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/* test/libburner.c , API illustration of burning data or audio tracks to CD */
/* Copyright (C) 2005 - 2007 Thomas Schmitt <> */
/* Provided under GPLv2,see also "License and copyright aspects" at file end */
/** Overview
libburner is a minimal demo application for the library libburn as provided
on . It can list the available devices, can
blank a CD-RW or DVD-RW, can format a DVD-RW, can burn to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R,
DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or DVD-RW. Not supported yet: DVD-R/DL, BD.
It's main purpose, nevertheless, is to show you how to use libburn and also
to serve the libburnia team as reference application. libburner.c does indeed
define the standard way how above three gestures can be implemented and
stay upward compatible for a good while.
Before you can do anything, you have to initialize libburn by
and provide some signal and abort handling, e.g. by the builtin handler, by
as it is done in main() at the end of this file. Then you aquire a
drive in an appropriate way conforming to the API. The two main
approaches are shown here in application functions:
libburner_aquire_by_adr() demonstrates usage as of cdrecord traditions
libburner_aquire_by_driveno() demonstrates a scan-and-choose approach
With that aquired drive you can blank a CD-RW
or you can format a DVD-RW to profile "Restricted Overwrite" (needed once)
With the aquired drive you can burn to CD or DVD
When everything is done, main() releases the drive and shuts down libburn:
/** See this for the decisive API specs . libburn.h is The Original */
/* For using the installed header file : #include <libburn/libburn.h> */
/* This program insists in the own headerfile. */
#include "../libburn/libburn.h"
/* libburn is intended for Linux systems with kernel 2.4 or 2.6 for now */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
/** For simplicity i use global variables to represent the drives.
Drives are systemwide global, so we do not give away much of good style.
/** This list will hold the drives known to libburn. This might be all CD
drives of the system and thus might impose severe impact on the system.
static struct burn_drive_info *drive_list;
/** If you start a long lasting operation with drive_count > 1 then you are
not friendly to the users of other drives on those systems. Beware. */
static unsigned int drive_count;
/** This variable indicates wether the drive is grabbed and must be
finally released */
static int drive_is_grabbed = 0;
/** A number and a text describing the type of media in aquired drive */
static int current_profile= -1;
static char current_profile_name[80]= {""};
/* Some in-advance definitions to allow a more comprehensive ordering
of the functions and their explanations in here */
int libburner_aquire_by_adr(char *drive_adr);
int libburner_aquire_by_driveno(int *drive_no);
/* ------------------------------- API gestures ---------------------------- */
/** You need to aquire a drive before burning. The API offers this as one
compact call and alternatively as application controllable gestures of
whitelisting, scanning for drives and finally grabbing one of them.
If you have a persistent address of the drive, then the compact call is
to prefer because it only touches one drive. On modern Linux kernels,
there should be no fatal disturbance of ongoing burns of other libburn
instances with any of our approaches. We use open(O_EXCL) by default.
On /dev/hdX it should cooperate with growisofs and some cdrecord variants.
On /dev/sgN versus /dev/scdM expect it not to respect other programs.
int libburner_aquire_drive(char *drive_adr, int *driveno)
int ret;
if(drive_adr != NULL && drive_adr[0] != 0)
ret = libburner_aquire_by_adr(drive_adr);
ret = libburner_aquire_by_driveno(driveno);
if (ret <= 0)
return ret;
burn_disc_get_profile(drive_list[0].drive, &current_profile,
if (current_profile_name[0])
printf("Detected media type: %s\n", current_profile_name);
return 1;
/** If the persistent drive address is known, then this approach is much
more un-obtrusive to the systemwide livestock of drives. Only the
given drive device will be opened during this procedure.
int libburner_aquire_by_adr(char *drive_adr)
int ret;
char libburn_drive_adr[BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN];
/* Some not-so-harmless drive addresses get blocked in this demo */
if (strncmp(drive_adr, "stdio:/dev/fd/", 14) == 0 ||
strcmp(drive_adr, "stdio:-") == 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Will not work with pseudo-drive '%s'\n",
return 0;
/* This tries to resolve links or alternative device files */
ret = burn_drive_convert_fs_adr(drive_adr, libburn_drive_adr);
if (ret<=0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Address does not lead to a CD burner: '%s'\n",
return 0;
fprintf(stderr,"Aquiring drive '%s' ...\n", libburn_drive_adr);
ret = burn_drive_scan_and_grab(&drive_list, libburn_drive_adr, 1);
if (ret <= 0) {
fprintf(stderr,"FAILURE with persistent drive address '%s'\n",
} else {
drive_is_grabbed = 1;
return ret;
/** This method demonstrates how to use libburn without knowing a persistent
drive address in advance. It has to make sure that after assessing the list
of available drives, all unwanted drives get closed again. As long as they
are open, no other libburn instance can see them. This is an intended
locking feature. The application is responsible for giving up the locks
by either burn_drive_release() (only after burn_drive_grab() !),
burn_drive_info_forget(), burn_drive_info_free(), or burn_finish().
@param driveno the index number in libburn's drive list. This will get
set to 0 on success and will then be the drive index to
use in the further dourse of processing.
@return 1 success , <= 0 failure
int libburner_aquire_by_driveno(int *driveno)
int ret, i;
printf("Beginning to scan for devices ...\n");
while (!burn_drive_scan(&drive_list, &drive_count))
if (drive_count <= 0 && *driveno >= 0) {
printf("FAILED (no drives found)\n");
return 0;
Interactive programs may choose the drive number at this moment.
drive[0] to drive[drive_count-1] are struct burn_drive_info
as defined in libburn/libburn.h . This structure is part of API
and thus will strive for future compatibility on source level.
Have a look at the info offered.
Caution: do not take .location for drive address. Always use
burn_drive_get_adr() or you might become incompatible
in future.
Note: bugs with struct burn_drive_info - if any - will not be
easy to fix. Please report them but also strive for
workarounds on application level.
printf("\nOverview of accessible drives (%d found) :\n",
for (i = 0; i < drive_count; i++) {
if (burn_drive_get_adr(&(drive_list[i]), adr) <=0)
strcpy(adr, "-get_adr_failed-");
printf("%d --drive '%s' : '%s' '%s'\n",
On multi-drive systems save yourself from sysadmins' revenge.
Be aware that you hold reserved all available drives at this point.
So either make your choice quick enough not to annoy other system
users, or set free the drives for a while.
The tested way of setting free all drives is to shutdown the library
and to restart when the choice has been made. The list of selectable
drives should also hold persistent drive addresses as obtained
above by burn_drive_get_adr(). By such an address one may use
burn_drive_scan_and_grab() to finally aquire exactly one drive.
A not yet tested shortcut should be to call burn_drive_info_free()
and to call either burn_drive_scan() or burn_drive_scan_and_grab()
before accessing any drives again.
In both cases you have to be aware that the desired drive might get
aquired in the meantime by another user resp. libburn process.
/* We already made our choice via command line. (default is 0)
So we just have to keep our desired drive and drop all others.
No other libburn instance will have a chance to steal our drive.
if (*driveno < 0) {
printf("Pseudo-drive \"-\" given : bus scanning done.\n");
return 2; /* the program will end after this */
if (drive_count <= *driveno) {
"Found only %d drives. Number %d not available.\n",
drive_count, *driveno);
return 0; /* the program will end after this */
/* Drop all drives which we do not want to use */
for (i = 0; i < drive_count; i++) {
if (i == *driveno) /* the one drive we want to keep */
ret = burn_drive_info_forget(&(drive_list[i]),0);
if (ret != 1)
fprintf(stderr, "Cannot drop drive %d. Please report \"ret=%d\" to\n",
i, ret);
printf("Dropped unwanted drive %d\n",i);
/* Make the one we want ready for blanking or burning */
ret= burn_drive_grab(drive_list[*driveno].drive, 1);
if (ret != 1)
return 0;
drive_is_grabbed = 1;
return 1;
/** Makes a previously used CD-RW ready for thorough re-usal.
To our knowledge it is hardly possible to abort an ongoing blank operation
because after start it is entirely handled by the drive.
So expect signal handling to wait the normal blanking timespan until it
can allow the process to end. External kill -9 will not help the drive.
int libburner_blank_disc(struct burn_drive *drive, int blank_fast)
enum burn_disc_status disc_state;
struct burn_progress p;
double percent = 1.0;
disc_state = burn_disc_get_status(drive);
"Drive media status: %d (see libburn/libburn.h BURN_DISC_*)\n",
if (current_profile == 0x13) {
; /* formatted DVD-RW will get blanked to sequential state */
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_BLANK) {
"IDLE: Blank media detected. Will leave it untouched\n");
return 2;
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_FULL ||
disc_state == BURN_DISC_APPENDABLE) {
; /* this is what libburner is willing to blank */
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_EMPTY) {
fprintf(stderr,"FATAL: No media detected in drive\n");
return 0;
} else {
"FATAL: Unsuitable drive and media state\n");
return 0;
if(!burn_disc_erasable(drive)) {
"FATAL : Media is not of erasable type\n");
return 0;
"Beginning to %s-blank media.\n", (blank_fast?"fast":"full"));
burn_disc_erase(drive, blank_fast);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &p) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if(p.sectors>0 && p.sector>=0) /* display 1 to 99 percent */
percent = 1.0 + ((double) p.sector+1.0)
/ ((double) p.sectors) * 98.0;
printf("Blanking ( %.1f%% done )\n", percent);
return 1;
/** Persistently changes DVD-RW profile 0014h "Sequential Recording" to
profile 0013h "Restricted Overwrite" which needs no blanking for re-use
but is not capable of multi-session.
Expect a behavior similar to blanking with unusual noises from the drive.
int libburner_format_row(struct burn_drive *drive)
struct burn_progress p;
double percent = 1.0;
if (current_profile == 0x13) {
fprintf(stderr, "IDLE: DVD-RW media is already formatted\n");
return 2;
} else if (current_profile != 0x14) {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Can only format DVD-RW\n");
return 0;
printf("Beginning to format media.\n");
burn_disc_format(drive, (off_t) 0, 0);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &p) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if(p.sectors>0 && p.sector>=0) /* display 1 to 99 percent */
percent = 1.0 + ((double) p.sector+1.0)
/ ((double) p.sectors) * 98.0;
printf("Formatting ( %.1f%% done )\n", percent);
burn_disc_get_profile(drive_list[0].drive, &current_profile,
printf("Media type now: %4.4xh \"%s\"\n",
current_profile, current_profile_name);
if (current_profile != 0x13) {
"FATAL: Failed to change media profile to desired value\n");
return 0;
return 1;
/** Brings preformatted track images (ISO 9660, audio, ...) onto media.
To make sure a data image is fully readable on any Linux machine, this
function adds 300 kiB of padding to the (usualy single) track.
Audio tracks get padded to complete their last sector.
A fifo of 4 MB is installed between each track and its data source.
Each of the 4 MB buffers gets allocated automatically as soon as a track
begins to be processed and it gets freed as soon as the track is done.
The fifos do not wait for buffer fill but writing starts immediately.
In case of external signals expect abort handling of an ongoing burn to
last up to a minute. Wait the normal burning timespan before any kill -9.
For simplicity, this function allows memory leaks in case of failure.
In apps which do not abort immediately, one should clean up better.
int libburner_payload(struct burn_drive *drive,
char source_adr[][4096], int source_adr_count,
int multi, int simulate_burn, int all_tracks_type)
struct burn_source *data_src, *fifo_src[99];
struct burn_disc *target_disc;
struct burn_session *session;
struct burn_write_opts *burn_options;
enum burn_disc_status disc_state;
struct burn_track *track, *tracklist[99];
struct burn_progress progress;
time_t start_time;
int last_sector = 0, padding = 0, trackno, unpredicted_size = 0, fd;
int fifo_chunksize = 2352, fifo_chunks = 1783; /* ~ 4 MB fifo */
off_t fixed_size;
char *adr, reasons[BURN_REASONS_LEN];
struct stat stbuf;
if (all_tracks_type != BURN_AUDIO) {
all_tracks_type = BURN_MODE1;
/* a padding of 300 kiB helps to avoid the read-ahead bug */
padding = 300*1024;
fifo_chunksize = 2048;
fifo_chunks = 2048; /* 4 MB fifo */
target_disc = burn_disc_create();
session = burn_session_create();
burn_disc_add_session(target_disc, session, BURN_POS_END);
for (trackno = 0 ; trackno < source_adr_count; trackno++) {
tracklist[trackno] = track = burn_track_create();
burn_track_define_data(track, 0, padding, 1, all_tracks_type);
/* Open file descriptor to source of track data */
adr = source_adr[trackno];
fixed_size = 0;
if (adr[0] == '-' && adr[1] == 0) {
fd = 0;
} else {
fd = open(adr, O_RDONLY);
if (fd>=0)
if (fstat(fd,&stbuf)!=-1)
fixed_size = stbuf.st_size;
if (fixed_size==0)
unpredicted_size = 1;
/* Convert this filedescriptor into a burn_source object */
data_src = NULL;
if (fd>=0)
data_src = burn_fd_source_new(fd, -1, fixed_size);
if (data_src == NULL) {
"FATAL: Could not open data source '%s'.\n",adr);
fprintf(stderr,"(Most recent system error: %s )\n",
return 0;
/* Install a fifo object on top of that data source object */
fifo_src[trackno] = burn_fifo_source_new(data_src,
fifo_chunksize, fifo_chunks, 0);
if (fifo_src[trackno] == NULL) {
"FATAL: Could not create fifo object of 4 MB\n");
return 0;
/* Use the fifo object as data source for the track */
if (burn_track_set_source(track, fifo_src[trackno])
"FATAL: Cannot attach source object to track object\n");
return 0;
burn_session_add_track(session, track, BURN_POS_END);
printf("Track %d : source is '%s'\n", trackno+1, adr);
/* Give up local reference to the data burn_source object */
} /* trackno loop end */
/* Evaluate drive and media */
disc_state = burn_disc_get_status(drive);
if (disc_state != BURN_DISC_BLANK &&
disc_state != BURN_DISC_APPENDABLE) {
if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_FULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Closed media with data detected. Need blank or appendable media.\n");
if (burn_disc_erasable(drive))
fprintf(stderr, "HINT: Try --blank_fast\n\n");
} else if (disc_state == BURN_DISC_EMPTY)
fprintf(stderr,"FATAL: No media detected in drive\n");
"FATAL: Cannot recognize state of drive and media\n");
return 0;
burn_options = burn_write_opts_new(drive);
burn_write_opts_set_perform_opc(burn_options, 0);
burn_write_opts_set_multi(burn_options, !!multi);
printf("\n*** Will TRY to SIMULATE burning ***\n\n");
burn_write_opts_set_simulate(burn_options, simulate_burn);
burn_drive_set_speed(drive, 0, 0);
burn_write_opts_set_underrun_proof(burn_options, 1);
if (burn_write_opts_auto_write_type(burn_options, target_disc,
reasons, 0) == BURN_WRITE_NONE) {
fprintf(stderr, "FATAL: Failed to find a suitable write mode with this media.\n");
fprintf(stderr, "Reasons given:\n%s\n", reasons);
return 0;
printf("Burning starts. With e.g. 4x media expect up to a minute of zero progress.\n");
start_time = time(0);
burn_disc_write(burn_options, target_disc);
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, NULL) == BURN_DRIVE_SPAWNING)
while (burn_drive_get_status(drive, &progress) != BURN_DRIVE_IDLE) {
if (progress.sectors <= 0 ||
(progress.sector >= progress.sectors - 1 &&
!unpredicted_size) ||
(unpredicted_size && progress.sector == last_sector))
"Thank you for being patient since %d seconds.",
(int) (time(0) - start_time));
else if(unpredicted_size)
printf("Track %d : sector %d", progress.track+1,
printf("Track %d : sector %d of %d",progress.track+1,
progress.sector, progress.sectors);
last_sector = progress.sector;
if (progress.track >= 0 && progress.track < source_adr_count) {
int size, free_bytes, ret;
char *status_text;
ret = burn_fifo_inquire_status(
fifo_src[progress.track], &size, &free_bytes,
if (ret >= 0 )
printf(" [fifo %s, %2d%% fill]", status_text,
(int) (100.0 - 100.0 *
((double) free_bytes) /
(double) size));
for (trackno = 0 ; trackno < source_adr_count; trackno++) {
if (multi && current_profile != 0x1a && current_profile != 0x13 &&
current_profile != 0x12) /* not with DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM */
printf("NOTE: Media left appendable.\n");
if (simulate_burn)
printf("\n*** Did TRY to SIMULATE burning ***\n\n");
return 1;
/** The setup parameters of libburner */
static char drive_adr[BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN] = {""};
static int driveno = 0;
static int do_blank = 0;
static char source_adr[99][4096];
static int source_adr_count = 0;
static int do_multi = 0;
static int simulate_burn = 0;
static int all_tracks_type = BURN_MODE1;
/** Converts command line arguments into above setup parameters.
int libburner_setup(int argc, char **argv)
int i, insuffient_parameters = 0, print_help = 0;
for (i = 1; i < argc; ++i) {
if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--audio")) {
all_tracks_type = BURN_AUDIO;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--blank_fast")) {
do_blank = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--blank_full")) {
do_blank = 2;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--burn_for_real")) {
simulate_burn = 0;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--drive")) {
if (i >= argc) {
fprintf(stderr,"--drive requires an argument\n");
return 1;
} else if (strcmp(argv[i], "-") == 0) {
drive_adr[0] = 0;
driveno = -1;
} else if (isdigit(argv[i][0])) {
drive_adr[0] = 0;
driveno = atoi(argv[i]);
} else {
if(strlen(argv[i]) >= BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN) {
fprintf(stderr,"--drive address too long (max. %d)\n",
return 2;
strcpy(drive_adr, argv[i]);
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--format_overwrite")) {
do_blank = 101;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--multi")) {
do_multi = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--stdin_size")) { /* obsoleted */
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--try_to_simulate")) {
simulate_burn = 1;
} else if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--help")) {
print_help = 1;
} else if (!strncmp(argv[i], "--",2)) {
fprintf(stderr, "Unidentified option: %s\n", argv[i]);
return 7;
} else {
if(strlen(argv[i]) >= 4096) {
fprintf(stderr, "Source address too long (max. %d)\n", 4096-1);
return 5;
if(source_adr_count >= 99) {
fprintf(stderr, "Too many tracks (max. 99)\n");
return 6;
strcpy(source_adr[source_adr_count], argv[i]);
insuffient_parameters = 1;
if (driveno < 0)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (source_adr_count > 0)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (do_blank)
insuffient_parameters = 0;
if (print_help || insuffient_parameters ) {
printf("Usage: %s\n", argv[0]);
printf(" [--drive <address>|<driveno>|\"-\"] [--audio]\n");
printf(" [--blank_fast|--blank_full|--format_overwrite]\n");
printf(" [--try_to_simulate]\n");
printf(" [--multi] [<one or more imagefiles>|\"-\"]\n");
printf("A bus scan (needs rw-permissions to see a drive):\n");
printf(" %s --drive -\n",argv[0]);
printf("Burn a file to drive chosen by number, leave appendable:\n");
printf(" %s --drive 0 --multi my_image_file\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn a file to drive chosen by persistent address, close:\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc my_image_file\n", argv[0]);
printf("Blank a used CD-RW (is combinable with burning in one run):\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --blank_fast\n",argv[0]);
printf("Blank a used DVD-RW (is combinable with burning in one run):\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --blank_full\n",argv[0]);
printf("Format a DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --format_overwrite\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn two audio tracks (to CD only):\n");
printf(" lame --decode -t /path/to/track1.mp3\n");
printf(" test/dewav /path/to/track2.wav -o\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc --audio\n", argv[0]);
printf("Burn a compressed afio archive on-the-fly:\n");
printf(" ( cd my_directory ; find . -print | afio -oZ - ) | \\\n");
printf(" %s --drive /dev/hdc -\n", argv[0]);
printf("To be read from *not mounted* media via: afio -tvZ /dev/hdc\n");
if (insuffient_parameters)
return 6;
return 0;
int main(int argc, char **argv)
int ret;
ret = libburner_setup(argc, argv);
if (ret)
printf("Initializing ...\n");
if (burn_initialize())
else {
fprintf(stderr,"\nFATAL: Failed to initialize.\n");
/* Print messages of severity SORRY or more directly to stderr */
burn_msgs_set_severities("NEVER", "SORRY", "libburner : ");
/* Activate the default signal handler which eventually will try to
properly shutdown drive and library on aborting events. */
burn_set_signal_handling("libburner : ", NULL, 0);
/** Note: driveno might change its value in this call */
ret = libburner_aquire_drive(drive_adr, &driveno);
if (ret<=0) {
fprintf(stderr,"\nFATAL: Failed to aquire drive.\n");
{ ret = 34; goto finish_libburn; }
if (ret == 2)
{ ret = 0; goto release_drive; }
if (do_blank) {
if (do_blank > 100)
ret = libburner_format_row(drive_list[driveno].drive);
ret = libburner_blank_disc(drive_list[driveno].drive,
do_blank == 1);
if (ret<=0)
{ ret = 36; goto release_drive; }
if (source_adr_count > 0) {
ret = libburner_payload(drive_list[driveno].drive,
source_adr, source_adr_count,
do_multi, simulate_burn, all_tracks_type);
if (ret<=0)
{ ret = 38; goto release_drive; }
ret = 0;
if (drive_is_grabbed)
burn_drive_release(drive_list[driveno].drive, 0);
/* This app does not bother to know about exact scan state.
Better to accept a memory leak here. We are done anyway. */
/* burn_drive_info_free(drive_list); */
/* License and copyright aspects:
This all is provided under GPL.
Read. Try. Think. Play. Write yourself some code. Be free of my copyright.
Be also invited to study the code of cdrskin/cdrskin.c et al.
Clarification in my name and in the name of Mario Danic, copyright holder
on toplevel of libburnia. To be fully in effect after the remaining other
copyrighted code has been replaced by ours and by copyright-free contributions
of our friends:
We, the copyright holders, agree on the interpretation that
dynamical linking of our libraries constitutes "use of" and
not "derivation from" our work in the sense of GPL, provided
those libraries are compiled from our unaltered code.
Thus you may link our libraries dynamically with applications
which are not under GPL. You may distribute our libraries and
application tools in binary form, if you fulfill the usual
condition of GPL to offer a copy of the source code -altered
or unaltered- under GPL.
We ask you politely to use our work in open source spirit
and with the due reference to the entire open source community.
If there should really arise the case where above clarification
does not suffice to fulfill a clear and neat request in open source
spirit that would otherwise be declined for mere formal reasons,
only in that case we will duely consider to issue a special license
covering only that special case.
It is the open source idea of responsible freedom which will be
decisive and you will have to prove that you exhausted all own
means to qualify for GPL.
For now we are firmly committed to maintain one single license: GPL.
libburner is a compilation of my own contributions to test/burniso.c and
fresh code which replaced the remaining parts under copyright of
Derek Foreman.
My respect and my thanks to Derek for providing me a start back in 2005.