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\input texinfo @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@settitle GNU xorrecord 1.3.9
@c %**end of header
@c man-ignore-lines begin
@dircategory Archiving
* Xorrecord: (xorrecord). Emulates CD/DVD/BD program cdrecord
@end direntry
@c man-ignore-lines end
@c Notes about embedded man page:
@c This texinfo code contains the necessary info to produce a man page
@c which resembles much the version of xorriso.1 from which this code
@c was originally derived in march 2010.
@c One can produce the man page by applying the following rules:
@c The first line gets discarded.
@c Line start "@c man " will become "", the remainder is put out unaltered.
@c Lines "@*" will be converted to ".br"
@c "@c man-ignore-lines N" will discard N following lines.
@c "@c man-ignore-lines begin" discards all following lines
@c up to "@c man-ignore-lines end".
@c Line blocks of "@menu" "@end menu" will be discarded.
@c "@item word words" becomes "\fBword\fR words".
@c @b{...}, @command{...}, @dfn{...}, @emph{...}, @strong{...}
@c get mapped to \fB...\fR .
@c @abbr{...}, @code{...}, @file{...}, @i{...}, @option{...}, @r{...},
@c @ref{...}, @samp{...},@var{...}, get mapped to ... .
@c @ref{...}, @xref{...} get mapped to empty text.
@c @email{...} gets mapped to <...> .
@c Mapped {...} content is subject to the rules except {...} mapping.
@c @minus{} will become "-".
@c @@ , @{, @} will get stripped of their first @.
@c Other lines which begin by "@" will be discarded.
@c In lines not stemming from "@c man", "\" becomes "\\"
@c "-" which are not preceded by an uneven number of "\" will get
@c prepended one "\".
@c man .\" Hey, EMACS: -*- nroff -*-
@c man .\"
@c man .\" IMPORTANT NOTE:
@c man .\"
@c man .\" The original of this file is kept in xorriso/xorrecord.texi
@c man .\" This here was generated by program xorriso/make_xorriso_1
@c man .\"
@c man .\"
@c man .\" First parameter, NAME, should be all caps
@c man .\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
@c man .\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
@c man .TH XORRECORD 1 "Version 1.3.9, Jun 28, 2014"
@c man .\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
@c man .\"
@c man .\" Some roff macros, for reference:
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@c man .\" for manpage-specific macros, see man(7)
@c man .nh
@c man-ignore-lines begin
xorrecord - Emulation of CD/DVD/BD program cdrecord by program xorriso
Copyright @copyright{} 2011 - 2014 Thomas Schmitt
Permission is granted to distrubute this text freely.
@end quotation
@end copying
@c man-ignore-lines end
@title Manual of GNU xorriso personality xorrecord 1.3.9
@author Thomas Schmitt
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@end titlepage
@node Top
@top xorrecord 1.3.9
@c man-ignore-lines 1
@c man .SH NAME
xorrecord - Emulation of CD/DVD/BD program cdrecord by program xorriso
@end ifnottex
* Overview:: Overview
* Standards:: MMC, Session, Track, Media types
* Drive:: Drive preparation and addressing
* Xorriso:: Relation to program xorriso
* Options:: Options
* Examples:: Examples
* Files:: Files
* Seealso:: See also
* Bugreport:: Reporting bugs
* Legal:: Author, Copyright, Credits
* CommandIdx:: Alphabetic Command List
* ConceptIdx:: Alphabetic List of Concepts and Objects
@end menu
@node Overview, Standards, Top, Top
@chapter Overview
@c man .B xorrecord
@c man [ options ] dev=device [track_source]
@c man .br
@c man .PP
writes preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD media.
@sp 1
@c man .PP
It understands some options of program cdrecord from cdrtools by
Joerg Schilling.
Its implementation is part of program xorriso which shares no source
code with cdrtools, but rather makes use of libburn for communicating
with the drive.
@sp 1
Another, more complete cdrecord emulator is program @strong{cdrskin}
which uses the same burn functions as @strong{xorrecord}, but is able
to burn audio CDs and to handle CD-TEXT.
@c man .SS
@node Standards, Drive, Overview, Top
@chapter MMC, Session, Track, Media types
@c man \fBMMC, Session, Track, Media types:\fR
@c man .br
@cindex MMC, _definiton
is a standard out of the SCSI family which defines the interaction between
computers and optical drives. Since more than a decade all CD, DVD, or BD
recorders obey this standard regardless by what bus cabling they are
attached to the computer. libburn relies on this standard compliance and
on the capability of the operating system to perform SCSI transactions
over the particular bus cabling.
@cindex Session, _definiton
A @strong{Session} is a data region on an optical disc which usually
gets written in a single sweep. It contains at least one
@cindex Track, _definiton
@strong{Track} which is a contiguous string of readable blocks.
@command{xorrecord} produces a single session with a single data track
which consists of blocks with 2048 bytes each. It chooses the write mode
automatically according to media type, medium state, and option -multi.
On CD media there are other track types, like audio, and particular write
modes like TAO and SAO. CD and DVD- media can put more than one track into
a session. Some of these features can be addressed by program @strong{cdrskin}.
@sp 1
@cindex Media types, _definiton
MMC describes several recordable @strong{media types} which roughly form two
@cindex Sequentially recordable media, _definiton
@strong{Sequentially recordable media}
Except DVD-R DL they can store more than one session if there is still
unwritten space and if the previous session was written with option
@strong{-multi}. CD-RW and DVD-RW can be blanked in order to be re-usable
from scratch.
@cindex Overwritable media, _definiton
@strong{Overwritable media} are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, formatted DVD-RW, BD-RE.
They offer a single session with a single track for random access writing.
There is no need to blank overwritable media before re-use.
DVD-RW media are sold in sequentially recordable state but can be
formatted once to become overwritable. See options
@strong{blank=format_overwrite} and @strong{blank=deformat}.
If ISO 9660 filesystems are to be stored on overwritable media, then it
is possible to emulate multiple sessions, by using option
@strong{--grow_overwriteable_iso}. In this case, the need for
blanking before re-use is emulated too.
@c man .SS
@sp 1
@c man .B Drive preparation and addressing:
@node Drive, Xorriso, Standards, Top
@chapter Drive preparation and addressing
@c man .PP
The drives, CD, DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via file addresses which
are specific to libburn and the operating system. Those addresses get listed
by a run of @command{xorrecord --devices} or @command{xorriso -device_links}.
On GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, and NetBSD, the user needs rw-permission for the
device file.
On Solaris, the user needs r-permission and privilege "sys_devices",
which is usually gained by running @command{xorrecord} via command pfexec.
These permissions resp. privileges are needed already for listing a drive.
So it might be necessary to get the overview as superuser resp. via pfexec.
@command{xorrecord} does not perform cdrecord option -scanbus and does
not accept the addresses of form Bus,Target,Lun which are told by -scanbus.
If support for these addresses is necessary, consider to use program cdrskin.
@sp 1
It is possible to let @command{xorrecord} work on emulated drives.
Their addresses begin by prefix "stdio:" followed by a file address.
The emulated media behavior depends on the file type.
See man xorriso for details.
If standard output is chosen as emulated drive, then all program result
texts, which usually appear on standard output, will get redirected to
standard error.
@c man .SS
@node Xorriso, Options, Drive, Top
@chapter Relation to program xorriso
@c man \fBRelation to program xorriso:\fR
@c man .br
@cindex xorriso, mkisofs emulation
@command{xorrecord} is actually a command mode of program @strong{xorriso},
which gets entered either by xorriso command "-as cdrecord" or by
starting the program by one of the names "xorrecord", "cdrecord",
"wodim", or "cdrskin".
This command mode can be left by argument "@minus{}@minus{}" which leads
to generic xorriso command mode. See @strong{man xorriso} for its description.
Other than in xorriso command mode, the sequence of the cdrecord emulation
options does not matter.
All pending actions get performed in a fixed sequence before the program
run ends resp. before cdrecord emulation ends.
@c man .SS
@node Options, Examples, Xorriso, Top
@chapter Options
@cindex xorriso, options
@c man .br
@c man .SH OPTIONS
@c man .br
* DriveAddr:: Drive addressing
* Inquire:: Inquiring drive and media
* SetBurn:: Settings for the burn run
* Verbous:: Program version and verbosity
* NonCdrecord:: Options not compatible to cdrecord
@end menu
@c man .PP
@c man .TP
@c man .B Addressing the drive:
@node DriveAddr, Inquire, Options, Options
@section Addressing the drive
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item @minus{}@minus{}devices
@kindex @minus{}@minus{}devices get list of drives
@cindex Drive, get list of, @minus{}@minus{}devices
Print the list of accessible CD, DVD, or BD drives to standard output.
Drives might be inaccessible if the user lacks of permissions to use them
or if the drive is in use by another program.
Each accessible drive is shown by a line like:
0 -dev '/dev/sr0' rwrw-- : 'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S203B'
The libburn address of this drive is '/dev/sr0'. 'TSSTcorp' is the
name of the vendor (in this case: Toshiba Samsung Storage Technologies
Corporation), 'CDDVDW SH-S203B' is the model name (in this case: a DVD burner).
Afterwards end emulation without performing any further drive operation.
@c man .TP
@item dev=drive_address
@kindex dev= address the drive to be used
@cindex Drive, address, dev=
Set the libburn address of the drive to be used.
E.g. on GNU/Linux: dev=/dev/sr0
E.g. on FreeBSD: dev=/dev/cd0
E.g. on NetBSD: dev=/dev/rcd0d
E.g. on Solaris: dev=/dev/rdsk/c2t2d0s2
See also above "Drive preparation and addressing".
The medium in the drive should not be mounted or be otherwise in use.
This option will only get into effect if a track source, a blank= option,
or a drive inquiry option is given. Else it will lead to a SORRY event
and normally cause a non-zero exit value.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Inquiring drive and media:
@node Inquire, SetBurn, DriveAddr, Options
@section Inquiring drive and media
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -inq
@kindex -inq inquire drive identifiers
@cindex Drive, inquire identifiers, -inq
Print to standard output: vendor, model name, and firmware revision
of the drive.
@c man .TP
@item -checkdrive
@kindex -checkdrive inquire drive CD capabilities
@cindex Drive, inquire CD capabilities, -checkdrive
Print unconditionally that the drive supports burnfree, SAO, and TAO.
Also print the output of option -inq.
@c man .TP
@item -atip
@kindex -atip inquire medium state
@cindex medium state, inquire, -atip
Print the output of -checkdrive, the most capable profile of the medium
in the drive, the list of profiles which are supported by the drive,
whether it is erasable (i.e. can be blanked), the media manufacturer, and
the medium product name.
Profiles are usage models, which are often tied to a particular media type
(e.g. CD-RW), but may also apply to a family of media. E.g. profile CD-ROM
applies to all CD media which contain data.
@c man .TP
@item -toc
@kindex -toc inquire medium content
@cindex medium content, inquire, -toc
Print a table of content of the medium in the drive. The output is not
compatible to
cdrecord option -toc, but rather the one of @command{xorriso} command -toc.
It lists the address, vendor, model name, and firmware revision of the drive.
About the medium it tells product name and manufacturer, whether there
is already content written, and if so, whether the medium is closed or
appendable. Appendable media can take another session.
The amount of readable and writable data is told.
If there are sessions, then their start block address and size is reported.
If a session contains an ISO 9660 filesystem, then its Volume Id is reported.
If the medium is writable, then the next writable block address is reported.
If not option @strong{--grow_overwriteable_iso} is given or no ISO 9660
file system is present on the medium, then overwritable media are reported
as being blank. This is due to the fact that they can be written from
scratch without further preparation, and that MMC does not distinguish
between data written by the most previous burn run and older data
which have not been overwritten by that burn run.
Consequently, these media are reported with 0 readable blocks, although
all their writable blocks normally are readable, too.
@c man .TP
@item -msinfo
@kindex -msinfo retrieve multi-session info
@cindex multi-session info, retrieve, -msinfo
Print the argument text for option -C of programs mkisofs, genisoimage,
or xorrisofs. It consists of two numbers separated by a comma.
The first number tells the first block of the first track of the last recorded
session. This is also the address used by default when operating systems
mount a medium with e.g. ISO 9660 filesystem.
The second number tells the next writable address, where @command{xorrecord}
will begin to write the next session.
This option is only valid for written, appendable media. In all other
cases it will yield no output text but will abort the program
with non-zero exit value.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Settings for the burn run:
@node SetBurn, Verbous, Inquire, Options
@section Settings for the burn run
@table @asis
@c man .PP
A burn run requires exactly one track source address argument, which
tells from where to read the data wich shall be put into the upcomming
session. The medium state must be either blank or appendable.
Track source may be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable
file of any type except directories. Nearly all media types accept a track
source with unpredictable byte count, like standard input or named pipes.
Nevertheless, DVD-R DL and DVD-RW blanked by mode deformat_quickest
demand exact in-advance reservation of the track size, so that they either
need to be read from a source of
predictable length, or need to be accompanied by option @strong{tsize=} or
by option @strong{-isosize}.
Several options expect a size value as argument. A number with a trailing
letter "b" or without a trailing letter is a plain byte count. Other trailing
letters cause multiplication of the given number by a scaling factor:
"k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
E.g. tsize=234567s means a size of 234567 * 2048 = 480393216 bytes.
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item blank=mode
@kindex blank= make media re-usabable or format media
@cindex Media, blank, blank=
@cindex Media, make re-usable, blank=
@cindex Media, format, blank=
Blank a CD-RW or DVD-RW to make it re-usable from scratch.
Format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD-R, or BD-RE if not yet formatted.
This operation normally makes any recorded data on the medium unreadable.
It is combinable with burning in the same run of @command{xorrecord},
or it may be performed without a track source, leaving the medium empty.
The mode given with blank= selects the particular behavior:
@c man .RS
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If it needs formatting,
then format it. If it is not blank, then try to apply blank=fast.
It is a reason to abort if the medium cannot assume thoroughly writeable
state, e.g. if it is a non-blank write-once.
This leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format DVD-RW use
blank=format_overwrite. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
(Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Blank an entire CD-RW or an unformatted DVD-RW.
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Minimally blank an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Like blank=all but with the additional ability to blank overwriteable DVD-RW.
This will destroy their formatting and make them sequentially recordable.
(Note: blank=deformat is not an original cdrecord options)
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Like blank=deformat but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.
This is faster than full blanking but yields media incapable of
writing tracks of unpredicatable size.
Multi-session will not be possible either.
(Note: blank=deformat_quickest is not an original cdrecord option.)
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Format a DVD-RW to "Restricted Overwrite". The user should bring some patience.
Format unformatted DVD+RW, BD-RE or blank BD-R to their default size.
It is not mandatory to do this with DVD+RW and BD-RE media, because they
will get formatted automatically on the first write attempt.
BD-R media may be written in unformatted state. This keeps disabled the
replacement of bad blocks and enables full nominal write speed. Once BD-R
media are written, they cannot be formatted any more.
For re-formatting already formatted media or for formatting with
non-default size, use program @strong{xorriso} with command @strong{-format}.
(Note: blank=format_overwrite is not an original cdrecord options)
@c man .TP
@sp 1
Print a short overview of blank modes to standard error output.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
@c man .RE
@c man .TP
@item -multi
@kindex -multi keep media appendable after burn run
@cindex Media, keep appendable, -multi
This option keeps CD, unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or BD-R appendable
after the current session has been written.
Without it the disc gets closed and may not be written any more - unless it
is a -RW and gets blanked, which causes loss of its content.
This option cannot be applied to DVD-R DL or to DVD-RW which were blanked
by mode "deformat_quickest". Option --multi_if_possible
may automatically recognize and handle this situation.
In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual ISO-9660
filesystem of a follow-up
session needs to be prepared in a special way by the filesystem formatter
program. mkisofs, genisoimage, and xorrisofs expect particular info about
the situation which can be retrieved by @command{xorrecord} option -msinfo.
With overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.
So when adding a new session, this end has to be determined from the payload.
Currently only ISO-9660 filesystems can be used that way. See option
@c man .TP
@item -dummy
@kindex -dummy control write simulation
@cindex Write simulation , control, -dummy
Try to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the inserted
media. There is no warranty that this will work with a particular combination
of drive and media. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.
To avoid inadverted real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but
CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], or emulated stdio-drives.
@c man .TP
@item -waiti
@kindex -waiti access drive only after stdin delivers data
@cindex Accessing drive, wait for stdin, -waiti
Wait until input data is available at stdin or EOF occurs at stdin.
Only then begin to access any drives.
One should use this if xorrisofs is working at the end of a pipe where the
feeder process reads from the drive before it starts writing its output into
xorrisofs. Example:
xorrisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 ... | \
xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
This option works even if standard input is not the track source. If no process
is piping in, then the Enter key of your terminal will act as trigger for
@command{xorrecord}. Note that this input line will not be consumed by
cdrskin if standard input is not the track source. It will end up as shell
command, usually.
@c man .TP
@item tsize=size
@kindex tsize= set a fixed track size
@cindex Track size, set fixed, tsize=
Announce the exact size of the track source. This is necessary with
DVD-R DL media and with quickest blanked DVD-RW, if the size cannot be
determined in advance from the track source. E.g. if it is standard input
or a named pipe.
If the track source does not deliver the predicted amount of bytes, the
remainder of the track is padded with zeros. This is not considered an error.
If on the other hand the track source delivers more than the announced bytes
then the track on media gets truncated to the predicted size and xorrecord
exits with non-zero value.
@c man .TP
@item -isosize
@kindex -isosize obtain track size from ISO 9660 superblock
@cindex Track size, obtain from ISO 9660, -isosize
Try to obtain the track size from the content of the track source.
This works only if the track source bears an ISO 9660 filesystem.
Any other track source content will cause the burn run to abort.
If the track source is not a regular file or block device, then this option
will work only if the program's fifo size is at least 64k. See option fs=.
@c man .TP
@item padsize=size
@kindex padsize= add bytes to end of track
@cindex Padding, at end of track, padsize=
Add the given amount of trailing zeros to the upcomming track.
This feature can be disabled by size 0. Default is 300 kB in order to
work around a problem with GNU/Linux which often fails to read the last few
blocks of a CD track which was written in write mode TAO. TAO is used
by @command{xorrecord} if the track size cannot be predicted or if the CD
medium is not blank but appendable.
@c man .TP
@item -nopad
@kindex -nopad disable adding of bytes to end of track
@cindex Padding, disable, -nopad
The same as padsize=0.
@c man .TP
@item -pad
@kindex -pad add 15 blocks to end of track
@cindex Padding, insufficient old, -pad
The same as padsize=15s. This was once sufficient with older GNU/Linux
kernels. Meanwhile one should at least use padsize=128k, if not padsize=300k.
@c man .TP
@item -data
@kindex -data explicitely announce a data track
@cindex Data track, announce, -data
Explicitely announce that the track source shall be recorded as data track,
and not as audio track. This option has no effect with @command{xorrecord},
because there is no support for other track formats anyway.
@c man .TP
@item -tao
@kindex -tao explicitely set write type TAO
@cindex Write type, TAO, -tao
Explicitely demand that write type TAO shall be used for CD, or Incremental
for DVD-R. Normally the program will choose the write type according to the
given medium state, option -multi, and track source. Demanding it explicitely
prevents the start of a write run, if it is not appropriate to the situation.
@c man .TP
@item -sao
@kindex -sao explicitely set write type SAO/DAO
@cindex Write type, SAO/DAO, -sao
Explicitely demand that write type SAO shall be used for CD, or DAO for DVD-R.
This might prevent the write run, if it is not appropriate to the situation.
@c man .TP
@item -dao
@kindex -dao explicitely set write type SAO/DAO
@cindex Write type, SAO/DAO, -dao
Alias of -sao.
@c man .TP
@item fs=size
@kindex fs= set program fifo size
@cindex Fifo, set size, fs=
Set the size of the program fifo buffer to the given value
rather than the default of 4m.
The fifo buffers a temporary surplus of track source data in order to
provide the drive with a steady stream during times of temporary lack of track
source supply.
Other than cdrecord, xorrecord enables drive buffer underrun protection by
default and does not wait with writing until the fifo is full for a first
On very old CD drives and slow computers, this might cause aborted burn runs.
In this case, consider to use program @strong{cdrskin} for CD burning.
DVD and BD drives tolerate buffer underrun without problems.
The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can be
compensated. But a large fifo can deprive the operating system of read cache
for better filesystem performance.
@c man .TP
@item speed=value
@kindex speed= set write speed
@cindex Speed, set for writing, speed=
Set the write speed. Default is 0 = maximum speed.
Speed can be given in media type dependent x-speed numbers or as a
desired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)
or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x-speed factor can be set explicity
by appending "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD. "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
medium in the drive will decide.
Default unit is CD, 1x = 176,400 raw bytes/second.
With DVD, 1x = 1,385,000 bytes/second.
With BD, 1x = 4,495,625 bytes/second.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as a hint
for their own decision.
@c man .TP
@item -eject
@kindex -eject finally eject drive tray
@cindex Eject, the tray, -eject
@cindex Tray, eject, -eject
Eject the drive tray after alll other work is done.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Program version and verbosity:
@node Verbous, NonCdrecord, SetBurn, Options
@section Program version and verbosity
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item -version
@kindex -version report emulation and xorriso version
@cindex Version, report, -version
Print to standard output a line beginning by
"Cdrecord 2.01-Emulation Copyright"
and further lines which report the version of xorriso and its
supporting libraries. They also state the license under which the program
is provided, and disclaim any warranty, to the extent permitted by law.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
@c man .TP
@item -v
@kindex -v increase program verbosity
@cindex Verbosity, increase, -v
Increase program verbosity by one level. There are four verbosity levels
from nearly silent to debugging verbosity. The both highest levels can
be enabled by repeated -v or by -vv resp. -vvv.
@c man .TP
@item -V
@kindex -V log SCSI command transactions to stderr
@cindex Verbosity, SCSI commands, -V
@cindex SCSI commands, log, -V
Log SCSI commands and drive replies to standard error.
This might be of interest if @strong{xorrecord} and a particular drive
or medium do not cooperate as expected, or if you just want to know
how libburn interacts with the drive.
To understand this extremely verbous log, one needs to read SCSI
specs SPC, SBC, and MMC.
Please do not add such a log to a bug report on the first hand,
unless you want to point out a particular deviation
from said specs, or if you get asked for this log by a maintainer of
@command{xorrecord} who feels in charge for your bug report.
@c man .TP
@item -help
@kindex -help print sparse overview of options
@cindex Options, overview, -help
Print a sparse list of program options to standard error
and declare not to be cdrecord.
Afterwards end emulation without performing any drive operation.
@end table
@c man .TP
@c man .B Options not compatible to cdrecord:
@node NonCdrecord, ExDevices, Verbous, Options
@section Options not compatible to cdrecord
@table @asis
@sp 1
@c man .TP
@item @minus{}@minus{}no_rc
@kindex @minus{}@minus{}no_rc do not execute xorriso startup files
@cindex Startup files, do not execute, @minus{}@minus{}no_rc
Only if used as first command line argument this option
prevents reading and interpretation of startup files. See section FILES below.
@c man .TP
@item @minus{}@minus{}grow_overwriteable_iso
@kindex @minus{}@minus{}grow_overwriteable_iso emulate ISO 9660 multi-session
@cindex Multi-session, emulate ISO 9660, @minus{}@minus{}grow_overwriteable_iso
Enable emulation of multi-session writing on overwriteable media which
contain an ISO 9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned from growisofs -M
but adapted to the usage model of
xorrecord -msinfo
xorrisofs -C -M | xorrecord -waiti -multi -
for sequential media.
--grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true multi-session media.
I.e. it is possible to use the same @command{xorrecord} options with both
kinds of media
and to achieve similar results if ISO 9660 filesystem images are to be written.
This option implies option -isosize and therefore demands that the track
source is a ISO 9660 filesystem image.
With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it expands an
eventual ISO 9660 filesystem on media. It is assumed that this image's inner
size description points to the end of the valuable data.
Overwriteable media with a recognizable ISO 9660 size will be regarded as
appendable rather than as blank. I.e. options -msinfo and -toc will work.
-toc will always show a single session with its size increasing with
every added ISO 9660 image.
@c man .TP
@item @minus{}@minus{}multi_if_possible
@kindex @minus{}@minus{}multi_if_possible apply -multi if medium is suitable
@cindex Media, keep appendable, @minus{}@minus{}multi_if_possible
Apply option -multi if the medium is suitable. Not suitable are DVD-R DL
and DVD-RW, which were blanked with mode "deformat_quickest".
Not all drives correctly recognize such fast-blanked DVD-RW which need "on".
If there is well founded suspicion that a burn run failed due to
-multi, then this causes a re-try without -multi.
@c man .TP
@item stream_recording="on"|"off"|number
@kindex stream_recording= try to get full speed on DVD-RAM, BD
@cindex Full speed, on DVD-RAM and BD, stream_recording=
@cindex Defect management, control, stream_recording=
Mode "on" requests that compliance to the desired speed setting is
preferred over management of write errors. With DVD-RAM and BD this can
bring effective write speed near to the nominal write speed of the media.
But it will also disable the automatic use of replacement blocks
if write errors occur. It might as well be disliked or ignored by the drive.
If a number is given, then error management stays enabled for all byte
addresses below that number. Any number below 16s is the same as "off".
@c man .TP
@item dvd_obs="default"|"32k"|"64k"
@kindex dvd_obs= set write transaction payload size
@cindex Transaction size, set, dvd_obs=
Linux specific:
Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to DVD
or BD media. Tracks get padded up to the next multiple of this write
size. A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with bus systems which
show latency problems. The default depends on media type, option
stream_recording=, and on compile time options.
@c man .TP
@item write_start_address=value
@kindex write_start_address= set block address for write start
@cindex Write start address, set, write_start_address=
Set the block address on overwritable media where to start writing the track.
With DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD-RE, byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB blocks,
but better is 32 kiB on DVD and 64 kiB on BD.
With formatted DVD-RW 32 kiB alignment is mandatory.
Other media are not suitable for this option.
@c man .TP
@item stdio_sync="on"|"off"|number
@kindex stdio_sync= control stdio buffer
@cindex Write, buffer syncing, stdio_sync=
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to emulated stdio: drives.
This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of
pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".
Forced output can be disabled by "off".
@end table
@node Examples, Files, Options, Top
@chapter Examples
@c man .SS
@c man .B Overview of examples:
@c man Get an overview of drives and their addresses
@c man .br
@c man Get info about a particular drive or loaded media
@c man .br
@c man Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, BD-R for bad block handling
@c man .br
@c man Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use
@c man .br
@c man De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again
@c man .br
@c man Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image
@c man .br
@c man Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions
@c man .br
@c man Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly
@c man .br
@c man Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly
@c man .br
@cindex Examples
* ExDevices:: Get an overview of drives and their addresses
* ExMedium:: Get info about a particular drive or loaded media
* ExBlank:: Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use
* ExFormat:: Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use
* ExDeformat:: De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again
* ExIsoSingle:: Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image
* ExIsoMulti:: Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions
* ExIsoFly:: Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly
* ExAfio:: Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly
@end menu
@c man .SS
@c man .B Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
@node ExDevices, ExMedium, NonCdrecord, Examples
@section Get an overview of drives and their addresses
@sp 1
$ xorrecord --devices
@c man .SS
@c man .B Get info about a particular drive and loaded media:
@node ExMedium, ExBlank, ExDevices, Examples
@section Get info about a particular drive and loaded media
@sp 1
$ xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -atip -toc --grow_overwriteable_iso
@c man .SS
@c man .B Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use:
@node ExBlank, ExFormat, ExMedium, Examples
@section Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use
@sp 1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed -eject
@c man .SS
@c man .B Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
@node ExFormat, ExDeformat, ExBlank, Examples
@section Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use
@sp 1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite -eject
@sp 1
This command may also be used to format BD-R media before first use,
in order to enable handling of write errors. Several hundred MB of spare
blocks will be reserved and write runs on such media will perform
with less than half nominal speed.
@c man .SS
@c man .B De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
@node ExDeformat, ExIsoSingle, ExFormat, Examples
@section De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again
@sp 1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat
@c man .SS
@c man .B Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image:
@node ExIsoSingle, ExIsoMulti, ExDeformat, Examples
@section Write a single ISO 9660 filesystem image
@sp 1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso
@c man .SS
@c man .B Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions:
@node ExIsoMulti, ExIsoFly, ExIsoSingle, Examples
@section Write multiple ISO 9660 sessions
This is possible with all media except minimally blanked DVD-RW and DVD-R DL,
which cannot do multi-session.
The first session is written like in the previous example, except that
option -multi is used. It will contain the files of hard disk
directory ./tree1 under the ISO 9660 directory /dir1:
@sp 1
$ xorrisofs -o image_1.iso -J -graft-points /dir1=./tree1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k image_1.iso
@sp 1
For the second session xorrisofs needs to know the -msinfo numbers
of the medium. Further it will read data from the medium by using the
system's read-only CD-ROM driver.
It is advised to load the tray manually
or via dd by the CD-ROM driver, rather than letting xorrecord do this
by its own SCSI driver. Many system CD-ROM drivers do not take notice
of xorrecord's activities.
@sp 1
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
Now get the -msinfo numbers:
$ m=$(xorrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
@sp 1
and use them with xorrisofs to add ./tree2 to the image as /dir2:
@sp 1
$ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m -o image_2.iso \
-J -graft-points /dir2=./tree2
@sp 1
Now burn the new session onto the same medium. This time without blanking:
@sp 1
$ xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
-eject padsize=300k image_2.iso
@sp 1
Operating systems which mount this medium will read the superblock
of the second session and show both directories /dir1 and /dir2.
@c man .SS
@c man .B Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly:
@node ExIsoFly, ExAfio, ExIsoMulti, Examples
@section Write ISO 9660 session on-the-fly
It is possible to combine the run of @strong{xorrisofs} and @command{xorrecord}
in a pipeline without storing the ISO 9660 image as file on hard disk:
@sp 1
$ xorrisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m \
-J -graft-points /dir2=./tree2 \
| xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=8m \
-waiti -multi --grow_overwriteable_iso \
-eject padsize=300k -
@sp 1
This is also the main use case of program @strong{xorriso} itself,
where this run would look like:
@sp 1
$ xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -joliet on -speed 12 -fs 8m \
-map ./tree2 /dir2 -commit_eject all
@c man .SS
@c man .B Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly:
@node ExAfio, , ExIsoFly, Examples
@section Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly
This is possible with all media except minimally blanked DVD-RW and DVD-R DL.
Since the compressed output stream is of very variable speed, a larger fifo
is advised. Nevertheless, this example is not suitable for very old CD drives
which have no underrun protection and thus would abort the burn run on
temporary data shortage.
@sp 1
$ find . | afio -oZ - | \
xorrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 speed=12 fs=64m \
-multi padsize=300k -
@sp 1
afio archives do not contain references to absolute data block addresses. So
they need no special precautions for multi-session. One may get the session
start addresses by option -toc, and then use dd option skip= to begin reading
at one of those addresses. E.g. for listing its content:
@sp 1
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 bs=2048 skip=64046 | afio -tvZ -
@sp 1
afio will know when the end of the archive is reached.
@c man .SH FILES
@node Files, Seealso, Examples, Top
@chapter Files
@c man .SS
@c man .B Startup files:
@section Startup Files
If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then @command{xorrecord}
attempts on startup to read and execute lines from the following files:
@sp 1
@sp 1
The files are read in the sequence given here, but none of them is required
to exist. The lines are not interpreted as @command{xorrecord} options but
as generic @strong{xorriso} commands. See man xorriso.
@c man .SH SEE ALSO
@c man .TP
@c man For generic xorriso command mode
@c man .BR xorriso(1)
@c man .TP
@c man Formatting track sources for xorrecord:
@c man .BR xorrisofs(1),
@c man .BR mkisofs(8),
@c man .BR genisoimage(8),
@c man .BR afio(1),
@c man .BR star(1)
@c man .TP
@c man Other programs which burn sessions to optical media
@c man .BR growisofs(1),
@c man .BR cdrecord(1),
@c man .BR wodim(1),
@c man .BR cdrskin(1)
@c man-ignore-lines begin
@node Seealso, Bugreport, Files, Top
@chapter See also
@table @asis
@item For generic xorriso command mode
@item Formatting track sources for xorrecord
@item Other programs which burn sessions to optical media
@end table
@c man-ignore-lines end
@c man .SH BUGS
@node Bugreport, Legal, Seealso, Top
@chapter Reporting bugs
@cindex Bugs, reporting
@cindex Problems, reporting
To report bugs, request help, or suggest enhancements for @command{xorriso},
please send electronic mail to the public list @email{}.
If more privacy is desired, mail to @email{}.
@sp 1
Please describe what you expect @command{xorriso} to do,
the program arguments resp. commands by which you tried to achieve it,
the messages of @command{xorriso}, and the undesirable outcome of your
program run.
@sp 1
Expect to get asked more questions before solutions can be proposed.
@c man .SH AUTHOR
@node Legal, CommandIdx, Bugreport, Top
@chapter Author, Copyright, Credits
@section Author
Thomas Schmitt <>
@section Copyright
Copyright (c) 2011 - 2014 Thomas Schmitt
Permission is granted to distribute this text freely. It shall only be
modified in sync with the technical properties of xorriso. If you make use
of the license to derive modified versions of xorriso then you are entitled
to modify this text under that same license.
@c man .SH CREDITS
@section Credits
@command{xorriso} is in part based on work by Vreixo Formoso who provides
libisofs together with Mario Danic who also leads the libburnia team.
Thanks to Andy Polyakov who invented emulated growing,
to Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens who once founded libburn.
Compliments towards Joerg Schilling whose cdrtools served me for ten years.
@c man-ignore-lines begin
@node CommandIdx, ConceptIdx, Legal, Top
@chapter Alphabetic Command List
@printindex ky
@node ConceptIdx,, CommandIdx, Top
@chapter Alphabetic List of Concepts and Objects
@printindex cp
@c man-ignore-lines end