sao is permissible with overwriteable DVD, or DVD+R[/DL], or BD but actually
only imposes restrictions without providing known advantages.
-sao can only be used for tracks of fixely predicted size. This implies that
track arguments which depict stdin or named pipes need to be preceded by
option tsize= or by option tao_to_sao_tsize=.
-sao cannot be used on appendable media.
.BI \-scanbus
Scan the system for drives. On Linux the drives at /dev/s* and at /dev/hd*
are to be scanned by two separate runs. One without dev= for /dev/s* and
one with dev=ATA for /dev/hd* devices. (Option --drives lists all available
drives in a single run.)
Drives which are busy or which offer no rw-permission to the user of cdrskin
are not listed. Busy drives get reported in form of warning messages.
The useful fields in a result line are:
Bus,Target,Lun Number) 'Vendor' 'Mode' 'Revision'
.BI \-scms
Create subsequent tracks without permission for being copied. This is usually
done for tracks which are copies of tracks that were marked with -nocopy
(but not yet with -scms). So copies of copies are prohibited.
This option gets reset by option -copy. Thus the combination -copy -nocopy
means -nocopy surely without -scms.
.BI speed= number
Set speed of drive. With data CD, 1x speed corresponds to a throughput of
153,600 bytes/second. With DVD, 1x = 1,385,000 bytes/second.
With BD 1x = 4,495,625 bytes/second.
It is not an error to set a speed higher than is suitable for drive
and media. One should stay within a realistic speed range, though.
Special speed settings are:
0 = minimal speed , -1 = maximal speed (default), text "any" = like -1.
.BI \-swab
Announce that the raw audio data source of subsequent tracks is byte swapped
versus the expectations of cdrecord. This option is suitable for audio where
the least significant byte of a 16 bit word is first (little-endian, Intel).
Most raw audio data on PC systems are available in this byte order.
Less guesswork is needed if track sources are in format MS-WAVE in a file with
suffix ".wav".
.BI \-tao
Write CD in Track At Once (TAO) mode, sequential DVD-R[W] in Incremental
Streaming mode, or DVD+R[/DL] without traditional -sao restrictions.
This mode also applies pro-forma to overwriteable media
Mode -tao can be used with track sources of unpredictable size, like standard
input or named pipes. It is also the only mode that can be used for writing
to appendable media which already hold data. With unformatted DVD-R[W] it is
the only mode which can keep media appendable by option -multi.
Mode -tao is not usable for minimally blanked DVD-RW and for DVD-R DL.
.BI \-text
Enable writing of CD-TEXT attributes read by option cuefile=.
Without option -text, cue sheet file command CDTEXTFILE will be ignored and
no CD-TEXT attributes will be read from the file. Nevertheless, CATALOG and
ISRC will have the same effect as options mcn= and isrc=.
.BI textfile= path
Read CD-TEXT packs from the file depicted by path and put them into the
Lead-in of the emerging session. This session has to be done by Session At Once
(SAO) mode and may only contain audio tracks.
path must lead to a regular file, which consists of an optional header of four
bytes and one or more text packs of 18 bytes each. Suitable would be the
file 'cdtext.dat' which gets extracted from CD media by options -vv -toc
and shown in human readable form by -vvv -toc.
The header, if present, must tell the file size minus 2, encoded as big-endian
16 bit word. The other two bytes must be 0.
If there is no 4-byte header, then a trailing 0-byte, as of Sony specification,
is tolerated and ignored.
A text pack consists of a pack type byte, a track number byte, a counter byte,
a Block Number and Character Indicator byte, 12 text characters or data bytes,
two optional CRC bytes. For details see libburn documentation file
By default, the input file is checked for correct CRC bytes. If all CRC bytes
are 0, then the correct values get silently inserted. If there are non-zero
CRC bytes, then a mismatch causes the abort of the burn run.
This check can be disabled by option -force.
Note that this option overrides option input_sheet_v07t= .
.BI \-toc
Print the table of content (TOC) which describes the tracks recorded on disc.
The output contains all info from option -atip plus lines which begin with
"track:", the track number, the word "lba:" and a number which gives the
start address of the track. Addresses are counted in CD sectors which with
SAO or TAO data tracks hold 2048 bytes each.
If verbosity is set to level 2 (-v -v) then the CD-TEXT packs from the lead-in
of an audio CD get extracted and written into file 'cdtext.dat', if that file
does not yet exist. Prepended is a 4 byte header, followed by one or more
packs of 18 bytes each.
Verbosity level 3 causes the CD-TEXT packs to be printed as hex numbers to
standard output. Bytes 4 to 15 of certain pack types are printed as ASCII
characters if they have values in the range of 32 to 126.
See option textfile= for more information about the text pack format.
Example. Retrieve an afio archive from track number 2:
lba=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/cdrom -toc 2>&1 | \\
grep '^track:[ ]*[ 0-9][0-9]' | \\
tail +"$tracknumber" | head -1 | \\
awk '{ print $4}' )
dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 skip="$lba" | \\
afio -t - | less
.BI tsize= size
Announces the exact size of the next track source. This is necessary with any
write mode other than -tao if the track source is not a regular disk file, but
e.g. "-" (standard input) or a named pipe.
About size specifiers, see option fs=.
If the track source does not deliver the predicted amount of bytes, the
remainder of the track is padded with zeros. This is not considered an error.
If on the other hand the track source delivers more than the announced bytes
then the track on media gets truncated to the predicted size and cdrskin exits
with non-zero value.
.BI \-v
Increment verbosity level by one. Startlevel is 0 with only few messages.
Level 1 prints progress report with long running operations and also causes
some extra lines to be put out with info retrieval options.
Level 2 additionally reports about option settings derived from arguments or
startup files. Level 3 is for debugging and useful mainly in conjunction with
somebody who had a look into the program sourcecode.
.BI \-V
Enable logging of SCSI commands to stderr. This is helpful for expert
examination of the interaction between libburn and the drive.
The commands are specified in SCSI-3 standards SPC, SBC, MMC.
.BI \-waiti
Wait until input data is available at stdin or EOF occurs at stdin.
Only then begin to access any drives.
One should use this if cdrskin is working at the end of a pipe where the
feeder process reads from the drive before it starts writing its output into
cdrskin. Example:
mkisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 | \\
cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
This option works even if stdin is not among the track sources. If no process
is piping in, then the Enter key of your terminal will act as trigger for
cdrskin. Note that this input line will not be consumed by cdrskin if stdin
is not among the track sources. It will end up as shell command, usually.
Alphabetical list of options which are genuine to cdrskin and intended for
normal use:
.BI \--adjust_speed_to_drive
Curb explicitly given speed= values to the maximum which is announced by the
drive for the loaded media. By default, such an adjustment is only made with
pseudo-speeds 0 and -1 whereas speed settings > 0 are sent unchanged to the
drive which will then choose an appropriate speed on its own.
.BI \--allow_emulated_drives
Enable drive addresses of the form dev=stdio:<path>. See above, paragraph
"Drive preparation and addressing".
.BI \--allow_setuid
Disable the loud warning about insecure discrepance between login user and
effective user which indicates application of chmod u+s to the program binary.
One should not do this chmod u+s , but it is an old cdrecord tradition.
.BI \--any_track
Allow source_addresses to begin with "-" (plus further characters) or to
contain a "=" character.
By default such arguments are seen as misspelled options. It is nevertheless
not possible to use one of the options listed with --list_ignored_options.
.BI assert_write_lba= block_number | byte_address
Abort if the write address given with this option is not the same as predicted
immediately before the write session starts. This option can ensure that a
start address which was presumed by a formatter like mkisofs -C is really used
by the drive for writing.
assert_write_lba=0 effectively demands blank media and excludes appendables.
Block numbering is peculiar: If the last character of the option string is
a letter [a-zA-Z] then the usual unit scaling by "s", "k", "m", etc. applies
and the result is divided by 2048. Else the number value of the string is
taken as plain block number with block size 2048 byte.
(E.g ...=1000 or ...=1000s means block 1000, ...=1m means block
512, ...=4096b means block number 2)
.BI cd_start_tno= number
Set the number which shall be written as CD track number with the first
track of the session. The following tracks will then get written with
consecutive CD track numbers. The resulting number of the last track
must not exceed 99. The lowest possible start number is 1, which is also
the default.
This setting applies only to CD SAO writing. It overrides the track number
settings caused by options cuefile= or input_sheet_v07t=.
.BI cdtext_to_textfile= path
Extract the CD-TEXT packs from the lead-in of an audio CD and write them to
the file with the given path. If CD-TEXT can be retrieved, then this file
will be suitable for option textfile=.
Not all drives can read CD-TEXT and not all audio CDs bear CD-TEXT.
It is not considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.
.BI cdtext_to_v07t= path
Extract the CD-TEXT packs from the lead-in of an audio CD and write them
as human readable Sony Input Sheet Version 0.7T to the file with the
given path. If CD-TEXT can be retrieved, then this file
will be suitable for option input_sheet_v07t=.
If the given path is "-", then the result is printed to standard output.
Not all drives can read CD-TEXT and not all audio CDs bear CD-TEXT.
It is not considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.
.BI \--demand_a_drive
Exit with a nonzero value if no drive can be found during a bus scan.
.BI \--devices
List the device file addresses of all accessible CD drives. In order to get
listed, a drive has to offer rw-permission for the cdrskin user and it may
not be busy. The superuser should be able to see all idle drives listed and
busy drives reported as "SORRY" messages.
Each available drive gets listed by a line containing the following fields:
Number dev='Devicefile' rw-Permissions : 'Vendor' 'Model'
Number and Devicefile can both be used with option dev=, but number is
volatile (numbering changes if drives become busy).
.BI \--device_links
Like --devices, but presenting the drives with addresses of symbolic links
which point to the actual device files.
Modern GNU/Linux systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot to boot.
The udev daemon is supposed to create links which always point to the
same drive, regardless of its system address.
Option --device_links shows the addresses of such links if they begin
by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd".
Precedence is: "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".
.BI direct_write_amount= size
Do not write a session with tracks but rather make an appropriate number of
direct write operations with no preparations. Flushing the drive buffer will
be the only finalization. It is advised to eject the media afterwards because
the write operations circumvent the usual system i/o with its caches and
buffers. By ejecting, those invalid memory copies get surely discarded.
Only few media can be written this way: DVD-RAM, BD-RE, RVD+RW and
overwriteable DVD-RW. Writing is restricted to the already formatted
area of the media.
Writing starts at byte 0 of the media or at the address given by option
.B write_start_address= .
Only the first track source is used as input for the write operations.
The fifo (fs=) is disabled.
.B size
controls the amount of data to be written. Size 0 means that the track source
shall be used up until EOF. In this case, the last write transaction gets
padded up to the necessary size by zeros. Size -1 revokes direct writing
and switches back to normal session oriented writing.
Both, write_start_address and direct_write_amount size must be aligned to a
media dependent transaction size. With DVD-RAM, BD-RE, DVD+RW this is 2k, with
overwriteable DVD-RW it is 32k.
.BI dvd_obs= default|32k|64k
Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to DVD
or BD media. With most write types, tracks get padded up to the next multiple
of this write size (see option --obs_pad).
A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with systems
which show latency problems. The default depends on media type, option
stream_recording=, and on compile time options.
.BI extract_audio_to= directory_path
Extract tracks from an audio CD as separate WAVE audio files into the
given directory.
This directory has to already exist, but none of the track files may exist.
This option will rather fail than overwrite an existing file.
By default all tracks of the CD are extracted to files with names
trackNN.wav, where NN is the track number from 01 to at most 99.
.BI extract_basename= name
Set a filename which shall be used by extract_audio_to= instead of the default
name "track".
.BI --extract_dap
Enable Digital Audio Play flaw obscuring mechanisms
like audio data mute and interpolate.
.BI extract_tracks= number[,number[,...]]
Set a list of track numbers to define which tracks shall be extracted
by extract_audio_to=.
If no extract_tracks= is given, then all audio tracks get extracted.
It is permissible to have more than one extract_tracks= option in order
to split a long list into shorter pieces.
The lowest permissible track number is 1, the highest is 99.
.BI fallback_program= command
Set a command name to be executed if cdrskin encounters a known cdrecord
option which it does not yet support. If a non-empty command is given with
fallback_program=, and if no essential options are given which are specific
to cdrskin, then cdrskin will delegate the job to said command.
The natural commands to be given are cdrecord or wodim but one may well submit
the address of an own program.
The fallback program will get all arguments of cdrskin which do not match
the shell patterns --?* or *_*=* . This eventually suppresses path names of
track sources which happen to match those patterns. The options from the
startup files are not handed to the fallback program.
Fallback program execution is disabled if cdrskin is run setuid and not
option --allow_setuid is given. In general, the drive's device files and the
involved programs should be set up so that each program runs under its advised
conditions. (E.g. cdrskin as member of group floppy, cdrecord setuid root.)
Two alias names for cdrskin are predefined with default fallback programs:
.B unicord
implies fallback_program=cdrecord
.B codim
implies fallback_program=wodim
.BI --four_channel
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with four channels.
.BI fifo_start_at= size
Do not wait for full fifo but start burning as soon as the given number
of bytes is read. This option may be helpful to bring the average throughput
near to the maximum throughput of a drive. A large fs= and a small
fifo_start_at= combine a quick burn start and a large savings buffer to
compensate for temporary lack of source data. At the beginning of burning,
the software protection against buffer underrun is as weak as the size of
fifo_start_at= . So it is best if the drive offers hardware protection which
is enabled automatically if not driveropts=noburnfree is given.
.BI \--grow_overwriteable_iso
Enable emulation of multi-session writing on overwriteable media which
contain an ISO-9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned from growisofs -M
but adapted to the usage model of
.B cdrskin -msinfo
.B mkisofs -C -M | cdrskin -waiti [-multi] -
--grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true multi-session media.
I.e. it is possible to use the same cdrskin options with both kinds of media
and to achieve similar results if ISO-9660 filesystem images are to be written.
This option implies option -isosize and therefore demands that the track
source is a ISO-9660 filesystem image.
With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it expands an
eventual ISO-9660 filesystem on media. It is assumed that this image's inner
size description points to the end of the valuable data.
Overwriteable media with a recognizable ISO-9660 size will be regarded as
appendable rather than as blank. I.e. options -msinfo and -toc will work.
-toc will always show a single session with its size increasing with
every added mkisofs image.
If not overridden by option write_start_address=, the track with the new image
will be placed behind the end of the old one. One may use option
assert_write_lba= to make sure that media state and mkisofs job do match.
--grow_overwriteable_iso causes option blank=fast|all to invalidate an
eventual ISO-9660 image by altering the first few bytes of block 16 on
overwriteable media.
Option -multi is tolerated in order not to hamper true multi-session media.
An equivalent of growisofs -Z for overwriteable media is:
.B mkisofs | cdrskin --grow_overwriteable_iso blank=fast [-multi] -
With multi-session DVD, blank=fast will act like dvd+rw-format -blank=full .
growisofs -dvd-compat is roughly equivalent to cdrskin without option -multi.
.BI input_sheet_v07t= path
Read CD-TEXT definitions from a Sony Input Sheet version 0.7T. Up to eight
or seven such sheets can be read by multiple input_sheet_v07t= options.
Each will define one CD-TEXT language block.
The first line of a sheet file decides whether more than one sheet
may be defined by the file. If it is
Input Sheet Version = 0.7T
then each further line with that text switches to the next sheet for the next block.
If it is not, then all definitions apply to a single block.
The information in such a sheet is given by text lines of the following form:
purpose specifier [whitespace] = [whitespace] content text
[whitespace] is zero or more ASCII 32 (space) or ASCII 9 (tab) characters.
The purpose specifier tells the meaning of the content text.
Empty content text does not cause a CD-TEXT attribute to be attached.
The following purpose specifiers apply to the session as a whole:
Purpose specifier | Content example
Text Code = 8859
Language Code = English
Album Title = Joyful Nights
Artist Name = United Cat Orchestra
Songwriter = Various Songwriters
Composer = Various Composers
Arranger = Tom Cat
Album Message = For all our fans
Catalog Number = 1234567890
Genre Code = Classical
Genre Information = Feline classic music
Closed Information = This is not to be shown by CD players
UPC / EAN = 1234567890123
Text Data Copy Protection = OFF
First Track Number = 1
Last Track Number = 3
The following purpose specifiers apply to particular tracks:
Purpose specifier | Content example
Track 01 Title = Song of Joy
Track 01 Artist = Felix and The Purrs
Track 01 Songwriter = Friedrich Schiller
Track 01 Composer = Ludwig van Beethoven
Track 01 Arranger = Tom Cat
Track 01 Message = Fritz and Louie once were punks
ISRC 01 = XYCRR1101234
Track numbers are decimal despite the leading 0. There should be as many track
definitions as there are track source files given.
See libburn's doc/cdtext.txt for a detailed definition of 0.7T and the
possible values for Text Code, Language Code, Genre Code, Text Data Copy
The Q sub-channel settings by "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC" may be overridden by
options mcn= and isrc=. This will not affect their appearance as CD-TEXT.
They may override cuefile= commands CATALOG and ISRC in the same way.
If options -text cuefile= are given and if the cue sheet file defines CD-TEXT,
then only seven input_sheet_v07t= options may be given. They will then be
used as CD-TEXT language blocks 1 to 7.
This option will get into effect only if no option textfile= is given.
The write mode must be SAO on CD. All tracks must be -audio tracks.
The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.
.BI \--list_formats
List the available format descriptors as reported by the drive for the
loaded media. Each descriptor line begins with "Format idx" and the
descriptor's list index, followed by a ":", the format type, the number
of payload blocks and that same number converted to MiB.
The meaning of the format types is defined by the MMC standard
with command FORMAT UNIT. A user will more be interested in the
sizes than in the types.
.BI \--list_ignored_options
List all ignored cdrecord options. The "-" options cannot be used as addresses
of track sources. No track source address may begin with a text equal to an
option which ends by "=". The list is ended by an empty line.
.BI \--list_speeds
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the output drive with
the loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired
speed as possible.
At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"
are the best guesses for lower and upper speed limit.
"Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may appear only with CD
and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear
"Write speed 0" or "Write speed-1", which tell the outcome of speed selection
by options speed=0 or speed=-1, if it deviates from "Write speed L"
or "Write speed H", respectively.
.BI \--long_toc
Like option -toc but marking each session start by a line "first: X last: Y"
and each session end by "track:lout ...".
.BI \--no_load
When aquiring the optical drive, do not try to load its tray. This yields the
same behavior for desktop drives with tray loader as is shown by laptop drives
which usually lack a motorized tray loader.
.BI \--no_rc
Only if used as first command line argument this option prevents reading and
interpretation of eventual startup files. See section FILES below.
.BI \--pacifier_with_newline
Adds a newline character to each pacifier line that would elsewise be
overwritten by the next pacifier line. Such lines are emitted during a
run of writing, formatting, or blanking if option -v is given.
.BI \--prodvd_cli_compatible
Activates behavior modifications with some DVD situations which bring cdrskin
nearer to the behavior of cdrecord-ProDVD:
Option -multi with unsuitable media is not an error but simply has no effect.
Options blank=fast and blank=all deformat overwriteable DVD-RW media.
Option blank=fast does indeed minmal blanking with DVD-RW. This may yield media
which can only do DAO but not Incremental Streaming.
.BI \--single_track
Accept only the last argument of the command line as track source address.
.BI stdio_sync= on|off|number
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to drives with prefix
"stdio:". This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of
pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".
Forced output can be disabled by "off".
.BI stream_recording= on|off|number
By setting "on" request that compliance to the desired speed setting is
preferred over management of write errors. With DVD-RAM and BD this can
bring effective write speed near to the nominal write speed of the media.
But it will also disable the automatic use of replacement blocks
if write errors occur. It might as well be disliked or ignored by the drive.
If a number is given, then error management stays enabled for all byte
addresses below that number. Any number below 16s is the same as "off".
.BI tao_to_sao_tsize= size
Set an exact fixed size for the next track to be in effect only if the track
source cannot deliver a size prediction and no tsize= was specified and an
exact track size prediction is demanded by the write mode.
This was the fallback from bad old times when cdrskin was unable to burn
in mode -tao . It came back with minimally blanked DVD-RW, which cannot do
Incremental Streaming (-tao), and with explicitly selected write mode -sao
for best DVD-ROM compatibility.
If the track source delivers less bytes than announced then the missing ones
will be filled with zeros.
.BI --tell_media_space
Prepare a recording session, do not perform it but rather inquire the
maximum number of 2048 byte data blocks which may be written in
the current state of media with the prepared setup. So this option disables
recording of data. It does not disable blanking, though, and will measure space
It is not mandatory to give track sources but their nature may influence
the available capacity. So for most realistic results one may set up
the full burn session and add --tell_media_space. But if one has to expect
a cdrskin version prior to 0.3.3 no track source should be given in order
not to start an involuntary burn session.
In this case set at least -sao or -tao explicitly.
The result gets printed to standard output. It is 0 or empty if no writing
is possible with the given options.
This option redirects to stderr all message output except its own result
string and eventual output of -msinfo.
.BI textfile_to_v07t= path
Read a CD-TEXT pack file (e.g. cdtext.dat from a run with -v -v -toc)
and print its content in the human readable format that is described
with option input_sheet_v07t=.
The program run ends immediately thereafter.
No drive scan will happen and no drive will be acquired.
To avoid the cdrskin start message in the output, run:
cdrskin textfile_to_v07t=cdtext.dat | grep -v '^cdrskin'
.BI --two_channel
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with two channels.
.BI write_start_address= byte_offset
Set the address on media where to start writing the track. With DVD+RW, DVD-RAM
or BD-RE byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB blocks, but better is 32 kiB.
With DVD-RW 32 kiB alignment is mandatory.
Other media are not suitable for this option yet.
.BI modesty_on_drive= <mode>[:parameter=<value>[:parameter=<value>...]]
Mode 1 keeps the program from trying to write to the burner drive while its
buffer is in danger to be filled by more than parameter "max_percent".
If this filling is exceeded then the program will wait until the filling
is at most the value of parameter "min_percent".
Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100.
This can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus help
with achieving better input bandwidth if disk and burner are not on independent
controllers (like hda and hdb). Unsufficient input bandwidth is indicated by
output "(fifo xy%)" of option -v if xy is lower than 90 for some time.
modesty_on_drive= might hamper output bandwidth and cause buffer underruns.
A new use case is to work around the poor simultaneous performance of multiple
burn runs on Linux kernel 3.16 and alike. Here it is not about giving the
hard disk enough time to fill the fifo, but about keeping ioctl(SG_IO) from
blocking for a longer time and thus blocking all other burn runs.
To have max_percent larger than the burner's best actual
buffer fill has the same effect as min_percent==max_percent. Some burners
do not use their full buffer with all media types. Watch output "[buf xy%]"
of option -v to get an impression of the actual buffer usage. Some burners
are not suitable because they report buffer fill with granularity too large
in size or time, or because they go to full speed only when their buffer is
If a write attempt is delayed, the program will wait for a number of
microseconds which is given by parameter "min_usec" before inquiring the buffer
again. If more retries occur, this waiting time between inquiries increases
up to the value of parameter "max_usec".
If the delay lasts longer than the number of seconds given by parameter
"timeout_sec", then mode 1 is set 0 and normal burning goes on.
Mode 0 disables this feature. Mode -1 keeps it unchanged. Default is:
The defaults of cdrskin are good for IDE problems. With concurrent Linux SG_IO
problems on modern hardware, higher min_percent and lower usec might yield
better buffer fills while still avoiding the problem:
Alphabetical list of options which are only intended for very special
situations and not for normal use:
.BI \--abort_handler
Establish default signal handling not to leave a drive in busy state
but rather to shut it down and to wait until it has ended the final operations.
This option is only needed for revoking eventual --ignore_signals or
.BI \--allow_untested_media
Enable the use of media profiles which have been implemented but not yet
tested. Currently this option is without effect because no media types are
under test reservation.
(If you really test experimental media, then please report the outcome on
.BI \--cdtext_dummy
Prepare a burn run, report the effective array of CD-TEXT packs to stdout,
and then end the program run without starting to burn the session.
A blank CD-R or CD-RW has to be present in the drive, nevertheless.
The output is formatted in lines which describe 18 bytes as 2-digit hex
numbers or as single printable characters.
See libburn document doc/cdtext.txt about the format of these records.
.BI \--cdtext_verbose
Like --cdtext_dummy but without preventing the burn run. Combinable with
option -dummy to exercise a CD burn run with no persistent impact on the
.BI dev_translation= <sep><from><sep><to>
Set drive address alias. This was necessary before cdrskin-0.2.4 to manually
translate cdrecord addresses into cdrskin addresses.
<sep> is a single character which may not occur in the address string
<from>. <from> is an address as expected to be given by the user via option
dev=. <to> is the address to be used instead whenever <from> is given.
More than one translation instruction can be given in one cdrskin run.
E.g.: dev_translation=+ATA:1,0,0+/dev/sr1 dev_translation=+ATA:1,1,0+/dev/sr2
.BI \--drive_abort_on_busy
Linux specific: Abort process if a busy drive is encountered.
.BI \--drive_blocking
Linux specific: Try to wait for a busy drive to become free.
This is not guaranteed to work with all drivers. Some need nonblocking i/o.
.BI \--drive_f_setlk
Linux specific: Try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via fcntl(2).
.BI \--drive_not_exclusive
Linux specific: Combine --drive_not_f_setlk and --drive_not_o_excl.
.BI \--drive_not_f_setlk
Linux specific: Do not try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via
.BI \--drive_not_o_excl
Linux specific: Do not ask the operating system to prevent opening busy drives.
Whether this leads to senseful behavior depends on operating system and kernel.
.BI drive_scsi_dev_family= sr | scd | sg
Linux specific: Select a SCSI device file family to be scanned for by
options --devices, --device_links and -scanbus.
Normally this is /dev/sgN on kernel versions < 2.6 and /dev/srN
on kernels >= 2.6 . This option explicitly overrides that default
in order to meet other programs at a common device file for each drive.
On kernel 2.4 families sr and scd will find no drives.
Device file family /dev/hdX on kernel >= 2.6 is not affected by this setting.
.BI \--drive_scsi_exclusive
Linux specific:
Try to exclusively reserve device files /dev/srN, /dev/scdM, /dev/sgK of drives.
This would be helpful to protect against collisions with program growisofs.
Regrettably on Linux kernel 2.4 with ide-scsi emulation this seems not to
work. Whether it becomes helpful with new Linux systems has to be evaluated.
.BI \--fifo_disable
Disable fifo despite any fs=.
.BI \--fifo_per_track
Use a separate fifo for each track.
.BI \--fill_up_media
Expand the last track of the session to occupy all remaining free space on
the media.
This option overrides option -multi. It will not fill up media if option -sao
is given with CD media.
.B Caution:
With multi-session media this option might increase readatibility on DVD-ROM
drives but with some DVD recorders and media types it might also fail to
produce readable media at all. "Your mileage may vary".
You can expect the best possible read compatibility if you do not use -multi at
.BI grab_drive_and_wait= seconds
Open the addressed drive, wait the given number of seconds, release the drive,
and do normal work as indicated by the other options used. This option helps
to explore the program behavior when faced with busy drives. Just start a
second cdrskin with option --devices while grab_drive_and_wait= is still
.BI \--ignore_signals
Try to ignore any signals rather than to abort the program. This is not a
very good idea. You might end up waiting a very long time for cdrskin
to finish.
.BI \--list_features
List the SCSI/MMC features which were obtained from the drive when it was
last acquired or re-assessed. Although this is better readable than the
raw reply to SCSI command GET CONFIGURATION, the MMC specification text
is still needed for interpreting it.
The list consists of line groups of the form
Code +/- : Name : Version,P/N
Raw feature data bytes as hex numbers
Parsed info as Name=Value pairs
The headline is the only one which has no blank at its start.
Code is given as 16 bit hex number.
"+" marks a currently offered feature. "-" marks those which may be offered
under different circumstances.
Name is the feature name as listed in MMC specs.
"P" marks persistent features. "N" marks non-persistent features.
The Raw data can occupy more than one line. No "=" occurs in such lines.
If no raw data are present, one line with some blanks is listed instead.
The Parsed info shows some extracted field values with names which resemble
the names used in the MMC description of the particular feature. Parsed info
lines contain at least one Name=Value pair. More than one line is possible.
If no parsed info is produced, one line with some blanks is listed instead.
0107 - : Real Time Streaming : 4,N
1f 00 00 00
RBCB=1 , SCS=1 , MP2A=1 , WSPD=1 , SW=1
.BI \--no_abort_handler
On signals exit even if the drive is in busy state. This is not a very good
idea. You might end up with a stuck drive that refuses to hand out the media.
.BI \--no_blank_appendable
Refuse to blank appendable CD-RW or DVD-RW. This is a feature that was once
builtin with libburn. No information available for what use case it was needed.
.BI \--no_convert_fs_adr
Do only literal translations of dev=. This prevents cdrskin from test-opening
device files in order to find one that matches the given dev= specifier.
Partly Linux specific:
Such opening is needed for Bus,Target,Lun addresses unless option
--old_pseudo_scsi_adr is given. It is also needed to resolve device file
addresses which are not listed with cdrskin --devices but nevertheless point
to a usable drive. (Like /dev/sg0 using the same SCSI address as /dev/sr0.)
.BI \--obs_pad
Pad the data of last write operation of a DVD-R[W] DAO session or
stdio: pseudo-drive up to the full size of an output chunk.
This padding has to be applied automatically to the other DVD and BD media
types, where it causes e.g. ISO images to have trailing unclaimed blocks.
Use this option if there is the suspicion that DAO sessions abort with
your kernel and/or DVD drive, if their size is not a multiple of 16 blocks.
This option may also get enabled at compile time of libburn.
.BI \--old_pseudo_scsi_adr
Linux specific:
Use and report literal Bus,Target,Lun addresses rather than real SCSI and
pseudo ATA addresses. This method is outdated and was never compatible with
original cdrecord.
.BI sao_postgap= off|number
Define whether a post-gap shall be written at the end of the track and
how many sectors this gap shall have. A post-gap occupies the range of
an additional index of the track. It contains zeros. No bytes from the
track source will be read for writing the post-gap.
This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.
.BI sao_pregap= off|number
Define whether a pre-gap shall be written before the track and how many
sectors this pre-gap shall have. A pre-gap is written in the range of track
index 0 and contains zeros. No bytes from the track source
will be read for writing the pre-gap.
This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.
The first track automatically gets a pre-gap of at least 150 sectors. Its
size can only be enlarged by this call.
.BI use_immed_bit= on|off|default
Control whether several long lasting SCSI commands shall be executed with the
Immed bit, which makes the commands end early while the drive operation is
still going on. cdrskin then inquires progress indication until the drive
reports to be ready again. If this feature is turned off, then blanking and
formatting will show no progress indication.
It may depend on the operating system whether use_immed_bit= is set to "off"
by default.
.BI --xa1-ignore
Silently interpret option -xa1 as -data. This may be necessary if a frontend
does not prepare -xa1 block headers but insists in using option -xa1.
.B Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
cdrskin -scanbus
cdrskin dev=ATA -scanbus
cdrskin --device_links
.B Get info about a particular drive or loaded media:
cdrskin dev=0,1,0 -checkdrive
cdrskin dev=ATA:1,0,0 -v -atip
cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -minfo
.B Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, DVD-RAM or BD-RE for first use:
cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sg1 blank=as_needed -eject
.B Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite
.B De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat_sequential
.B Write ISO-9660 filesystem image as only one to blank or formatted media:
cdrskin -v dev=/dev/hdc speed=12 fs=8m \\
blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso
.B Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly (not possible with minimally blanked DVD-RW or DVD-R DL):
find . | afio -oZ - | \\
cdrskin -v dev=0,1,0 fs=32m speed=8 \\
blank=as_needed padsize=300k -
.B Write multi-session to the same CD, DVD-R[W], DVD+R[/DL], or BD-R:
cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 1.iso
cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 2.iso
cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 3.iso
cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k 4.iso
.B Get multi-session info for option -C of program mkisofs:
c_values=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -msinfo 2>/dev/null)
mkisofs ... -C "$c_values" ...
.B Inquire free space on media for a -multi run:
x=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -multi \\
--tell_media_space 2>/dev/null)
echo "Available: $x blocks of 2048 data bytes"
.B Write audio tracks and CD-TEXT to CD:
cdrskin -v dev=ATA:1,0,0 speed=48 -sao \\
input_sheet_v07t=cdtext.v07t \\
track1.wav -audio -swab track3.raw
.B Extract audio tracks and CD-TEXT from CD into directory /home/me/my_cd:
mkdir /home/me/my_cd
cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 extract_audio_to=/home/me/my_cd \\
Startup files:
If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then cdrskin attempts on
startup to read the arguments from the following files:
.B /etc/default/cdrskin
.B /etc/opt/cdrskin/rc
.B /etc/cdrskin/cdrskin.conf
.B $HOME/.cdrskinrc
The files are read in the sequence given above, but none of them is
required for cdrskin to function properly. Each readable line is treated
as one single argument. No extra blanks.
A first character '#' marks a comment, empty lines are ignored.
Example content of a startup file:
# This is the default device
# Some more options
Disabling superuser safety precautions:
The superuser is normally banned from using any other emulated drive but
/dev/null. This ban can be lifted by the existence of file
.B /root/cdrskin_permissions/allow_emulated_drives
where the directory must be owned by the superuser and must not offer
w-permissions for group or others.
Warning: Superusers must take care not to spoil their hard disk via its raw
block device (like stdio:/dev/hda or stdio:/dev/sd0).
Formatting data track sources for cdrskin:
.BR mkisofs (8),
.BR genisoimage (8),
.BR xorriso (1),
.BR afio (1),
.BR star (1)
Other CD/DVD/BD burn programs:
.BR cdrecord (1),
.BR wodim (1),
.BR xorriso (1)
For DVD/BD burning (also tutor of libburn's DVD/BD capabilities):
.BR growisofs (1)
cdrskin was written by Thomas Schmitt <>.
This manual page was started by George Danchev <> and
is now maintained by Thomas Schmitt.