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\input texinfo @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename xorriso.info
@settitle GNU xorriso 1.4.1
@c %**end of header
@c
@c man-ignore-lines begin
@dircategory Archiving
@direntry
* Xorriso: (xorriso). Burns ISO 9660 on CD, DVD, BD.
@end direntry
@c man-ignore-lines end
@c
@c Notes about embedded man page:
@c This texinfo code contains the necessary info to produce a man page
@c which resembles much the version of xorriso.1 from which this code
@c was originally derived in march 2010.
@c One can produce the man page by applying the following rules:
@c The first line gets discarded.
@c Line start "@c man " will become "", the remainder is put out unaltered.
@c Lines "@*" will be converted to ".br"
@c "@c man-ignore-lines N" will discard N following lines.
@c "@c man-ignore-lines begin" discards all following lines
@c up to "@c man-ignore-lines end".
@c Line blocks of "@menu" "@end menu" will be discarded.
@c "@item word words" becomes "\fBword\fR words".
@c @b{...}, @command{...}, @dfn{...}, @emph{...}, @strong{...}
@c get mapped to \fB...\fR .
@c @abbr{...}, @code{...}, @file{...}, @i{...}, @option{...}, @r{...},
@c @ref{...}, @samp{...},@var{...}, get mapped to ... .
@c @ref{...}, @xref{...} get mapped to empty text.
@c @email{...} gets mapped to <...> .
@c Mapped {...} content is subject to the rules except {...} mapping.
@c @minus{} will become "-".
@c @@ , @{, @} will get stripped of their first @.
@c Other lines which begin by "@" will be discarded.
@c In lines not stemming from "@c man", "\" becomes "\\"
@c "-" which are not preceded by an uneven number of "\" will get
@c prepended one "\".
@c
@c
@c man .\" Hey, EMACS: -*- nroff -*-
@c man .\"
@c man .\" IMPORTANT NOTE:
@c man .\"
@c man .\" The original of this file is kept in xorriso/xorriso.texi
@c man .\" This here was generated by program xorriso/make_xorriso_1
@c man .\"
@c man .\"
@c man .\" First parameter, NAME, should be all caps
@c man .\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
@c man .\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
@c man .TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.4.1, Sep 16, 2015"
@c man .\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
@c man .\"
@c man .\" Some roff macros, for reference:
@c man .\" .nh disable hyphenation
@c man .\" .hy enable hyphenation
@c man .\" .ad l left justify
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@c man .\" for manpage-specific macros, see man(7)
@c man .nh
@c man-ignore-lines begin
@copying
xorriso - creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images
with Rock Ridge extensions.
Copyright @copyright{} 2007 - 2015 Thomas Schmitt
@quotation
Permission is granted to distrubute this text freely.
@end quotation
@end copying
@c man-ignore-lines end
@titlepage
@title Manual of GNU xorriso 1.4.1
@author Thomas Schmitt
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
@contents
@ifnottex
@node Top
@top GNU xorriso 1.4.1
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@c man .SH NAME
xorriso - creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images
with Rock Ridge extensions.
@end ifnottex
@menu
* Overview:: Overview
* Model:: Session model
* Media:: Media types and states
* Methods:: Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
* Drives:: Libburn drives
* Extras:: Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
* Processing:: Command processing
* Dialog:: Dialog, Readline, Result pager
* Commands:: Reference of commands
* Examples:: Examples
* Files:: Files
* Seealso:: See also
* Bugreport:: Reporting bugs
* Legal:: Author, Copyright, Credits
* CommandIdx:: Alphabetic Command List
* ConceptIdx:: Alphabetic List of Concepts and Objects
@end menu
@node Overview, Model, Top, Top
@chapter Overview
@c man .SH SYNOPSIS
@c man .B xorriso
@c man .RI [ settings | actions ]
@c man .br
@c man .SH DESCRIPTION
@c man .PP
@command{xorriso}
is a program which copies file objects from POSIX compliant
filesystems into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and allows
session-wise manipulation of such filesystems. It can load the management
information of existing ISO images and it writes the session results to
optical media or to filesystem objects.
@*
Vice versa @command{xorriso} is able to copy file objects out of ISO 9660
filesystems.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
A special property of @command{xorriso} is that it needs neither an external
ISO 9660
formatter program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD or BD but rather
incorporates the libraries of libburnia-project.org .
@c man .SS
@section Features
@c man .B Overview of features:
@*
Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
@*
Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
@*
Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
@*
Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
@*
Changes file properties in the ISO image.
@*
Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
@*
Writes result either as completely new image or as add-on session
to optical media or filesystem objects.
@*
Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
@*
Can perform multi-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
@*
Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
@*
Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
@*
Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
@*
Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
@*
Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
@*
Scans for optical drives, blanks re-useable optical media.
@*
Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
@*
Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
@*
Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.
@*
@sp 1
@c man .sp 1
Note that @command{xorriso} does not write audio CDs and that it does not
produce UDF filesystems which are specified for official video DVD or BD.
@c man .SS
@c man .B General information paragraphs:
@c man .br
@c man Session model
@c man .br
@c man Media types and states
@c man .br
@c man Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
@c man .br
@c man Libburn drives
@c man .br
@c man Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
@c man .br
@c man Command processing
@c man .br
@c man Dialog, Readline, Result pager
@c man .sp 1
@c man Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of
@c man this text before reading the next few hundred lines of background information.
@c man .SS
@node Model, Media, Overview, Top
@chapter Session model
@c man \fBSession model:\fR
@c man .br
@cindex Session, _definition
@cindex ISO 9660, _definition
@cindex ECMA-119, _definition
Unlike other filesystems, @strong{ISO 9660} (aka @strong{ECMA-119})
is not intended for read-write operation but
rather for being generated in a single sweep and being written to media as a
@strong{session}.
@*
@cindex Image, _definition
The data content of the session is called filesystem @strong{image}.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
The written image in its session can then be mounted by the operating system
for being used read-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO images from block
devices, which may represent optical media, other media or via a loop device
even from regular disk files. FreeBSD mounts ISO images from devices that
represent arbitrary media or from regular disk files.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Multi-session, _definition
This session usage model has been extended on CD media by the concept of
@strong{multi-session} ,
which allows to add information to the CD and gives the mount programs
of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points of each
session. The mount programs recognize block devices which represent
CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
@*
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium
which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
@*
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
@strong{growing}.
@*
The multi-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media
types. But program growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this
functionality to overwriteable media or disk files which carry valid ISO 9660
filesystems.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@command{xorriso} provides growing as well as an own method named
@strong{modifying} which produces a completely new ISO image from the old
one and the modifications.
See paragraph Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@command{xorriso} adopts the concept of multi-session by loading an
image directory tree if present,
by allowing to manipulate it by several actions,
and by writing the new image to the target medium.
@c man .br
The first session of a @command{xorriso} run begins by the definition of
the input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
The session ends by command -commit which triggers writing. A -commit is
done automatically when the program ends regularly.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
After -commit a new session begins with the freshly written one as input.
A new input drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO image was
not altered. Pending alteration can be revoked by command -rollback.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Writing a session to the target is supposed to be very expensive in terms of
time and of consumed space on appendable or write-once media. Therefore all
intended manipulations of a particular ISO image should be done in a single
session. But in principle it is possible
to store intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.
@c man .SS
@node Media, Methods, Model, Top
@chapter Media types and states
@c man .B Media types and states:
There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
@*
@cindex Multi-session media, _definition
@strong{Multi-session media} are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD-R, and
unformatted DVD-RW. These media provide a table of content which
describes their existing sessions. See command @strong{-toc}.
@*
Similar to multi-session media are DVD-R DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.
They allow only a single session of which the size must be known in advance.
@command{xorriso} will write onto them only if command -close is set to "on".
@*
@cindex Overwriteable media, _definition
@strong{Overwriteable media} are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE, and formatted DVD-RW.
They allow random write access but do not provide information about their
session history. If they contain one or more ISO 9660 sessions and if the
first session was written by @command{xorriso}, then a table of content can
be emulated. Else only a single overall session will be visible.
@*
DVD-RW media can be formatted by -format "full".
They can be made unformatted by -blank "deformat".
@*
Regular files and block devices are handled as overwriteable media.
Pipes and other writeable file types are handled as blank multi-session media.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
These media can assume several states in which they offer different
capabilities.
@*
@sp 1
@cindex Blank media, _definition
@strong{Blank} media can be written from scratch. They contain no ISO image
suitable for @command{xorriso}.
@*
Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media.
With used CD-RW and DVD-RW it can be achieved by action -blank "as_needed".
Overwriteable media are considered blank if they are new or if they have
been marked as blank by @command{xorriso}.
Action -blank "as_needed" can be used to do this marking on overwriteable
media, or to apply mandatory formatting to new media if necessary.
@*
@sp 1
@cindex Appendable media, _definition
@strong{Appendable} media accept further sessions. Either they are MMC
multi-session media in appendable state, or they are overwriteable media
which contain an ISO image suitable for @command{xorriso}.
@*
Appendable is the state after writing a session with command -close off.
@*
@sp 1
@cindex Closed media, _definition
@strong{Closed} media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image suitable
for @command{xorriso}.
@*
Closed is the state of DVD-ROM media and of multi-session media which were
written with command -close on. If the drive is read-only hardware then it will
probably show any media as closed CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.
@*
Overwriteable media assume this state in such read-only drives or if they
contain unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
@*
Read-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi-session
media. Often only the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes
not even that. Command -rom_toc_scan might or might not help in such cases.
@c man .SS
@node Methods, Drives, Media, Top
@chapter Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
@c man .B Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
@*
@cindex Create, new ISO image, _definition
A new empty ISO image gets @strong{created}
if there is no input drive with a valid ISO 9660 image when the first time
an output drive is defined. This is achieved by command -dev on blank media
or by command -outdev on media in any state.
@*
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image gets loaded
as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation of input
and output drive determines which write method will be used.
They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Growing, _definition
The method of @strong{growing} adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older sessions.
@*
Growing is achieved by command -dev.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Modifying, _definition
The write method of @strong{modifying} produces compact filesystem
images with no outdated files or directory trees. Modifying can write its
images to target media which are completely unsuitable for multi-session
operations. E.g. DVD-RW which were treated with -blank deformat_quickest,
DVD-R DL, named pipes, character devices, sockets.
On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media
but to blank media only.
@*
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with
filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
@*
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and
if command -grow_blindly is set to its default "off".
This is achieved by commands -indev and -outdev.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Blind growing, _definition
If command -grow_blindly is set to a non-negative number and if -indev and
-outdev are both set to different drives, then @strong{blind growing} is
performed. It produces an add-on session which is ready for being written
to the given block address. This is the usage model of
@*
mkisofs -M $indev -C $msc1,$msc2 -o $outdev
@*
which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should thus only be
employed if a strict distinction between ISO formatter @command{xorriso}
and the burn program is desired. -C $msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
@*
-load sbsector $msc1 -grow_blindly $msc2
@c man .SS
@node Drives, Extras, Methods, Top
@chapter Libburn drives
@c man .B Libburn drives:
@c man .br
@cindex Drive, _definition
Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be any random
access readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data,
blank optical media, regular files, block devices.
@*
Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive.
Some drive types do not support the method of growing but only the methods
of modifying and blind growing. They all are suitable for newly created images.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
All drive file objects have to offer rw-permission to the user of
@command{xorriso}.
Even those which will not be useable for reading an ISO image.
@*
@cindex LBA, _definition
With any type of drive object, the data are considered to be organized in
blocks of 2 KiB. Access happens in terms of Logical Block Address
(@strong{LBA}) which gives the number of a particular data block.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
MMC compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed by
the path of their block device or of their generic character device. E.g.
@*
-dev /dev/sr0
@*
-dev /dev/hdc
@*
-dev /dev/sg2
@*
On FreeBSD the device files have names like
@*
-dev /dev/cd0
@*
On NetBSD:
@*
-dev /dev/rcd0d
@*
On OpenSolaris:
@*
-dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
@*
Get a list of accessible drives by command
@*
-device_links
@*
It might be necessary to do this as
@strong{superuser}
in order to see all drives and to then allow rw-access for the intended users.
Consider to bundle the authorized users in a group like old "floppy".
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Filesystem objects of nearly any type can be addressed by prefix "stdio:" and
their path in the filesystem. E.g.:
@*
-dev stdio:/dev/sdc
@*
The default setting of -drive_class allows to address files outside the
/dev tree without that prefix. E.g.:
@*
-dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
@*
If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the emulated drive
is random access readable and can be used for the method of growing if it
already contains a valid ISO 9660 image. Any other file type is not readable
via "stdio:" and can only be used as target for the method of modifying or
blind growing.
Non-existing paths in existing directories are handled as empty regular files.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are
depicted by "stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
@*
Addresses "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" depict standard output, which normally is
the output channel for result texts.
To prevent a fatal intermingling of ISO image and text messages, all result
texts get redirected to stderr if -*dev "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is among
the start arguments of the program.
@*
Standard output is currently suitable for creating one session
per program run without dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged
and several restrictions apply:
@*
It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was not
among the start arguments. Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor addresses
to stdout.
@*
If stdout is used as drive, then -use_readline is permanently disabled.
Use of backdoors can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Be aware that especially the superuser can write into any accessible file or
device by using its path with the "stdio:" prefix. By default any address
in the /dev tree without prefix "stdio:" will work only if it leads to a MMC
drive.
@*
One may use command
@strong{-ban_stdio_write}
to surely prevent this risk and to allow only MMC drives.
@*
One may prepend "mmc:" to a path to surely disallow any automatic "stdio:".
@c man .br
By command -drive_class one may ban certain paths or allow access without
prefix "stdio:" to other paths.
@c man .SS
@node Extras, Processing, Drives, Top
@chapter Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
@c man .B Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
@c man .br
@cindex Rock Ridge, _definition
@strong{Rock Ridge}
is the name of a set of additional information which enhance
an ISO 9660 filesystem so that it can represent a POSIX compliant filesystem
with ownership, access permissions, symbolic links, and other attributes.
@*
This is what @command{xorriso} uses for a decent representation of the disk
files within the ISO image. @command{xorriso} produces Rock Ridge information
by default. It is strongly discouraged to disable this feature.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@command{xorriso} is not named "porriso" because POSIX only guarantees
14 characters
of filename length. It is the X/Open System Interface standard XSI which
demands a file name length of up to 255 characters and paths of up to 1024
characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex El Torito, _definition
An @strong{El Torito}
boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one or more boot
images, which are binary program files stored in the ISO image.
The content of the boot image files is not in the scope of El Torito.
@*
Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images.
@command{xorriso} is able to create or maintain an El Torito object which
makes such an image bootable. For details see command -boot_image.
@*
@cindex MBR, _definition
It is possible to make ISO images bootable from USB stick or other
hard-disk-like media. Several options install a @strong{MBR}
(Master Boot Record), It may get adjusted according to the needs of the
intended boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.
A MBR contains boot code and a partition table.
The new MBR of a follow-up session can get in effect
only on overwriteable media.
@*
MBR is read by PC-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk,
and by PowerPC CHRP or PReP when booting.
An MBR partiton with type 0xee indicates the presence of GPT.
@*
Emulation -as mkisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki,
the options used in GRUB script grub-mkrescue, and the example in the
FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
@*
@cindex GPT, _definition
A @strong{GPT} (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.
It is read by EFI when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be used
for finding and mounting a HFS+ partition inside the ISO image.
@*
@cindex APM, _definition
An @strong{APM} (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.
It is read by Macs for booting and for mounting.
@*
MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of
MBR boot code. All three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
@*
There is support for further facilities:
MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS Little Endian (DEC), SUN SPARC, HP-PA.
Those are mutually not combinable and also not combinable with MBR, GPT,
or APM.
@*
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex ACL, _definition
@strong{ACL}
are an advanced way of controlling access permissions to file objects. Neither
ISO 9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs. So libisofs has
introduced a standard conformant extension named AAIP for that purpose.
It uses this extension if enabled by command
@strong{-acl}.
@*
AAIP enhanced images are supposed to be mountable normally, but one cannot
expect that the mounted filesystem will show and respect the ACLs.
For now, only @command{xorriso} is able to retrieve those ACLs.
It can bring them into
effect when files get restored to an ACL enabled file system or it can
print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
@*
Files with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::" if
that entry exists. Nevertheless the non-listed group members get handled
according to entry "group::". When removing ACL from a file,
@command{xorriso} brings "group::" into effect.
@*
Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex xattr, _definition
@cindex EA, _definition
@cindex extattr, _definition
@strong{xattr} (aka EA, or extattr)
are pairs of name and value which can be attached to file objects. AAIP is
able to represent them and @command{xorriso} allows to record and restore
pairs which
have names out of the user namespace. I.e. those which begin with "user.",
like "user.x" or "user.whatever". Name has to be a 0 terminated string.
Value may be any array of bytes which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes.
xattr processing happens only if it is enabled by command
@strong{-xattr}.
@*
As with ACL, currently only @command{xorriso} is able to retrieve xattr
from AAIP enhanced images, to restore them to xattr capable file systems,
or to print them.
@*
Recording and restoring of xattr from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD, where they are known as extattr.
@c man .SS
@node Processing, Dialog, Extras, Top
@chapter Command processing
@c man .B Command processing:
@c man .br
Commands are either actions which happen immediately or settings which
influence following actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they are
given as program arguments and command
@strong{-x}
is among them.
@*
@cindex List delimiter, _definition
Commands consist of a command word,
followed by zero or more parameter words. If the list of parameter words
is of variable length (indicated by "[...]" or "[***]") then it must be
terminated by either the @strong{list delimiter}, occur at the end of
the argument list, or occur at the end of an input line.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
At program start the list delimiter is the string "@minus{}@minus{}".
This may be changed with the -list_delimiter command in order to allow
"@minus{}@minus{}" as parameter in a variable length list.
However, it is advised to reset the delimiter to "@minus{}@minus{}"
immediately afterwards.
@*
For brevity the list delimiter is referred as "@minus{}@minus{}"
throughout this text.
@*
The list delimiter is silently ignored if it appears after the parameters of
a command with a fixed list length. It is handled as normal text if it
appears among the parameters of such a command.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Pattern expansion, _definition
@strong{Pattern expansion}
converts a list of pattern words into a list of existing file addresses.
Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered in that result list.
@*
Pattern matching supports the usual shell parser wildcards '*' '?' '[xyz]'
and respects '/' as the path separator, which may only be matched literally.
@*
Pattern expansion is a property of some particular commands and not a general
feature. It is controlled by commands -iso_rr_pattern and -disk_pattern.
Commands which use pattern expansion all have variable parameter
lists which are specified in this text by "[***]" rather than "[...]".
@*
Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments, where
one argument is one word, or from quoted input lines where words are recognized
similar to the quotation rules of a shell parser.
@*
@command{xorriso} is not a shell, although it might appear so at first glimpse.
Be aware that the interaction of quotation marks and pattern symbols like "*"
differs from the usual shell parsers. In @command{xorriso}, a quotation mark
does not make a pattern symbol literal.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Quoted input, _definition
@strong{Quoted input}
converts whitespace-separated text into words.
The double quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to
enclose whitespace and make it part of words (e.g. of file names). Each mark
type can enclose the marks of the other type. A trailing backslash \ outside
quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to be appended.
@*
@cindex Backslash Interpretation, _definition
Quoted input accepts any 8-bit character except NUL (0) as the content of
the quotes.
Nevertheless it can be cumbersome for the user to produce those characters
directly. Therefore quoted input and program arguments allow optional
@strong{Backslash Interpretation}
which can represent all 8-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes
as in $'...' of bash.
@*
This is not enabled by default. See command -backslash_codes.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
When the program starts then it first looks for argument -no_rc. If this is
not present then it looks for its startup files and
reads their content as command input lines. Then it interprets
the program arguments as commands and parameters. Finally it enters
dialog mode if command -dialog "on" has been executed by this point.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
The program ends either by command -end, or by the end of program arguments
if dialog mode has not been enabled at that point, or by a problem
event which triggers the threshold of command -abort_on.
@c man .SS
@node Dialog, Commands, Processing, Top
@chapter Dialog, Readline, Result pager
@c man .B Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
@c man .br
Dialog mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words, and performs
them as commands with their parameters. It provides assisting services
to make dialog more comfortable.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Readline is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know it from
the bash shell. Whether it is available in @command{xorriso} depends on the
availability
of package readline-dev at the time when @command{xorriso} was built from
its sourcecode.
@*
Readline allows to move the cursor over the text in the line by help of the
Left and the Right arrow keys.
Text may be inserted at the cursor position. The Delete key removes the
character under the cursor. Up and Down arrow keys navigate through
the history of previous input lines.
@*
@c man-ignore-lines 1
See info readline
@c man See man readline
for more info about libreadline.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Command -page activates a built-in result text pager which may be convenient in
dialog mode. After an action has output the given number of terminal lines,
the pager prompts the user for a line of input.
@*
An empty line lets @command{xorriso} resume work until the next page is output.
@*
The single character "@@" disables paging for the current action.
@*
"@@@@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and
suppress further result output.
@*
Any other line input will be interpreted as new dialog line. The current action
is requested to abort. Afterwards, the input line is executed.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
@*
The request to abort may or may not be obeyed by the current action.
All actions try to abort as soon as possible.
@node Commands, Examples, Dialog, Top
@chapter Commands
@c man .br
@c man .SH OPTIONS
@c man .br
All command words are shown with a leading dash although this dash is not
mandatory for the command to be recognized. Nevertheless within command -as
the dashes of the emulated commands are mandatory.
@*
Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and
inner dashes are interpreted as underscores.
@menu
* ArgSort:: Execution order of program arguments
* AqDrive:: Acquiring source and target drive
* Loading:: Influencing the behavior of image loading
* Insert:: Inserting files into ISO image
* SetInsert:: Settings for file insertion
* Manip:: File manipulations
* CmdFind:: Tree traversal command -find
* Filter:: Filters for data file content
* Writing:: Writing the result, drive control
* SetWrite:: Settings for result writing
* Bootable:: Bootable ISO images
* Jigdo:: Jigdo Template Extraction
* Charset:: Character sets
* Exception:: Exception processing
* DialogCtl:: Dialog mode control
* Inquiry:: Drive and media related inquiry actions
* Navigate:: Navigation in ISO image and disk filesystem
* Verify:: Evaluation of readability and recovery
* Restore:: osirrox ISO-to-disk restore commands
* Emulation:: Command compatibility emulations (cdrtools)
* Scripting:: Scripting, dialog and program control features
* Frontend:: Support for frontend programs via stdin and stdout
@end menu
@c man .TP
@node ArgSort, AqDrive, Commands, Commands
@section Execution order of program arguments
@c man .B Execution order of program arguments:
@c man .PP
By default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as a
sequence of commands which get performed exactly in the given order.
This requires the user to write commands for desired settings before the
commands which shall be influenced by those settings.
@*
Many other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary ordering
and perform settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion.
xorriso provides an option to enable such a behavior
at the cost of loss of expressivity.
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -x
@kindex -x enables automatic execution order of arguments
@cindex Automatic execution order, of arguments, -x
Enable automatic sorting of program arguments into a sequence that
(most likely) is sensible.
This command may be given at any position among the commands
which are handed over as program arguments.
@*
Note: It works only if it is given as program argument and
with a single dash (i.e. "-x"). It will not work in startup files, nor with
-options_from_file, nor in dialog mode, nor as "x" and finally not as
"@minus{}@minus{}x".
It affects only the commands given as program arguments.
@c man .TP
@item -list_arg_sorting
@kindex -list_arg_sorting prints sorting order of -x
@cindex Sorting order, for -x, -list_arg_sorting
List all xorriso commands in the order which applies if command -x is in
effect.
@*
This list may also be helpful without -x for a user who ponders over the
sequence in which to put commands. Deviations from the listed sorting order may
well make sense, though.
@end table
@c man .PP
@c man .TP
@node AqDrive, Loading, ArgSort, Commands
@section Acquiring source and target drive
@c man .B Acquiring source and target drive:
@c man .PP
The effect of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands in the
next paragraph "Influencing the behavior of image loading".
If desired, their enabling commands have to be performed before the
commands which acquire the drive.
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -dev address
@kindex -dev acquires one drive for input and output
@cindex Drive, for input and output, -dev
Set input and output drive to the same address and load an ISO image if it
is present.
If there is no ISO image then create a blank one.
Set the image expansion method to growing.
@*
This is only allowed as long as no changes are pending in the currently
loaded ISO image. If changes are pending, then one has to perform -commit
or -rollback first.
@*
Special address string "-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
@*
An empty address string "" gives up the current device
without acquiring a new one.
@c man .TP
@item -indev address
@kindex -indev acquires a drive for input
@cindex Drive, for input, -indev
Set input drive and load an ISO image if present.
If the new input drive differs
from -outdev then switch from growing to modifying or to blind growing.
It depends on the setting of -grow_blindly which of both gets activated.
The same rules and restrictions apply as with -dev.
@c man .TP
@item -outdev address
@kindex -outdev acquires a drive for output
@cindex Drive, for output, -outdev
Set output drive and if it differs from the input drive then switch from
growing to modifying or to blind growing. Unlike -dev and -indev this action
does not load a new ISO image. So it can be performed even if there are pending
changes.
@*
-outdev can be performed without previous -dev or -indev. In that case an
empty ISO image with no changes pending is created. It can either be populated
by help of -map, -add et.al. or it can be discarded silently if -dev or -indev
are performed afterwards.
@*
Special address string "-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
@*
An empty address string "" gives up the current output drive
without acquiring a new one. No writing is possible without an output drive.
@c man .TP
@item -grow_blindly "off"|predicted_nwa
@kindex -grow_blindly overides next writeable address
@cindex Next writeable address, -grow_blindly
If predicted_nwa is a non-negative number then perform blind growing rather
than modifying if -indev and -outdev are set to different drives.
"off" or "-1" switch to modifying, which is the default.
@*
predicted_nwa is the block address where the add-on session of blind
growing will finally end up. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure
this final position and the presence of the older sessions. Else the
overall ISO image will not be mountable or will produce read errors when
accessing file content. @command{xorriso} will write the session to the address
as obtained from examining -outdev and not necessarily to predicted_nwa.
@*
During a run of blind growing, the input drive is given up before output
begins. The output drive is given up when writing is done.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Influencing the behavior of image loading:
@node Loading, Insert, AqDrive, Commands
@section Influencing the behavior of image loading
@c man .PP
The following commands should normally be performed before loading an image
by acquiring an input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to activate
them only after image loading.
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -read_speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
@kindex -read_speed set read speed
@cindex Read, set speed, -read_speed
Set the speed for reading. Default is "none", which avoids to send a speed
setting command to the drive before reading begins.
@*
Further special speed codes are:
@*
"max" (or "0") selects maximum speed as announced by the drive.
@*
"min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
@*
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a
desired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)
or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x-speed factor can be set explicity
by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
@*
Example speeds:
@*
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
@*
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
@*
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
medium in the -indev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
@*
Depending on the drive, the reported read speeds can be deceivingly low
or high. Therefore "min" cannot become higher than 1x speed of the involved
medium type. Read speed "max" cannot become lower than 52xCD, 24xDVD,
or 20xBD, depending on the medium type.
@*
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as hint
for their own decision.
@c man .TP
@item -load entity id
@kindex -load addresses a particular session as input
@cindex Session, select as input, -load
Load a particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from -dev or -indev.
Usually all available sessions are shown with command -toc.
@*
entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular
address. The following entities are defined:
@*
"auto" with any id addresses the last session in -toc. This is the default.
@*
"session" with id being a number as of a line "ISO session", column "Idx".
@*
"track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track", column "Idx".
@*
"lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column "sbsector".
@*
"volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...",
column "Volume Id".
@*
Adressing a non-existing entity or one which does not represent an ISO
image will either abandon -indev or at least lead to a blank image.
@*
If an input drive is set at the moment when -load is executed, then the
addressed ISO image is loaded immediately. Else, the setting will be pending
until the next -dev or -indev. After the image has been loaded once, the
setting is valid for -rollback until next -dev or -indev, where it
will be reset to "auto".
@c man .TP
@item -displacement [-]lba
@kindex -displacement compensate altered image start address
@cindex Session, altered start address, -displacement
Compensate a displacement of the image versus the start address
for which the image was prepared. This affects only loading of ISO images
and reading of their files. The multi-session method of growing is not allowed
as long as -displacement is non-zero. I.e. -indev and -outdev must be
different. The displacement gets reset to 0 before the drive
gets re-acquired after writing.
@*
Examples:
@*
If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied to a disk file
where it begins at block 0, then this copy can be loaded with
-displacement -123456.
@*
If an ISO image was written onto a partition with offset of 640000 blocks of
512 bytes, then it can be loaded from the base device by -displacement 160000.
@*
In both cases, the ISO sessions should be self contained, i.e. not add-on
sessions to an ISO image outside their track or partition.
@c man .TP
@item -drive_class "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
@kindex -drive_class controls drive accessability
@cindex Drive, accessability, -drive_class
Add a drive path pattern to one of the safety lists or make those lists empty.
There are three lists defined which get tested in the following sequence:
@*
If a drive address path matches the "harmless" list then the drive will be
accepted. If it is not a MMC device then the prefix "stdio:" will be prepended
automatically. This list is empty by default.
@*
Else if the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will not be
accepted by @command{xorriso} but rather lead to a FAILURE event.
This list is empty by default.
@*
Else if the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a MMC device,
then its address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it will be rejected.
This list has by default one entry: "/dev".
@*
If a drive path matches no list then it is considered "harmless". By default
these are all paths which do not begin with directory "/dev".
@*
A path matches a list if one of its parent paths or itself matches a list
entry. Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will be ignored when
testing for matches.
@*
By pseudo-class "clear_list" and pseudo-patterns "banned", "caution",
"harmless", or "all", the lists may be made empty.
@*
E.g.: -drive_class clear_list banned
@*
One will normally define the -drive_class lists in one of the @command{xorriso}
Startup Files.
@*
Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the superuser to
prevent inadverted mishaps. For reliably blocking access to a device file you
have to deny its rw-permissions in the filesystem.
@c man .TP
@item -assert_volid pattern severity
@kindex -assert_volid rejects undesired images
@cindex Image, demand volume ID, -assert_volid
Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the given
search pattern. When refusing an image, give up the input drive and issue
an event of the given severity (like FAILURE, see -abort_on). An empty search
pattern accepts any image.
@*
This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from blank
input media and does not discard an already loaded image.
@c man .TP
@item -in_charset character_set_name
@kindex -in_charset sets input character set
@cindex Character Set, for input, -in_charset
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an
image. See paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations.
When loading the written image after -commit the setting of -out_charset
will be copied to -in_charset.
@c man .TP
@item -auto_charset "on"|"off"
@kindex -auto_charset learns character set from image
@cindex Character set, learn from image, -auto_charset
Enable or disable recording and interpretation of the output character
set name in an xattr attribute of the image root directory. If enabled and
if a recorded character set name is found, then this name will be used as
name of the input character set when reading an image.
@*
Note that the default output charset is the local character set of the
terminal where @command{xorriso} runs. Before attributing this local
character set
to the produced ISO image, check whether the terminal properly displays
all intended filenames, especially exotic national characters.
@c man .TP
@item -hardlinks mode[:mode...]
@kindex -hardlinks controls handling of hard links
@cindex Hard links, control handling, -hardlinks
Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
@*
In default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers at image load
time. Each iso_rr file object which has no inode number at image generation
time will get a new unique inode number if -compliance is set to new_rr.
@*
Mode "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if such numbers
were recorded.
When committing a session it searches for families of iso_rr files
which stem from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and have
identical properties. The family members all get the same inode number.
Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating
system.
@*
Command -lsl displays hardlink counts if "lsl_count" is enabled. This can
slow down the command substantially after changes to the ISO image have
been made. Therefore the default is "no_lsl_count".
@*
Commands -update and -update_r track splits and fusions of hard links in
filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers. This can cause
automatic last minute changes before the session gets written. Command
-hardlinks "perform_update" may be used to do these changes earlier,
e.g. if you need to apply filters to all updated files.
@*
Mode "without_update" avoids hardlink processing during update commands.
Use this if your filesystem situation does not allow -disk_dev_ino "on".
@*
@command{xorriso} commands which extract files from an ISO image try to
hardlink files
with identical inode number. The normal scope of this operation is from
image load to image load. One may give up the accumulated hard link addresses
by -hardlinks "discard_extract".
@*
A large number of hardlink families may exhaust -temp_mem_limit
if not -osirrox "sort_lba_on" and -hardlinks "cheap_sorted_extract"
are both in effect. This restricts hard linking to other files restored by
the same single extract command. -hardlinks "normal_extract" re-enables
wide and expensive hardlink accumulation.
@*
@c man .TP
@item -acl "on"|"off"
@kindex -acl controls handling of ACLs
@cindex ACL, control handling, -acl
Enable or disable processing of ACLs.
If enabled, then @command{xorriso} will obtain ACLs from disk file objects,
store ACLs in the ISO image using the libisofs specific AAIP format,
load AAIP data from ISO images, test ACL during file comparison,
and restore ACLs to disk files when extracting them from ISO images.
See also commands -getfacl, -setfacl.
@c man .TP
@item -xattr "on"|"off"
@kindex -xattr controls handling of xattr (EA)
@cindex xattr, control handling, -xattr
Enable or disable processing of xattr attributes in user namespace.
If enabled, then @command{xorriso} will handle xattr similar to ACL.
See also commands -getfattr, -setfattr and above paragraph about xattr.
@c man .TP
@item -md5 "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
@kindex -md5 controls handling of MD5 sums
@cindex MD5, control handling, -md5
Enable or disable processing of MD5 checksums for the overall session and for
each single data file. If enabled then images with checksum tags get loaded
only if the tags of superblock and directory tree match properly. The MD5
checksums of data files and whole session get loaded from the image if there
are any.
@*
With commands -compare and -update the recorded MD5 of a file
will be used to avoid content reading from the image. Only the disk file
content will be read and compared with that MD5. This can save much time
if -disk_dev_ino "on" is not suitable.
@*
At image generation time they are computed for each file which gets its data
written into the new session. The checksums of files which have their data
in older sessions get copied into the new session. Superblock, tree and whole
session get a checksum tag each.
@*
Mode "all" will additionally check during image generation whether the checksum
of a data file changed between the time when its reading began and the time
when it ended. This implies reading every file twice.
@*
Mode "load_check_off" together with "on" or "all" will load recorded MD5 sums
but not test the recorded checksum tags of superblock and directory tree.
This is necessary if growisofs was used as burn program, because it does
not overwrite the superblock checksum tag of the first session.
Therefore load_check_off is in effect when @command{xorriso} -as mkisofs
option -M is performed.
@*
The test can be re-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
@*
Checksums can be exploited via commands -check_md5, -check_md5_r, via find
actions get_md5, check_md5, and via -check_media.
@c man .TP
@item -for_backup
@kindex -for_backup -acl,-xattr,-hardlinks,-md5
@cindex Backup, enable features, -for_backup
Enable all extra features which help to produce or to restore backups with
highest fidelity of file properties.
Currently this is a shortcut for: -hardlinks on -acl on -xattr on -md5 on.
@c man .TP
@item -ecma119_map "stripped"|"unmapped"|"lowercase"|"uppercase"
@kindex -ecma119_map names w/o Rock Ridge, Joliet
@cindex File names, if neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet
Choose the conversion of file names from the loaded session if neither
a Rock Ridge name nor a Joliet name was read from the session.
@*
Mode "stripped" is the default. It shows the names as found in the ISO but
removes trailing ";1" or ".;1" if present.
@*
Mode "unmapped" shows names as found without removing characters.
@*
Mode "lowercase" is like "stripped" but also maps uppercase letters to
lowercase letters. This is compatible to default GNU/Linux mount behavior.
@*
Mode "uppercase" is like "stripped" but maps lowercase letters to uppercase,
if any occur despite the prescriptions of ECMA-119.
@c man .TP
@item -disk_dev_ino "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
@kindex -disk_dev_ino fast incremental backup
@cindex Backup, enable fast incremental, -disk_dev_ino
Enable or disable processing of recorded file identification numbers
(dev_t and ino_t). If enabled they are stored as xattr and allow
to substantially accelerate file comparison. The root node gets a global start
timestamp. If during comparison a file with younger timestamps is found in the
ISO image, then it is suspected to have inconsistent content.
@*
If device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems are persistent
and if no irregular alterations of timestamps or system clock happen,
then potential content changes can be detected without reading that content.
File content change is assumed if any of mtime, ctime, device number or inode
number have changed.
@*
Mode "ino_only" replaces the precondition that device numbers are stable by the
precondition that mount points in the compared tree always lead to the
same filesystems. Use this if mode "on" always sees all files changed.
@*
The speed advantage appears only if the loaded session was produced with
-disk_dev_ino "on" too.
@*
Note that -disk_dev_ino "off" is totally in effect only if -hardlinks is "off",
too.
@c man .TP
@item -file_name_limit number
@kindex -file_name_limit curbs length of file names
@cindex File names, curb length, -file_name_limit
Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255.
Path components which are longer than the given number will get truncated
and have their last 33 bytes overwritten by a colon ':' and the
hex representation of the MD5 of the first 4095 bytes of the whole
oversized name. Potential incomplete UTF-8 characters will get their
leading bytes replaced by '_'.
@*
iso_rr_paths with the long components will still be able to access the
file paths with truncated components. To avoid confusion by having both
truncated and untrancated names in the same directory, it is not possible
to change this setting after a drive was aquired. All file names get
truncated by the same length.
@*
File name patterns will only work if they match the truncated name.
This might change in future.
@*
Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length 254 and 255.
If you expect such names in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO
by such Linux kernels, consider to set -file_name_limit 253.
Else just avoid names longer than 253 characters.
@*
Files with truncated names get deleted and re-added unconditionally
during -update and -update_r. This might change in future.
@c man .TP
@item -rom_toc_scan "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
@kindex -rom_toc_scan searches for sessions
@cindex Table-of-content, search sessions, -rom_toc_scan
Read-only drives do not tell the actual media type but show any media as
ROM (e.g. as DVD-ROM). The session history of MMC multi-session media might
be truncated to first and last session or even be completely false.
(The emulated history of overwriteable media is not affected by this.)
@*
To have in case of failure a chance of getting the session history and
especially the address of the last session, there is a scan for ISO 9660
filesystem headers which might help but also might yield worse results
than the drive's table of content. At its end it can cause read attempts
to invalid addresses and thus ugly drive behavior.
Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read-only media.
@*
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system @command{xorriso} has no own MMC
capabilities then it may still find that session from a scanned table of
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
@*
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwriteable media
can hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables
the elsewise trustworthy table-of-content scan for those media.
@*
The table-of-content scan on overwriteable media normally searches only up to
the end of the session that is pointed to by the superblock at block 0.
Setting "on:emul_wide" lets the scan continue up to the end of the medium.
This may be useful after copying a medium with -check_media patch_lba0=on
when not the last session was loaded.
@c man .TP
@item -calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
@kindex -calm_drive reduces drive activity
@cindex Drive, reduce activity, -calm_drive
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives stay alert
for substantial time after they have been used for reading. This reduces
the startup time for the next drive operation but can be loud and waste
energy if no i/o with the drive is expected to happen soon.
@*
Modes "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down -indev, -outdev, or both,
respectively.
Mode "revoke" immediately alerts both.
Mode "on" causes -calm_drive to be performed automatically after each -dev,
-indev, and -outdev. Mode "off" disables this.
@c man .TP
@item -ban_stdio_write
@kindex -ban_stdio_write demands real drive
@cindex Drive, demand real MMC, -ban_stdio_write
Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow
to write the result into files of nearly arbitrary type.
Once set, this command cannot be revoked.
@c man .TP
@item -early_stdio_test "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
@kindex -early_stdio_test classifies stdio drives
@cindex Drive, classify stdio, -early_stdio_test
If enabled by "on" then regular files and block devices get tested for
effective access permissions. This implies to try opening those files for
writing, which otherwise will happen only later and only if actual
writing is desired.
@*
The test result is used for classifying the pseudo drives as overwriteable,
read-only, write-only, or uselessly empty. This may lead to earlier detection
of severe problems, and may avoid some less severe error events.
@*
Mode "appendable_wo" is like "on" with the additional property that
non-empty write-only files are regarded as appendable rather than blank.
@c man .TP
@item -data_cache_size number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
@kindex -data_cache_size adjusts read cache size
@cindex Image reading, cache size, -data_cache_size
Set the size and granularity of the data cache which is used when ISO images
are loaded and when file content is read from ISO images. The cache consists
of several tiles, which each consists of several blocks. A larger cache
reduces the need for tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might
additionally improve the data throughput from the drive, but can be
wasteful if the data are scattered over the medium.
@*
Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives. They are an
inferior alternative to -osirrox option "sort_lba_on".
@*
blocks_per_tile must be a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32, or 64. The overall cache
size must not exceed 1 GiB.
The default values can be restored by parameter "default" instead of one or
both of the numbers.
Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32 blocks = 2 MiB.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Inserting files into ISO image:
@node Insert, SetInsert, Loading, Commands
@section Inserting files into ISO image
@c man .PP
The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
@c man .br
@cindex disk_path, _definition
@strong{disk_path}
is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
@c man .br
@cindex iso_rr_path, _definition
@strong{iso_rr_path}
is the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the ISO image.
If no Rock Ridge information is recorded in the loaded ISO image, then you
will see ISO 9660 names which are of limited length and character set.
If no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in an emerging ISO image, then
their names will get mapped to such restricted ISO 9660 (aka ECMA-119) names.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access
permissions of the existing files in the image do not apply to your write
operations. They are intended to be in effect with the read-only mounted image.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
If the iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an existing
file object in the ISO image, then the following collision handling
happens:
@*
If both objects are directories then they get merged by recursively inserting
the subobjects from filesystem into ISO image.
If other file types collide then the setting of command
@strong{-overwrite}
decides.
@*
Renaming of files has similar collision handling, but directories can only
be replaced, not merged. Note that if the target directory exists, then -mv
inserts the source objects into this directory rather than attempting
to replace it. Command -move, on the other hand, would attempt to replace it.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
The commands in this section alter the ISO image and not the local filesystem.
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -disk_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
@kindex -disk_pattern controls pattern expansion
@cindex Pattern expansion, for disk paths, -disk_pattern
Set the pattern expansion mode for the disk_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
@*
Setting "off" disables this feature for all commands which are marked in this
man page by "disk_path [***]" or "disk_pattern [***]".
@*
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
@*
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"disk_pattern [***]".
@*
Default is "ls".
@c man .TP
@item -add pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
@kindex -add inserts one or more paths
@cindex Insert, pathspecs, -add
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
@*
If -pathspecs is set to "on" then pattern expansion is always disabled and
character '=' has a special meaning. It separates the ISO image path
from the disk path:
@*
iso_rr_path=disk_path
@*
The separator '=' can be escaped by '\'.
If iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then -cd is prepended.
If disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended.
@*
If no '=' is given then the word is used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path.
If in this case the word does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended to
the disk_path and -cd is prepended to the iso_rr_path.
@*
If -pathspecs is set to "off" then -disk_pattern expansion applies, if enabled.
The resulting words are used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative
path words get prepended the setting of -cdx to disk_path and the setting
of -cd to iso_rr_path.
@c man .TP
@item -add_plainly mode
@kindex -add_plainly inserts one or more paths
@cindex Insert, non-dashed arguments, -add_plainly
If set to mode "unknown" then any command word that does not begin with "-" and
is not recognized as known command will be subject to a virtual -add command.
I.e. it will be used as pathspec or as disk_path and added to the image.
If enabled, -disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
@*
Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized command
words even if they begin with "-".
@*
Mode "any" announces that all further words are to be added as pathspecs
or disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
@*
Mode "none" is the default. It prevents any words from being understood
as files to add, if they are not parameters to appropriate commands.
@c man .TP
@item -path_list disk_path
@kindex -path_list inserts paths from disk file
@cindex Insert, paths from disk file, -path_list
Like -add but read the parameter words from file disk_path
or standard input if disk_path is "-".
The list must contain exactly one pathspec or disk_path pattern per line.
@c man .TP
@item -quoted_path_list disk_path
@kindex -quoted_path_list inserts paths from disk file
@cindex Insert, paths from disk file, -quoted_path_list
Like -path_list but with quoted input reading rules. Lines get split into
parameter words for -add. Whitespace outside quotes is discarded.
@c man .TP
@item -map disk_path iso_rr_path
@kindex -map inserts path
@cindex Insert, path, -map
Insert file object disk_path into the ISO image as iso_rr_path. If disk_path
is a directory then its whole sub tree is inserted into the ISO image.
@c man .TP
@item -map_single disk_path iso_rr_path
@kindex -map_single inserts path
@cindex Insert, path, -map_single
Like -map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree is not inserted.
@c man .TP
@item -map_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
@kindex -map_l inserts paths from disk file
@cindex Insert, paths from disk file, -map_l
Perform -map with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
@c man .TP
@item -update disk_path iso_rr_path
@kindex -update inserts path if different
@cindex Insert, if different, -update
Compare file object disk_path with file object iso_rr_path. If they do not
match, then perform the necessary image manipulations to make iso_rr_path
a matching copy of disk_path. By default this comparison will imply lengthy
content reading before a decision is made. Commands -disk_dev_ino or -md5 may
accelerate comparison if they were already in effect when the loaded session
was recorded.
@*
If disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then the
whole subtree will be inserted. Else only directory attributes will be
updated.
@c man .TP
@item -update_r disk_path iso_rr_path
@kindex -update_r inserts paths if different
@cindex Insert, if different, -update_r
Like -update but working recursively. I.e. all file objects below both
addresses get compared whether they have counterparts below the other address
and whether both counterparts match. If there is a mismatch then the necessary
update manipulation is done.
@*
Note that the comparison result may depend on command -follow. Its setting
should always be the same as with the first adding of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
@*
If iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then it gets added. If disk_path does not
exist, then iso_rr_path gets deleted.
@c man .TP
@item -update_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
@kindex -update_l inserts paths if different
@cindex Insert, if different, -update_l
Perform -update_r with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
@c man .TP
@item -cut_out disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
@kindex -cut_out inserts piece of data file
@cindex Insert, piece of data file, -cut_out
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO
image.
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if
it exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB - 1 for old operating systems,
or the limit of 4 GiB - 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels
seem to read properly files >= 4 GiB - 1.
@*
A clumsy remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces and to concatenate
them at restore time. A well tested chopping size is 2047m.
It is permissible to request a higher byte_count than available. The
resulting file will be truncated to the correct size of a final piece.
To request a byte_offset higher than available yields no file in
the ISO image but a SORRY event.
E.g:
@*
-cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \
@*
/file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
@*
-cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \
@*
/file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
@*
-cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \
@*
/file/part_3_of_3_at_4094m_with_2047m_of_5753194821
@*
While command -split_size is set larger than 0, and if all pieces of a file
reside in the same ISO directory with no other files, and if the names look
like above, then their ISO directory will be recognized and handled like a
regular file. This affects commands -compare*, -update*, and overwrite
situations.
See command -split_size for details.
@c man .TP
@item -cpr disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
@kindex -cpr inserts like with cp -r
@cindex Insert, paths, -cpr
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
@*
The rules for generating the ISO addresses are similar as with
shell command cp -r. Nevertheless, directories of the iso_rr_path
are created if necessary. Especially a not yet existing iso_rr_path
will be handled as directory if multiple disk_paths are present.
The leafnames of the multiple disk_paths will be grafted under that
directory as would be done with an existing directory.
@*
If a single disk_path is present then a non-existing iso_rr_path will
get the same type as the disk_path.
@*
If a disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended.
If the iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then -cd is prepended.
@c man .TP
@item -mkdir iso_rr_path [...]
@kindex -mkdir creates ISO directory
@cindex Directory, create, -mkdir
Create empty directories if they do not exist yet.
Existence as directory generates a WARNING event, existence as
other file causes a FAILURE event.
@c man .TP
@item -lns target_text iso_rr_path
@kindex -lns creates ISO symbolic link
@cindex Symbolic link, create, -lns
Create a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points to target_text.
iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
@*
Hint: Command -clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.
@c man .TP
@item -clone iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
@kindex -clone copies ISO directory tree
@cindex Directory, copy, -clone
Create a copy of the ISO file object iso_rr_path_original with the new
address iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory then copy all
files and directories underneath. If iso_rr_path_original is a boot catalog
file, then it gets not copied but is silently ignored.
@*
The copied ISO file objects have the same attributes. Copied data files
refer to the same content source as their originals.
The copies may then be manipulated independendly of their originals.
@*
This command will refuse execution if the address iso_rr_path_copy
already exists in the ISO tree.
@c man .TP
@item -cp_clone iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
@kindex -cp_clone copies ISO directory tree
@cindex Directories, copy, -cp_clone
Create copies of one or more ISO file objects as with command -clone.
In case of collision merge directories with existing ones, but do not overwrite
existing ISO file objects.
@*
The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with
command -cpr (see above) or shell command cp -r. Other than with -cpr,
relative iso_rr_path_original will get prepended the -cd path and not
the -cdx path. Consider to -mkdir iso_rr_path_dest before -cp_clone
so the copy address does not depend on the number of iso_rr_path_original
parameters.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Settings for file insertion:
@node SetInsert, Manip, Insert, Commands
@section Settings for file insertion
@c man .TP
@table @asis
@item -file_size_limit value [value [...]] @minus{}@minus{}
@kindex -file_size_limit limits data file size
@cindex Insert, limit data file size, -file_size_limit
Set the maximum permissible size for a single data file. The values get
summed up for the actual limit. If the only value is "off" then the file
size is not limited by @command{xorriso}.
Default is a limit of 100 extents, 4g -2k each:
@*
-file_size_limit 400g -200k @minus{}@minus{}
@*
When mounting ISO 9660 filesystems, old operating systems can handle only files
up to 2g -1 @minus{}@minus{}. Newer ones are good up to 4g -1 @minus{}@minus{}.
You need quite a new Linux kernel to read correctly the final bytes
of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned to 2048 byte blocks.
@*
@command{xorriso}'s own data read capabilities are not affected by
operating system size limits. Such limits apply to mounting only. Nevertheless,
the target filesystem of an -extract must be able to take the file size.
@c man .TP
@item -not_mgt code[:code[...]]
@kindex -not_mgt controls file exclusion
@cindex Insert, file exclusion, -not_mgt
Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
@*
Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the ISO image
and before disk files get compared with image files.
The absolute disk path of the source is matched against the -not_paths list.
The leafname of the disk path is matched against the patterns in the -not_leaf
list. If a match is detected then the disk path will not be regarded as an
existing file and not be added to the ISO image.
@*
Several codes are defined.
The _on/_off settings persist until they are revoked by their_off/_on
counterparts.
@*
"erase" empties the lists which were accumulated by -not_paths and -not_leaf.
@*
"reset" is like "erase" but also re-installs default behavior.
@*
"off" disables exclusion processing temporarily without invalidating
the lists and settings.
@*
"on" re-enables exclusion processing.
@*
"param_off" applies exclusion processing only to paths below disk_path
parameter of commands. I.e. explicitly given disk_paths are exempted
from exclusion processing.
@*
"param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as well as
to files below such parameters.
@*
"subtree_off" with "param_on" excludes parameter paths only if they
match a -not_paths item exactly.
@*
"subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to a file
address below any -not_paths item.
@*
"ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing. I.e. they
get reported with -compare and deleted from the image with -update.
@*
"ignore_on" keeps excluded files out of -compare or -update activities.
@c man .TP
@item -not_paths disk_path [***]
@kindex -not_paths sets absolute exclusion paths
@cindex Insert, file exclusion absolute, -not_paths
Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths. If a given
path is relative, then the current -cdx is prepended to form an absolute path.
Pattern matching, if enabled, happens at definition time and not when exclusion
checks are made.
@*
(Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "@minus{}@minus{}")
@c man .TP
@item -not_leaf pattern
@kindex -not_leaf sets exclusion pattern
@cindex Insert, file exclusion pattern, -not_leaf
Add a single shell parser style pattern to the list of exclusions for
disk leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when the exclusion checks are
made.
@c man .TP
@item -not_list disk_path
@kindex -not_list sets exclusions from disk file
@cindex Insert, file exclusion from file, -not_list
Read lines from disk_path and use each of them either as -not_paths parameter,
if they contain a / character, or as -not_leaf pattern.
@c man .TP
@item -quoted_not_list disk_path
@kindex -quoted_not_list sets exclusions
@cindex Insert, file exclusion, -quoted_not_list
Like -not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is
handled as one parameter for -not_paths or -not_leaf.
@c man .TP
@item -follow occasion[:occasion[...]]
@kindex -follow softlinks and mount points
@cindex Insert, links or mount points, -follow
Enable or disable resolution of symbolic links and mountpoints under
disk_paths. This applies to actions -add, -du*x, -ls*x, -findx, -concat,
and to -disk_pattern expansion.
@*
There are three kinds of follow decisison to be made:
@*
@strong{link} is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for the
purpose of reading. I.e. not for command -concat.
If enabled then symbolic links are handled as their target file objects,
else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
@*
@strong{mount} is the hop from one filesystem to another subordinate filesystem.
If enabled then mountpoint directories are handled as any other directory,
else mountpoints are handled as empty directories if they are encountered in
directory tree traversals.
@*
@strong{concat} is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for
the purpose of writing. I.e. for command -concat. This is a security risk !
@*
Less general than above occasions:
@*
@strong{pattern} is mount and link hopping, but only during -disk_pattern
expansion.
@*
@strong{param} is link hopping for parameter words (after eventual pattern
expansion).
If enabled then -ls*x will show the link targets rather than the links
themselves. -du*x, -findx, and -add will process the link targets but not
follow links in an eventual directory tree below the targets (unless "link"
is enabled).
@*
Occasions can be combined in a colon separated list. All occasions
mentioned in the list will then lead to a positive follow decision.
@*
@strong{off} prevents any positive follow decision. Use it if no other occasion
applies.
@*
Shortcuts:
@*
@strong{default} is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
@*
@strong{on} always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount:concat".
@*
@sp 1
Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
@*
@strong{limit=}<number> which sets the maximum number of link hops.
A link hop consists of a sequence of symbolic links and a final target
of different type. Nevertheless those hops can loop. Example:
@*
$ ln -s .. uploop
@*
Link hopping has a built-in loop detection which stops hopping at the first
repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link is handled as itself
and not as its target.
Regrettably one can construct link networks which
cause exponential workload before their loops get detected.
The number given with "limit=" can curb this workload at the risk of truncating
an intentional sequence of link hops.
@c man .TP
@item -pathspecs "on"|"off"
@kindex -pathspecs sets meaning of = with -add
@cindex Insert, meaning of = with -add, -pathspecs
Control parameter interpretation with @command{xorriso}
actions -add and -path_list.
@*
@cindex Pathspec, _definition
"on" enables pathspecs of the form
@strong{target=source}
like with program mkisofs -graft-points.
It also disables -disk_pattern expansion for command -add.
@*
"off" disables pathspecs of the form target=source
and re-enables -disk_pattern expansion.
@c man .TP
@item -overwrite "on"|"nondir"|"off"
@kindex -overwrite enables overwriting in ISO
@cindex Insert, enable overwriting, -overwrite
Allow or disallow to overwrite existing files in the
ISO image by files with the same name.
@*
With setting "off", name collisions cause FAILURE events.
With setting "nondir", only directories are protected by such events, other
existing file types get treated with -rm before the new file gets added.
Setting "on" allows automatic -rm_r. I.e. a non-directory can replace an
existing directory and all its subordinates.
@*
If restoring of files is enabled, then the overwrite rule applies to the
target file objects on disk as well, but "on" is downgraded to "nondir".
@c man .TP
@item -split_size number["k"|"m"]
@kindex -split_size enables large file splitting
@cindex Insert, large file splitting, -split_size
Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such splitting
maps a large disk file onto a ISO directory with several part files in it.
This is necessary if the size of the disk file exceeds -file_size_limit.
Older operating systems can handle files in mounted ISO 9660 filesystems
only if they are smaller than 2 GiB or in other cases 4 GiB.
@*
Default is 0 which will exclude files larger than -file_size_limit by a
FAILURE event.
A well tested -split_size is 2047m. Sizes above -file_size_limit are not
permissible.
@*
While command -split_size is set larger than 0 such a directory with split
file pieces will be recognized and handled like a regular file by commands
-compare* , -update*, and in overwrite situations. There are -ossirox
parameters "concat_split_on" and "concat_split_off" which control the handling
when files get restored to disk.
@*
In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to
describe the splitting by 5 numbers:
@*
part_number,total_parts,byte_offset,byte_count,disk_file_size
@*
which are embedded in the following text form:
@*
part_#_of_#_at_#_with_#_of_#
@*
Scaling characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect.
All digits are interpreted as decimal, even if leading zeros are present.
@*
E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
@*
No other files are allowed in the directory. All parts have to be present and
their numbers have to be plausible. E.g. byte_count must be valid as -cut_out
parameter and their contents may not overlap.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B File manipulations:
@node Manip, CmdFind, SetInsert, Commands
@section File manipulations
@c man .PP
The following commands manipulate files in the ISO image, regardless whether
they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.
@c man .PP
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -iso_rr_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
@kindex -iso_rr_pattern controls pattern expansion
@cindex Pattern expansion, for ISO paths, -iso_rr_pattern
Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
@*
Setting "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands which are marked
in this man page by "iso_rr_path [***]" or "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
@*
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
@*
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"iso_rr_pattern [***]".
@*
Default is "on".
@c man .TP
@item -rm iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -rm deletes files from ISO image
@cindex Delete, from ISO image, -rm
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
@*
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
@*
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
medium in modification mode.
@c man .TP
@item -rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -rm_r deletes trees from ISO image
@cindex Delete, from ISO image, -rm_r
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image.
See also the note with command -rm.
@c man .TP
@item -rmdir iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -rmdir deletes ISO directory
@cindex Delete, ISO directory, -rmdir
@cindex Directory, delete, -rmdir
Delete empty directories.
@c man .TP
@item -move iso_rr_path iso_rr_path
@kindex -mv renames single file in ISO image
@cindex Rename, in ISO image, -move
Rename the file given by the first (origin) iso_rr_path to the second
(destination) iso_rr_path.
Deviate from rules of shell command mv by not moving the origin file underneath
an existing destination directory. The origin file will rather replace such a
directory, if this is allowed by command -overwrite.
@c man .TP
@item -mv iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
@kindex -mv renames files in ISO image
@cindex Rename, in ISO image, -mv
Rename the given file objects in the ISO tree to the last
parameter in the list. Use the same rules as with shell command mv.
@*
If pattern expansion is enabled and if the last parameter contains wildcard
characters then it must match exactly one existing file address, or else the
command fails with a FAILURE event.
@c man .TP
@item -chown uid iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chown sets ownership in ISO image
@cindex Ownership, in ISO image, -chown
Set ownership of file objects in the ISO image. uid may either be a decimal
number or the name of a user known to the operating system.
@c man .TP
@item -chown_r uid iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chown_r sets ownership in ISO image
@cindex Ownership, in ISO image, -chown_r
Like -chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -chgrp gid iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chgrp sets group in ISO image
@cindex Group, in ISO image, -chgrp
Set group attribute of file objects in the ISO image. gid may either be a
decimal number or the name of a group known to the operating system.
@c man .TP
@item -chgrp_r gid iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chgrp_r sets group in ISO image
@cindex Group, in ISO image, -chgrp_r
Like -chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -chmod mode iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chmod sets permissions in ISO image
@cindex Permissions, in ISO image, -chmod
Equivalent to shell command chmod in the ISO image.
mode is either an octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated
list of statements of the form [ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* .
@*
Like: go-rwx,u+rwx .
@*
@strong{Personalities}:
u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
@*
@strong{Operators}:
+ adds given permissions, - revokes given permissions,
= revokes all old permissions and then adds the given ones.
@*
@strong{Permissions}:
r=read, w=write, x=execute|inspect, s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
@*
For octal numbers see man 2 stat.
@c man .TP
@item -chmod_r mode iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -chmod_r sets permissions in ISO image
@cindex Permissions, in ISO image, -chmod_r
Like -chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -setfacl acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -setfacl sets ACL in ISO image
@cindex ACL, set in ISO image, -setfacl
Attach the given ACL to the given iso_rr_paths. If the files already have
ACLs, then those get deleted before the new ones get into effect.
If acl_text is empty, or contains the text "clear" or the text
"@minus{}@minus{}remove-all",
then the existing ACLs will be removed and no new ones will be
attached. Any other content of acl_text will be interpreted as a list of
ACL entries. It may be in the long multi-line format as put out by -getfacl
but may also be abbreviated as follows:
@*
ACL entries are separated by comma or newline. If an entry is empty text or
begins with "#" then it will be ignored. A valid entry has to begin
by a letter out of @{ugom@} for "user", "group", "other", "mask". It has to
contain two colons ":". A non-empty text between those ":" gives a user id
or group id. After the second ":" there may be letters out of @{rwx- #@}.
The first three give read, write, or execute permission.
Letters "-", " " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of the entry to
be ignored. Letter "X" or any other letters are not supported. Examples:
@*
g:toolies:rw,u:lisa:rw,u:1001:rw,u::wr,g::r,o::r,m::rw
@*
group:toolies:rw@minus{},user::rw@minus{},group::r@minus{}@minus{},other::r@minus{}@minus{},mask::rw@minus{}
@*
A valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following characters and ":".
This indicates that the entry goes to the "default" ACL rather than to the
"access" ACL. Example:
@*
u::rwx,g::rx,o::,d:u::rwx,d:g::rx,d:o::,d:u:lisa:rwx,d:m::rwx
@c man .TP
@item -setfacl_r acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -setfacl_r sets ACL in ISO image
@cindex ACL, set in ISO image, -setfacl_r
Like -setfacl but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -setfacl_list disk_path
@kindex -setfacl_list sets ACL in ISO image
@cindex ACL, set in ISO image, -setfacl_list
Read the output of -getfacl_r or shell command getfacl -R and apply it to the
iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". This will change
ownership, group and ACL of the given files.
If disk_path is "-" then lines are read from standard input. Line "@@" ends the
list, "@@@@@@" aborts without changing the pending iso_rr_path.
@*
Since -getfacl and getfacl -R strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting of
-cd does always matter.
@c man .TP
@item -setfattr [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -setfattr sets xattr in ISO image
@cindex xattr, set in ISO image, -setfattr
Attach the given xattr pair of name and value to the given iso_rr_paths.
If the given name is prefixed by "-", then the pair with that name gets
removed from the xattr list. If name is "@minus{}@minus{}remove@minus{}all"
then all user namespace
xattr of the given iso_rr_paths get deleted. In case of deletion, value must
be an empty text.
@*
Only names from the user namespace are allowed. I.e. a name has to begin with
"user.", like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
@*
Values and names undergo the normal input processing of @command{xorriso}.
See also command -backslash_codes. Other than with command -setfattr_list,
the byte value 0 cannot be expressed via -setfattr.
@c man .TP
@item -setfattr_r [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -setfattr_r sets xattr in ISO image
@cindex xattr, set in ISO image, -setfattr_r
Like -setfattr but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -setfattr_list disk_path
@kindex -setfattr_list sets xattr in ISO image
@cindex xattr, set in ISO image, -setfattr_list
Read the output of -getfattr_r or shell command getfattr -Rd and apply it to
the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". All previously
existing user space xattr of the given iso_rr_paths will be deleted.
If disk_path is "-" then lines are read from standard input.
@*
Since -getfattr and getfattr -Rd strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting
of -cd does always matter.
@*
Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will be ignored
(except "# file:"). Line "@@" ends the list, "@@@@@@" aborts without changing
the pending iso_rr_path. Other input lines must have the form
@*
name="value"
@*
Name must be from user namespace. I.e. user.xyz where xyz should consist of
printable characters only. The separator "=" is not allowed in names.
Value may contain any kind of bytes. It must be in quotes. Trailing
whitespace after the end quote will be ignored. Non-printables bytes and quotes
must be represented as \XYZ by their octal 8-bit code XYZ.
Use code \000 for 0-bytes.
@c man .TP
@item -alter_date type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -alter_date sets timestamps in ISO image
@cindex Timestamps, set in ISO image, -alter_date
Alter the date entries of files in the ISO image. type may be one of
the following:
@*
"a" sets access time, updates ctime.
@*
"m" sets modification time, updates ctime.
@*
"b" sets access time and modification time, updates ctime.
@*
"a-c", "m-c", and "b-c" set the times without updating ctime.
@*
"c" sets the ctime.
@*
timestring may be in the following formats
(see also section EXAMPLES):
@*
As expected by program date:
MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]
@*
As produced by program date:
@*
[Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
@*
Relative times counted from current clock time:
@*
+|-Number["s"|"h"|"d"|"w"|"m"|"y"]
@*
where "s" means seconds, "h" hours, "d" days, "w" weeks, "m"=30d,
"y"=365.25d plus 1d added to multiplication result.
@*
Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
@*
=Number
@*
@command{xorriso}'s own timestamps:
@*
YYYY.MM.DD[.hh[mm[ss]]]
@*
scdbackup timestamps:
@*
YYMMDD[.hhmm[ss]]
@*
where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
@*
ECMA-119 volume timestamps:
@*
YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc
@*
These are normally given as GMT. The suffix "LOC" causes local timezone
conversion. E.g. 2013010720574700, 2013010720574700LOC.
The last two digits cc (centiseconds) will be ignored, but must be present
in order to make the format recognizable.
@*
Example:
@*
-alter_date m-c 2013.11.27.103951 /file1 /file2 --
@c man .TP
@item -alter_date_r type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -alter_date_r sets timestamps in ISO image
@cindex Timestamps, set in ISO image, -alter_date_r
Like -alter_date but affecting all files below eventual directories.
@c man .TP
@item -hide hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -hide excludes file names from directory trees
@cindex hidden, set in ISO image, -hide
Prevent the names of the given files from showing up in the directory trees
of ISO 9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+ when the image gets written.
The data content of such hidden files will be included in the
resulting image, even if they do not show up in any directory.
But you will need own means to find nameless data in the image.
@*
Warning: Data which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree will not be copied
by the write method of modifying.
@*
Possible values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from ISO 9660 tree,
"joliet" for Joliet tree, "hfsplus" for HFS+, "on" for them all.
"off" means visibility in all directory trees.
@*
These values may be combined.
E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
@*
This command does not apply to the boot catalog.
Rather use: -boot_image "any" "cat_hidden=on"
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Tree traversal command -find:
@node CmdFind, Filter, Manip, Commands
@section Tree traversal command -find
@c man .PP
@table @asis
@c man .TP
@item -find iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] @minus{}@minus{}
@kindex -find traverses and alters ISO tree
@cindex Tree, ISO, traverse and alter, -find
A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image.
It performs an action on matching file objects at or below iso_rr_path.
@*
If not used as last command in the line then the parameter list
needs to get terminated by "@minus{}@minus{}".
@*
Tests are optional. If they are omitted then action is applied to all file
objects. If tests are given then they form together an expression.
The action is applied only if the expression matches the file object. Default
expression operator between tests is -and, i.e. the expression matches only
if all its tests match.
@*
Available tests are:
@*
@table @asis
@sp 1
@item -name pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file leaf name. If the pattern does not contain
any of the characters "*?[", then it will be truncated according
to -file_name_limit and thus match the truncated name in the ISO filesystem.
@*
@item -wholename pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file path as it would be printed by action
"echo". Character '/' can be matched by wildcards. If pattern pieces
between '/' do not contain any of the characters "*?[", they will
be truncated according to -file_name_limit.
@*
@item -disk_name pattern :
Like -name but testing the leaf name of the file source on disk.
Can match only data files which do not stem from the loaded image,
or for directories above such data files. With directories the result can
change between -find runs if their content stems from multiple sources.
@*
@item -disk_path disk_path :
Matches if the given disk_path is equal to the path of the file source
on disk. The same restrictions apply as with -disk_name.
@*
@item -type type_letter :
Matches files of the given type:
"block", "char", "dir", "pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito",
and "Xotic" which matches what is not matched by the other types.
@*
Only the first letter is interpreted. E.g.: -find / -type d
@*
@item -damaged :
Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged by a previous
run of -check_media. The damage info vanishes when a new ISO image gets
loaded.
@*
Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the session as damaged.
If finer distinction is desired, perform -md5 off before -check_media.
@*
@item -pending_data :
Matches files which get their content from outside the loaded ISO image.
@*
@item -lba_range start_lba block_count :
Matches files which use data blocks within the range of start_lba
and start_lba+block_count-1.
@*
@item -has_acl :
Matches files which have a non-trivial ACL.
@*
@item -has_xattr :
Matches files which have xattr name-value pairs from user namespace.
@*
@item -has_aaip :
Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
@*
@item -has_any_xattr :
Matches files which have any xattr other than ACL.
@*
@item -has_md5 :
Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
@*
@item -has_hfs_crtp creator type :
Matches files which have the given HFS+ creator and type attached.
These are codes of 4 characters which get stored if -hfsplus is
enabled. Use a single dash '-' as wildcard that matches any such code.
E.g:.
@*
-has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
@*
-has_hfs_crtp - -
@*
@item -has_hfs_bless blessing :
Matches files which bear the given HFS+ blessing. It may be one of :
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder",
"any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
@*
@item -has_filter :
Matches files which are filtered by -set_filter.
@*
@item -hidden hide_state :
Matches files which are hidden in "iso_rr" tree, in "joliet" tree,
in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees ("on"), or not hidden in any tree ("off").
@*
Those which are hidden in some tree match -not -hidden "off".
@*
@item -bad_outname namespace :
Matches files with names which change when converted forth and back
between the local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge",
"joliet", "ecma119", "hfsplus".
@*
All applicable -compliance rules are taken into respect.
Rule "omit_version" is always enabled, because else
namespaces "joliet" and "ecma119" would cause changes with every
non-directory name.
Consider to also enable rules "no_force_dots" and "no_j_force_dots".
@*
The namespaces use different character sets and apply further restrictions
to name length, permissible characters, and mandatory name components.
"rockridge" uses the character set defined by -out_charset,
"joliet" uses UCS-2BE, "ecma119" uses ASCII, "hfsplus" uses UTF-16BE.
@*
@item -prune :
If this test is reached and the tested file is a directory then -find will not
dive into that directory. This test itself does always match.
@*
@item -use_pattern "on"|"off" :
This pseudo test controls the interpretation of wildcards with tests
-name, -wholename, and -disk_name. Default is "on". If interpretation
is disabled by "off", then the parameters of -name, -wholename, and -disk_name
have to match literally rather than as search pattern.
This test itself does always match.
@*
@item -or_use_pattern "on"|"off" :
Like -use_pattern, but automatically appending the test by -or rather
than by -and. Further the test itself does never match. So a subsequent
test -or will cause its other operand to be performed.
@*
@item -decision "yes"|"no" :
If this test is reached then the evaluation ends immediately and action
is performed if the decision is "yes" or "true". See operator -if.
@*
@c man \fB\-true\fR and \fB\-false\fR :
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item -true and -false :
Always match or match not, respectively. Evaluation goes on.
@*
@item -sort_lba :
Always match. This causes -find to perform its action in a sequence sorted by
the ISO image block addresses of the files. It may improve throughput with
actions which read data from optical drives. Action will always get the
absolute path as parameter.
@*
Available operators are:
@*
@item -not :
Matches if the next test or sub expression does not match.
Several tests do this specifically:
@*
-undamaged, -lba_range with negative start_lba, -has_no_acl, -has_no_xattr,
-has_no_aaip, -has_no_filter .
@*
@item -and :
Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
@*
@item -or :
Matches if at least one of both neighboring tests or expressions matches.
@*
@c man \fB\-sub\fR ... \fB\-subend\fR or \fB(\fR ... \fB)\fR :
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item -sub ... -subend or ( ... ) :
Enclose a sub expression which gets evaluated first before it
is processed by neighboring operators.
Normal precedence is: -not, -or , -and.
@*
@c man \fB\-if\fR ... \fB\-then\fR\ ... \fB\-elseif\fR ... \fB\-then\fR ...
@c man \fB\-else\fR ... \fB\-endif\fR :
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item -if ... -then ... -elseif ... -then ... -else ... -endif :
Enclose one or more sub expressions. If the -if expression matches, then
the -then expression is evaluated as the result of the whole expression
up to -endif. Else the next -elseif expression is evaluated and if it matches,
its -then expression. Finally in case of no match, the -else expression
is evaluated.
There may be more than one -elseif. Neither -else nor -elseif are mandatory.
If -else is missing and would be hit, then the result is a non-match.
@*
-if-expressions are the main use case for above test -decision.
@end table
@sp 1
Default action is @strong{echo},
i.e. to print the address of the found file. Other actions are certain
@command{xorriso} commands which get performed on the found files.
These commands
may have specific parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
@c man .br
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man \fBchown\fR and \fBchown_r\fR
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item chown and chown_r
change the ownership and get the user id
as parameter. E.g.: -exec chown thomas @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@c man \fBchgrp\fR and \fBchgrp_r\fR
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item chgrp and Bchgrp_r
change the group attribute and get the group id
as parameter. E.g.: -exec chgrp_r staff @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@c man \fBchmod\fR and \fBchmod_r\fR
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item chmod and chmod_r
change access permissions and get a mode string
as parameter. E.g.: -exec chmod a-w,a+r @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@c man \fBalter_date\fR and \fBalter_date_r\fR
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@item Balter_date and Balter_date_r
change the timestamps. They get a type
character and a timestring as parameters.
@*
E.g.: -exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item lsdl
prints file information like shell command ls -dl.
@*
@item compare
performs command -compare with the found file address as
iso_rr_path and the corresponding file address below its parameter
disk_path_start. For this the iso_rr_path of the -find command gets
replaced by the disk_path_start.
@*
E.g.: -find /thomas -exec compare /home/thomas @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item update
performs command -update with the found file address as
iso_rr_path. The corresponding file address is determined like with above
action "compare".
@*
@item update_merge
is like update but does not delete the found file if it is missing on disk.
It may be run several times and records with all visited files whether their
counterpart on disk has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.
Finally, a -find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that
saw no counterpart on disk.
@*
Up to the next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge" all newly inserted files will
get marked as having a disk counterpart.
@*
@item rm
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is not a directory
with files in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
@*
@item rm_r
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image, including whole
directory trees.
@*
@item rm_merge
removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by one or more previous actions
"update_merge" and saw no counterpart on disk in any of them. The marking from
the update actions is removed in any case.
@*
@item clear_merge
removes an eventual marking from action "update_merge".
@*
@item report_damage
classifies files whether they hit a data block that is
marked as damaged. The result is printed together with the address
of the first damaged byte, the maximum span of damages, file size, and the
path of the file.
@*
@item report_lba
prints files which are associated to image data blocks.
It tells the logical block address, the block number, the byte size,
and the path of each file. There may be reported more than one
line per file if the file has more than one section.
In this case each line has a different extent number in column "xt".
@*
@item report_sections
like report_lba but telling the byte sizes of the particular sections rather
than the overall byte size of the file.
@*
@item getfacl
prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result channel.
@*
@item setfacl
attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new
ACL is given in text form as defined with command -setfacl.
@*
E.g.: -exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::@minus{},m::rw @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item getfattr
prints xattr name-value pairs from user namespace
to the result channel.
@*
@item get_any_xattr
prints xattr name-value pairs from any namespace
except ACL to the result channel. This is mostly for debugging of
namespace "isofs".
@*
@item list_extattr mode
prints a script to the result channel, which would use FreeBSD command
setextattr to set the file's xattr name-value pairs of user namespace.
Parameter mode controls the form of the output of names and values.
Default mode "e" prints harmless characters in shell quotation marks,
but represents texts with octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded
echo -e command.
Mode "q" prints any characters in shell quotation marks. This might not be
terminal-safe but should work in script files.
Mode "r" uses no quotation marks. Not safe.
Mode "b" prints backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
@*
E.g. -exec list_extattr e --
@*
Command -backslash_codes does not affect the output.
@*
@item get_md5
prints the MD5 sum, if recorded, together with file path.
@*
@item check_md5
compares the MD5 sum, if recorded, with the file content
and reports if mismatch.
@*
E.g.: -find / -not -pending_data -exec check_md5 FAILURE @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item make_md5
equips a data file with an MD5 sum of its content. Useful to
upgrade the files in the loaded image to full MD5 coverage by the next
commit with -md5 "on".
@*
E.g.: -find / -type f -not -has_md5 -exec make_md5 @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item setfattr
sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
@*
E.g.: -find / -has_xattr -exec setfattr @minus{}@minus{}remove-all '' @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item set_hfs_crtp
adds, changes, or removes HFS+ creator and type attributes.
@*
E.g.: -exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
@*
E.g.: -find /my/dir -prune -exec set_hfs_crtp --delete -
@*
@item get_hfs_crtp
prints the HFS+ creator and type attributes together with the iso_rr_path,
if the file has such attributes at all.
@*
E.g.: -exec get_hfs_crtp
@*
@item set_hfs_bless
applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are roles which can be attributed to
up to four directories and a data file:
@*
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder".
@*
They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
@*
Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "intel_bootfile"
is the one that would apply to a data file. All others apply to directories.
The -find run will end as soon as the first blessing is issued. The previous
bearer of the blessing will lose it then.
No file object can bear more than one blessing.
@*
E.g.: -find /my/blessed/directory -exec set_hfs_bless p
@*
Further there is blessing "none" or "n" which revokes any blessing from
the found files. This -find run will not stop when the first match is reached.
@*
E.g.: -find / -has_hfs_bless any -exec set_hfs_bless none
@*
@item get_hfs_bless
prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path, if the file is blessed
at all.
@*
E.g.: -exec get_hfs_bless
@*
@item set_filter
applies or removes filters.
@*
E.g.: -exec set_filter @minus{}@minus{}zisofs @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item mkisofs_r
applies the rules of mkisofs -r to the file object:
@*
user id and group id become 0, all r-permissions get granted, all w denied.
If there is any x-permission, then all three x get granted.
s- and t-bits get removed.
@*
@item sort_weight
attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
@*
The number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. The higher it is, the
lower will be the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image.
Currently the boot catalog has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion.
Normally it should occupy the block with the lowest possible address.
@*
Data files which are loaded by -indev or -dev get a weight between 1 and
2 exp 28 = 268,435,456, depending on their block address. This shall keep
them roughly in the same order if the write method of modifying is applied.
@*
Data files which are added by other commands get an initial weight of 0.
Boot image files have a default weight of 2.
@*
E.g.: -exec sort_weight 3 @minus{}@minus{}
@*
@item show_stream
shows the content stream chain of a data file.
@item show_stream_id
is like show_stream, but also prints between stream type and first ":"
in square brackets libisofs id numbers: [fs_id,dev_id,ino_id].
@*
@item hide
brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr", "joliet",
"hfsplus", "off". They may be combined. E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
@*
E.g.:
@*
-find / -disk_name *_secret -exec hide on
@*
@item print_outname
prints in the first line the filename as registered by the program model,
and in the second line the filename after conversion forth and back between
local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge", "joliet", "ecma119",
or "hfsplus". The third output line is "--" .
@*
The name conversion does not take into respect the possibility of name
collisions in the target namespace. Such collisions are most likely in "joliet"
and "ecma119", where they get resolved by automatic file name changes.
@*
E.g.:
@*
-find / -bad_outname joliet -exec print_outname joliet
@*
@item estimate_size
prints a lower and an upper estimation of the number of blocks which the
found files together will occupy in the emerging ISO image.
This does not account for the superblock,
for the directories in the -find path, or for image padding.
@*
@item find
performs another run of -find on the matching file address.
It accepts the same params as -find, except iso_rr_path.
@*
E.g.:
@*
-find / -name '???' -type d -exec find -name '[abc]*' -exec chmod a-w,a+r @minus{}@minus{}
@end table
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Filters for data file content:
@c man .PP
@node Filter, Writing, CmdFind, Commands
@section Filters for data file content
@cindex Filter, _definition
@strong{Filters} may be installed between data files in the ISO image and their
content source outside the image. They may also be used vice versa between
data content in the image and target files on disk.
@*
@sp 1
Built-in filters are "@minus{}@minus{}zisofs" and
"@minus{}@minus{}zisofs-decode". The former is to be
applied via -set_filter, the latter is automatically applied if zisofs
compressed content is detected with a file when loading the ISO image.
@*
Another built-in filter pair is "@minus{}@minus{}gzip"
and "@minus{}@minus{}gunzip" with suffix ".gz".
They behave about like external gzip and gunzip but avoid forking a process
for each single file. So they are much faster if there are many small files.
@c man .PP
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -external_filter name option[:option] program_path [arguments] @minus{}@minus{}
@kindex -external_filter registers data filter
@cindex Filter, register, -external_filter
Register a content filter by associating a name with a program path,
program arguments, and some behavioral options. Once registered it can be
applied to multiple data files in the ISO image, regardless whether their
content resides in the loaded ISO image or in the local filesystem.
External filter processes may produce synthetic file content by reading the
original content from stdin and writing to stdout whatever they want.
They must deliver the same output on the same input in repeated runs.
@*
Options are:
@*
"default" means that no other option is intended.
@*
"suffix=..." sets a file name suffix. If it is not empty then it will be
appended to the file name or removed from it.
@*
"remove_suffix" will remove a file name suffix
rather than appending it.
@*
"if_nonempty" will leave 0-sized files unfiltered.
@*
"if_reduction" will try filtering and revoke it if the content size does not
shrink.
@*
"if_block_reduction" will revoke if the number of 2 kB blocks does not shrink.
@*
"used=..." is ignored. Command -status shows it with the number of
files which currently have the filter applied.
@*
Examples:
@*
-external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \
@*
/usr/bin/bzip2 @minus{}@minus{}
@*
-external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \
@*
/usr/bin/bunzip2 @minus{}@minus{}
@c man .TP
@item -unregister_filter name
@kindex -external_filter unregisters data filter
@cindex Filter, unregister, -unregister_filter
Remove an -external_filter registration. This is only possible if the filter
is not applied to any file in the ISO image.
@c man .TP
@item -close_filter_list
@kindex -close_filter_list bans filter registration
@cindex Filter, ban registration, -close_filter_list
Irrevocably ban commands -concat "pipe", -external_filter,
and -unregister_filter, but not -set_filter. Use this to prevent external
filtering in general or when all intended filters are registered and -concat
mode "pipe" shall be disallowed.
External filters may also be banned totally at compile time of
@command{xorriso}.
By default they are banned if @command{xorriso} runs under setuid permission.
@c man .TP
@item -set_filter name iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -set_filter applies filter to file
@cindex Filter, apply to file, -set_filter
Apply an -external_filter or a built-in filter to the given data files in the
ISO image.
If the filter suffix is not empty , then it will be applied to the file name.
Renaming only happens if the filter really gets attached and is not revoked by
its options.
By default files which already bear the suffix will not get filtered. The
others will get the suffix appended to their names.
If the filter has option "remove_suffix", then the filter will only be
applied if the suffix is present and can be removed.
Name oversize or collision caused by suffix change will prevent filtering.
@*
With most filter types this command will immediately run the filter once for
each file in order to determine the output size.
Content reading operations like -extract , -compare and image generation will
perform further filter runs and deliver filtered content.
@*
At image generation time the filter output must still be the same as the
output from the first run. Filtering for image generation does not happen
with files from the loaded ISO image if the write method of growing is in
effect (i.e -indev and -outdev are identical).
@*
The reserved filter name "@minus{}@minus{}remove-all-filters" revokes
filtering. This will revoke suffix renamings as well.
Use "@minus{}@minus{}remove-all-filters+" to
prevent any suffix renaming.
@*
Attaching or detaching filters will not alter the state of -changes_pending.
If the filter manipulations shall be the only changes in a write run, then
explicitely execute -changes_pending "yes".
@c man .TP
@item -set_filter_r name iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -set_filter_r applies filter to file tree
@cindex Filter, apply to file tree, -set_filter_r
Like -set_filter but affecting all data files below eventual directories.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Writing the result, drive control:
@node Writing, SetWrite, Filter, Commands
@section Writing the result, drive control
@c man .PP
(see also paragraph about settings below)
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -rollback
@kindex -rollback discards pending changes
@cindex Image, discard pending changes, -rollback
Discard the manipulated ISO image and reload it from -indev.
(Use -rollback_end if immediate program end is desired.)
@c man .TP
@item -changes_pending "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
@kindex -changes_pending overrides change status
@cindex Image, override change status, -changes_pending
Write runs are performed only if a change of the image has been made
since the image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the program will
start a write run for pending changes when it ends normally (i.e. not by abort
and not by command -rollback_end).
@*
The command -changes_pending can be used to override the automatically
determined state. This is mainly useful for setting state "yes" despite
no real changes were made. The sequence -changes_pending "no" -end
is equivalent to the command -rollback_end. State "mkisofs_printed"
is caused by emulation command -as mkisofs if option -print-size is present.
@*
The pseudo-state "show_status" can be used to print the current state to result
channel.
@*
Image loading or manipulations which happen after this command will again
update automatically the change status of the image.
@c man .TP
@item -commit
@kindex -commit writes pending ISO image
@cindex Write, pending ISO image, -commit
Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if -outdev is readable, make it
the new -dev and load the image from there.
Switch to growing mode.
(A subsequent -outdev will activate modification mode or blind growing.)
-commit is performed automatically at end of program if there
are uncommitted manipulations pending.
@*
So, to perform a final write operation with no new -dev
and no new loading of image, rather execute command -end.
If you want to go on without image loading, execute -commit_eject "none".
To eject after write without image loading, use -commit_eject "all".
@*
To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.
@*
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few
minutes after all data have been transmitted.
@command{xorriso} and the drives are in a client-server relationship.
The drives have much freedom about what to do with the media.
Some combinations of drives and media simply do not work,
despite the promises by their vendors.
If writing fails then try other media or another drive. The reason
for such failure is hardly ever in the code of the various
burn programs but you may well try some of those listed below
under SEE ALSO.
@c man .TP
@item -eject "in"|"out"|"all"
@kindex -eject ejects drive tray
@cindex Drive, eject tray, -eject
Eject the medium in -indev, -outdev, or both drives, respectively.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
@c man .TP
@item -commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
@kindex -commit_eject writes and ejects
@cindex Drive, write and eject, -commit_eject
Combined -commit and -eject. When writing has finished do not make
-outdev the new -dev, and load no ISO image. Rather eject
-indev and/or -outdev. Give up any non-ejected drive.
@c man .TP
@item -blank mode
@kindex -blank erases media
@cindex Media, erase, -blank
Make media ready for writing from scratch (if not -dummy is activated).
@*
This affects only the -outdev not the -indev.
If both drives are the same and if the ISO image was altered
then this command leads to a FAILURE event.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
@*
"as_needed" cares for used CD-RW, DVD-RW and for used overwriteable media
by applying -blank "fast". It applies -format "full" to yet unformatted
DVD-RAM and BD-RE. Other media in blank state are gracefully ignored.
Media which cannot be made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE
event.
@*
"fast" makes CD-RW and unformatted DVD-RW re-usable, or invalidates
overwriteable ISO images. "all" might work more thoroughly and need more time.
@*
"deformat" converts overwriteable DVD-RW into unformatted ones.
@*
"deformat_quickest" is a faster way to deformat or blank DVD-RW
but produces media which are only suitable for a single session.
Some drives announce this state by not offering feature 21h,
but some drives offer it anyway.
If feature 21h is missing, then @command{xorriso}
will refuse to write on DVD-RW if not command -close is set to "on".
@*
The progress reports issued by some drives while blanking are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Blanking was successful if no SORRY event or
worse occured.
@*
Mode may be prepended by "force:" in order to override the evaluation
of the medium state by libburn. E.g. "force:fast".
Blanking will nevertheless only succeed if the drive is willing to do it.
@*
@c man .TP
@item -format mode
@kindex -format formats media
@cindex Media, format, -format
Convert unformatted DVD-RW into overwriteable ones, "de-ice" DVD+RW, format
newly purchased BD-RE or BD-R, re-format DVD-RAM or BD-RE.
@*
Defined modes are:
@*
as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>,
by_size_<num>, fast_by_size_<num>, without_spare
@*
"as_needed" formats yet unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or blank
unformatted BD-R. Other media are left untouched.
@*
"full" (re-)formats DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or blank unformatted BD-R.
@*
"fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
@*
"by_index_" selects a format out of the descriptor list issued by command
-list_formats. The index number from that list is to be appended to the
mode word. E.g: "by_index_3".
@*
"fast_by_index_" does the same as "by_index_" but tries to be quicker.
@*
"by_size_" selects a format out of the descriptor list which provides at
least the given size. That size is to be appended to the mode word.
E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with Defect Management.
On BD-RE it will not choose format 0x31, which offers no Defect Management.
@*
"fast_by_size_" does the same as "by_size_" but tries to be quicker.
@*
"without_spare" selects the largest format out of the descriptor list
which provides no Spare Area for Defect Management. On BD-RE this
will be format 0x31.
@*
The formatting action has no effect on media if -dummy is activated.
@*
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium,
if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
@*
DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
@*
DVD+RW has read failures (re-format before next write),
@*
DVD-RAM or BD-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
@*
BD-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first use.
Formatting activates Defect Management which tries to catch and repair
bad spots on media during the write process at the expense of half speed
even with flawless media.
@*
The progress reports issued by some drives while formatting are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Formatting was successful if no SORRY event
or worse occured. Be patient with apparently frozen progress.
@c man .TP
@item -list_formats
@kindex -list_formats lists available formats
@cindex Media, list formats, -list_formats
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for
the current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s")
and the same size in MiB.
@*
MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are:
"00h" general formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD-RAM,
"26h" for DVD+RW, "30h" for BD-RE with reserve space,
"31h" for BD-RE without reserve space, "32h" for BD-R.
@*
Smaller format size with DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or BD-R means more reserve space.
@c man .TP
@item -list_speeds
@kindex -list_speeds lists available write speeds
@cindex Media, list write speeds, -list_speeds
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the drives with the loaded
media. The list tells read speeds of the input drive and of the output
drive. Further it tells write speeds of the output drive.
@*
The list of write speeds does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
@*
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired
speed as possible.
@*
At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"
are the best guesses for lower and upper write speed limit.
"Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may appear only with CD
and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
@*
Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear
"Write speed 0", which tells the outcome of speed selection by command
-speed 0, if it deviates from "Write speed H".
@*
"Read speed L" and "Read speed H" tell the minimum and maximum read speeds,
as reported by the drive. They would be chosen by -read_speed "min" or
"max" if they undercut or surpass the built-in limits. These are "1x",
"52xCD", "24xDVD", "20xBD".
@c man .TP
@item -close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
@kindex -close_damaged closes damaged track and session
@cindex Damaged track and session, close, -close_damaged
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the medium
as damaged. This may apply to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL,
or BD-R media. It is indicated by warning messages when the drive gets
acquired, and by a remark "but next track is damaged" with the line
"Media status :" of command -toc.
@*
The setting of command -close determines whether the medium stays appendable.
@*
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not reported as
damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation even with media which
appear undamaged.
@*
No image changes are allowed to be pending before this command is performed.
After closing was attempted, both drives are given up.
@c man .TP
@item -list_profiles "in"|"out"|"all"
@kindex -list_profiles lists supported media
@cindex Drive, list supported media, -list_profiles
Put out a list of media types supported by -indev, -outdev, or both,
respectively.
The currently recognized type is marked by text "(current)".
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Settings for result writing:
@node SetWrite, Bootable, Writing, Commands
@section Settings for result writing
@c man .PP
Rock Ridge info will be generated by default.
ACLs will be written according to the setting of command -acl.
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -joliet "on"|"off"
@kindex -joliet enables production of Joliet tree
@cindex Write, enable Joliet, -joliet
If enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge
tree.
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -hfsplus "on"|"off"
@kindex -hfsplus enables production of HFS+ partition
@cindex Write, enable HFS+, -hfsplus
If enabled by "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image
and mark it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area,
the first 32 KiB of the image.
@*
This may collide with data submitted by -boot_image system_area=.
The first 8 bytes of the System Area get overwritten by
@{ 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff @}
which can be executed as x86 machine code without negative effects.
So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 bytes
should contain no essential commands.
@*
The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by APM entries.
The first one covers the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem
metadata. The second one marks the range from HFS+ metadata to the end
of file content data. If more ISO image data follow, then a third partition
entry gets produced. Other features of xorriso might cause the need for
more APM entries.
@*
The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add-on sessions produced by the
multi-session method of growing. An existing ISO image may nevertheless
be the base for a new image produced by the method of modifying.
If -hfsplus is enabled when -indev or -dev gets executed, then AAIP
attributes get loaded from the input image and checked for information about
HFS creator, filetype, or blessing. If found, then they get enabled as
settings for the next image production.
Therefore it is advisable to perform -hfsplus "on" before -indev or -dev.
@*
Information about HFS creator, type, and blessings gets stored by xorriso
if -hfsplus is enabled at -commit time. It is stored as copy outside the
HFS+ partition, but rather along with the Rock Ridge information.
xorriso does not read any information from the HFS+ meta data.
@*
Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although it can record file names
with upper-case and lower-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr
name tree may collide in the HFS+ name tree. In this case they get changed
by adding underscore characters and counting numbers. In case of very long
names, it might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -rockridge "on"|"off"
@kindex -rockridge disables production of Rock Ridge info
@cindex Write, disable Rock Ridge, -rockridge
Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the ISO 9660 file
objects. The multi-session capabilities of xorriso depend much on the naming
fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is strongly discouraged to deviate from
default setting "on".
@c man .TP
@item -compliance rule[:rule...]
@kindex -compliance controls standard compliance
@cindex Write, compliance to specs, -compliance
Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA-119 and its
contemporary extensions. In some
cases it is worth to deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs of the intended
reader system or to get unofficial extra features.
@*
There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If they
are mentioned with this command then their rule gets added to the relaxation
list. This list can be erased by rules "strict" or "clear". It can be reset
to its start setting by "default". All of the following relaxation rules
can be revoked individually by appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
@*
Rule keywords are:
@*
"iso_9660_level="number chooses level 1 with ECMA-119 names of the form 8.3
and -file_size_limit <= 4g - 1, or level 2 with ECMA-119 names up to
length 32 and the same -file_size_limit, or level 3 with ECMA-119 names up to
length 32 and -file_size_limit >= 400g -200k. If necessary -file_size_limit
gets adjusted.
@*
"allow_dir_id_ext" allows ECMA-119 names of directories to have a name extension
as with other file types. It does not force dots and it omits the version
number, though. This is a bad tradition of mkisofs which violates ECMA-119.
Especially ISO level 1 only allows 8 characters in a directory name and
not 8.3.
@*
"omit_version" does not add versions (";1") to ECMA-119 and Joliet file names.
@*
"only_iso_version" does not add versions (";1") to Joliet file names.
@*
"deep_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
@*
"long_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths longer than 255 characters.
@*
"long_names" allows up to 37 characters with ECMA-119 file names.
@*
"no_force_dots" does not add a dot to ECMA-119 file names which have none.
@*
"no_j_force_dots" does not add a dot to Joliet file names which have none.
@*
"lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA-119 file names.
@*
"7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7-bit characters in ECMA-119 file names.
Not allowed are 0x0 and '/'. If not "lowercase" is enabled, then lowercase
letters get converted to uppercase.
@*
"full_ascii" allows all 8-bit characters except 0x0 and '/'
in ECMA-119 file names.
@*
"untranslated_names" might be dangerous for inadverted reader programs
which rely on the restriction to at most 37 characters in ECMA-119 file names.
This rule allows ECMA-119 file names up to 96 characters with no character
conversion. If a file name has more characters, then image production will
fail deliberately.
@*
"untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a smaller limit
for the length of file names. 0 disables this feature, -1 chooses maximum
length limit, numbers larger than 0 give the desired length limit.
@*
"joliet_long_names" allows Joliet leaf names up to 103 characters rather
than 64.
@*
"joliet_long_paths" allows Joliet paths longer than 240 characters.
@*
@cindex UTF-16, for Joliet paths, -compliance
"joliet_utf16" encodes Joliet names in UTF-16BE rather than UCS-2.
The difference is with characters which are not present
in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2 words of 16 bit each.
Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS-2.
@*
"always_gmt" stores timestamps in GMT representation with timezone 0.
@*
"rec_mtime" records with non-RockRidge directory entries the disk file's
mtime and not the creation time of the image. This applies to the ECMA-119
tree (plain ISO 9660), to Joliet, and to ISO 9660:1999. "rec_time" is
default. If disabled, it gets automatically re-enabled by -as mkisofs emulation
when a pathspec is encountered.
@*
"new_rr" uses Rock Ridge version 1.12 (suitable for GNU/Linux but not for older
FreeBSD or for Solaris). This implies "aaip_susp_1_10_off" which may be changed
by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10".
@*
Default is "old_rr" which uses Rock Ridge version 1.10. This implies also
"aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10_off".
@*
"aaip_susp_1_10" allows AAIP to be written as unofficial extension of RRIP
rather than as official extension under SUSP-1.12.
@*
"no_emul_toc" saves 64 kB with the first session on overwriteable media
but makes the image incapable of displaying its session history.
@*
"iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory tree
compliant to ISO 9660:1999. It can record long filenames for readers which
do not understand Rock Ridge.
@*
"old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the range
of [0,31] to files with no own data content. The new way is to have
a dedicated block to which all such files will point.
@*
Default setting is
@*
"clear:only_iso_version:deep_paths:long_paths:no_j_force_dots:
@*
always_gmt:old_rr".
@*
Note: The term "ECMA-119 name" means the plain ISO 9660 names and attributes
which get visible if the reader ignores Rock Ridge.
@c man .TP
@item -rr_reloc_dir name
@kindex -rr_reloc_dir sets name of relocation directory
@cindex Relocation directory, set name, -rr_reloc_dir
Specify the name of the relocation directory in which deep directory subtrees
shall be placed if -compliance is set to "deep_paths_off" or "long_paths_off".
A deep directory is one that has a chain of 8 parent directories (including
root) above itself, or one that contains a file with an ECMA-119 path of more
than 255 characters.
@*
The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interpreted
as Rock Ridge tree. It will appear as re-arranged if only ECMA-119
information is considered.
@*
The default relocation directory is the root directory. By giving a non-empty
name with -rr_reloc_dir, a directory in the root directory may get this role.
If that directory does not already exist at -commit time, then it will get
created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefact. At least on
GNU/Linux it will not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
@*
The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer than
255 bytes.
@c man .TP
@item -volid text
@kindex -volid sets volume id
@cindex Image, set volume id, -volid
Specify the volume ID, which most operating systems will consider to be
the volume name of the image or medium.
@*
@command{xorriso} accepts any text up to 32 characters,
but according to rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
@*
ECMA-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like:
@*
"IMAGE_23"
@*
Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like:
@*
"Windows name"
@*
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as the name of the
mount point when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.
@*
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default "ISOIMAGE"
or to "", then the volume ID of the loaded image will become the effective
volume id for the next write run. But as soon as command -volid is performed
afterwards, this pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
@*
Consider this when setting -volid "ISOIMAGE" before executing -dev, -indev,
or -rollback.
If you insist in -volid "ISOIMAGE", set it again after those commands.
@c man .TP
@item -volset_id text
@kindex -volset_id sets volume set id
@cindex Image, set volume set id, -volset_id
Set the volume set ID string to be written with the next -commit.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -publisher text
@kindex -publisher sets publisher id
@cindex Image, set publisher id, -publisher
Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may
identify the person or organisation who specified what shall be recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -application_id text
@kindex -application_id sets application id
@cindex Image, set application id, -application_id
Set the application ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may
identify the specification of how the data are recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@*
The special text "@@xorriso@@" gets converted to the ID string of
@command{xorriso}
which is normally written as -preparer_id. It is a wrong tradition to write
the program ID as -application_id.
@c man .TP
@item -system_id text
@kindex -system_id sets system id
@cindex Image, set system id, -system_id
Set the system ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may
identify the system which can recognize and act upon the content of the
System Area in image blocks 0 to 15.
Permissible are up to 32 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -volume_date type timestring
@kindex -volume_date sets volume timestamp
@cindex Image, set volume timestamp, -volume_date
Set one of the four overall timestamps for subsequent image writing.
Available types are:
@*
"c" time when the volume was created.
@*
"m" time when volume was last modified.
@*
"x" time when the information in the volume expires.
@*
"f" time since when the volume is effectively valid.
@*
"uuid" sets a timestring that overrides "c" and "m" times literally.
It must consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with
YYYY between 1970 and 2999. Time zone is GMT.
It is supposed to match this GRUB line:
@*
search @minus{}@minus{}fs-uuid @minus{}@minus{}set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
@*
E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
@*
Timestrings for the other types may be given as with command -alter_date.
Some of them are prone to timezone computations. The timestrings "default" or
"overridden" cause default settings: "c" and "m" will show the current time
of image creation. "x" and "f" will be marked as insignificant.
"uuid" will be deactivated.
@c man .TP
@item -copyright_file text
@kindex -copyright_file sets copyright file name
@cindex Image, set copyright file name, -copyright_file
Set the copyright file name to be written with the next -commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains a copyright
statement.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -abstract_file text
@kindex -abstract_file sets abstract file name
@cindex Image, set abstract file name, -abstract_file
Set the abstract file name to be written with the next -commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains an abstract
statement about the image content.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -biblio_file text
@kindex -biblio_file sets biblio file name
@cindex Image, set biblio file name, -biblio_file
Set the biblio file name to be written with the next -commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains bibliographic
records.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
@c man .TP
@item -preparer_id
@kindex -preparer_id sets preparer id
@cindex Image, set preparer id, -preparer_id