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.\" Hey, EMACS: -*- nroff -*-
.\" The original of this file is kept in xorriso/xorriso.texi
.\" This here was generated by program xorriso/make_xorriso_1
.\" First parameter, NAME, should be all caps
.\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
.\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
.TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.5.3, Nov 23, 2019"
.\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
.\" Some roff macros, for reference:
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xorriso \- creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images
with Rock Ridge extensions.
.B xorriso
.RI [ settings | actions ]
is a program which copies file objects from POSIX compliant
filesystems into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and performs
session\-wise manipulation of such filesystems. It can load the management
information of existing ISO images and it writes the session results to
optical media or to filesystem objects.
Vice versa \fBxorriso\fR is able to copy file objects out of ISO 9660
A special property of \fBxorriso\fR is that it needs neither an external
ISO 9660
formatter program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD or BD but rather
incorporates the libraries of libburnia\ .
.B Overview of features:
Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
Changes file properties in the ISO image.
Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
Writes result either as completely new image or as add\-on session
to optical media or filesystem objects.
Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
Can perform multi\-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
Scans for optical drives, blanks re\-usable optical media.
Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.
.sp 1
Note that \fBxorriso\fR does not write audio CDs and that it does not
produce UDF filesystems which are specified for official video DVD or BD.
.B General information paragraphs:
Session model
Media types and states
Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
Libburn drives
Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
Command processing
Dialog, Readline, Result pager
.sp 1
Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of
this text before reading the next few hundred lines of background information.
\fBSession model:\fR
Unlike other filesystems, \fBISO 9660\fR (aka \fBECMA\-119\fR)
is not intended for read\-write operation but
rather for being generated in a single sweep and being written to media as a
The data content of the session is called filesystem \fBimage\fR.
The written image in its session can then be mounted by the operating system
for being used read\-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO images from block
devices, which may represent optical media, other media or via a loop device
even from regular disk files. FreeBSD mounts ISO images from devices that
represent arbitrary media or from regular disk files.
This session usage model has been extended on CD media by the concept of
\fBmulti\-session\fR ,
which adds information to the CD and gives the mount programs
of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points of each
session. The mount programs recognize block devices which represent
CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium
which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
The multi\-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media
types. But program growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this
functionality to overwritable media or disk files which carry valid ISO 9660
\fBxorriso\fR provides growing as well as an own method named
\fBmodifying\fR which produces a completely new ISO image from the old
one and the modifications.
See paragraph Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.
\fBxorriso\fR adopts the concept of multi\-session by loading an
image directory tree if present,
by offering to manipulate it by several actions,
and by writing the new image to the target medium.
The first session of a \fBxorriso\fR run begins by the definition of
the input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
The session ends by command \-commit which triggers writing. A \-commit is
done automatically when the program ends regularly.
After \-commit a new session begins with the freshly written one as input.
A new input drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO image was
not altered. Pending alteration can be revoked by command \-rollback.
Writing a session to the target is supposed to be very expensive in terms of
time and of consumed space on appendable or write\-once media. Therefore all
intended manipulations of a particular ISO image should be done in a single
session. But in principle it is possible
to store intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.
.B Media types and states:
There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
\fBMulti\-session media\fR are CD\-R, CD\-RW, DVD\-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD\-R, and
unformatted DVD\-RW. These media provide a table of content which
describes their existing sessions. See command \fB\-toc\fR.
Similar to multi\-session media are DVD\-R DL and minimally blanked DVD\-RW.
They record only a single session of which the size must be known in advance.
\fBxorriso\fR will write onto them only if command \-close is set to "on".
\fBOverwritable media\fR are DVD\-RAM, DVD+RW, BD\-RE, and formatted DVD\-RW.
They offer random write access but do not provide information about their
session history. If they contain one or more ISO 9660 sessions and if the
first session was written by \fBxorriso\fR, then a table of content can
be emulated. Else only a single overall session will be visible.
DVD\-RW media can be formatted by \-format "full".
They can be made unformatted by \-blank "deformat".
Regular files and block devices are handled as overwritable media.
Pipes and other writeable file types are handled as blank multi\-session media.
These media can assume several states in which they offer different
\fBBlank\fR media can be written from scratch. They contain no ISO image
suitable for \fBxorriso\fR.
Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media.
With used CD\-RW and DVD\-RW it can be achieved by action \-blank "as_needed".
Overwritable media are considered blank if they are new or if they have
been marked as blank by \fBxorriso\fR.
Action \-blank "as_needed" can be used to do this marking on overwritable
media, or to apply mandatory formatting to new media if necessary.
\fBAppendable\fR media accept further sessions. Either they are MMC
multi\-session media in appendable state, or they are overwritable media
which contain an ISO image suitable for \fBxorriso\fR.
Appendable is the state after writing a session with command \-close off.
\fBClosed\fR media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image suitable
for \fBxorriso\fR.
Closed is the state of DVD\-ROM media and of multi\-session media which were
written with command \-close on. If the drive is read\-only hardware then it will
probably show any media as closed CD\-ROM or DVD\-ROM.
Overwritable media assume this state in such read\-only drives or if they
contain unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
Read\-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi\-session
media. Often only the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes
not even that. Command \-rom_toc_scan might or might not help in such cases.
.B Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
A new empty ISO image gets \fBcreated\fR
if there is no input drive with a valid ISO 9660 image when the first time
an output drive is defined. This is achieved by command \-dev on blank media
or by command \-outdev on media in any state.
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image gets loaded
as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation of input
and output drive determines which write method will be used.
They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
The method of \fBgrowing\fR adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older sessions.
Growing is achieved by command \-dev.
The write method of \fBmodifying\fR produces compact filesystem
images with no outdated files or directory trees. Modifying can write its
images to target media which are completely unsuitable for multi\-session
operations. E.g. DVD\-RW which were treated with \-blank deformat_quickest,
DVD\-R DL, named pipes, character devices, sockets.
On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media
but to blank media only.
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with
filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and
if command \-grow_blindly is set to its default "off".
This is achieved by commands \-indev and \-outdev.
If command \-grow_blindly is set to a non\-negative number and if \-indev and
\-outdev are both set to different drives, then \fBblind growing\fR is
performed. It produces an add\-on session which is ready for being written
to the given block address. This is the usage model of
mkisofs \-M $indev \-C $msc1,$msc2 \-o $outdev
which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should thus only be
employed if a strict distinction between ISO formatter \fBxorriso\fR
and the burn program is desired. \-C $msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
\-load sbsector $msc1 \-grow_blindly $msc2
.B Libburn drives:
Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be any random
access readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data,
blank optical media, regular files, block devices.
Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive.
Some drive types do not support the method of growing but only the methods
of modifying and blind growing. They all are suitable for newly created images.
All drive file objects have to offer rw\-permission to the user of
Even those which will not be usable for reading an ISO image.
With any type of drive object, the data are considered to be organized in
blocks of 2 KiB. Access happens in terms of Logical Block Address
(\fBLBA\fR) which gives the number of a particular data block.
MMC compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed by
the path of their block device or of their generic character device. E.g.
\-dev /dev/sr0
\-dev /dev/hdc
\-dev /dev/sg2
By default xorriso will try to map the given address to /dev/hd* and /dev/sr*.
The command \-scsi_dev_family can redirect the mapping from sr to scd or sg.
The latter does not suffer from the concurrency problems which plague /dev/sr
of Linux kernels since version 3. But it does not yield the same addresses
which are used by mount(8) or by open(2) for read(2).
On FreeBSD the device files have names like
\-dev /dev/cd0
On NetBSD:
\-dev /dev/rcd0d
On OpenSolaris:
\-dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
Get a list of accessible drives by command
It might be necessary to do this as
in order to see all drives and to then allow rw\-access for the intended users.
Consider to bundle the authorized users in a group like old "floppy".
Filesystem objects of nearly any type can be addressed by prefix "stdio:" and
their path in the filesystem. E.g.:
\-dev stdio:/dev/sdc
The default setting of \-drive_class allows the user to address files outside
the /dev tree without that prefix. E.g.:
\-dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the emulated drive
is random access readable and can be used for the method of growing if it
already contains a valid ISO 9660 image. Any other file type is not readable
via "stdio:" and can only be used as target for the method of modifying or
blind growing.
Non\-existing paths in existing directories are handled as empty regular files.
A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are
depicted by "stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
Addresses "\-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" depict standard output, which normally is
the output channel for result texts.
To prevent a fatal intermingling of ISO image and text messages, all result
texts get redirected to stderr if \-*dev "\-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is among
the start arguments of the program.
Standard output is currently suitable for creating one session
per program run without dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged
and several restrictions apply:
It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was not
among the start arguments. Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor addresses
to stdout.
If stdout is used as drive, then \-use_readline is permanently disabled.
Use of backdoors can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.
Be aware that especially the superuser can write into any accessible file or
device by using its path with the "stdio:" prefix. By default any address
in the /dev tree without prefix "stdio:" will work only if it leads to a MMC
One may use command
to surely prevent this risk and to restrict drive usage to MMC drives.
One may prepend "mmc:" to a path to surely disallow any automatic "stdio:".
By command \-drive_class one may ban certain paths or allow access without
prefix "stdio:" to other paths.
.B Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
\fBRock Ridge\fR
is the name of a set of additional information which enhance
an ISO 9660 filesystem so that it can represent a POSIX compliant filesystem
with ownership, access permissions, symbolic links, and other attributes.
This is what \fBxorriso\fR uses for a decent representation of the disk
files within the ISO image. \fBxorriso\fR produces Rock Ridge information
by default. It is strongly discouraged to disable this feature.
\fBxorriso\fR is not named "porriso" because POSIX only guarantees
14 characters
of filename length. It is the X/Open System Interface standard XSI which
demands a file name length of up to 255 characters and paths of up to 1024
characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.
An \fBEl Torito\fR
boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one or more boot
images, which are binary program files stored in the ISO image.
The content of the boot image files is not in the scope of El Torito.
Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images.
\fBxorriso\fR is able to create or maintain an El Torito object which
makes such an image bootable. For details see command \-boot_image.
It is possible to make ISO images bootable from USB stick or other
hard\-disk\-like media. Several options install a \fBMBR\fR
(Master Boot Record), It may get adjusted according to the needs of the
intended boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.
A MBR contains boot code and a partition table.
The new MBR of a follow\-up session can get in effect
only on overwritable media.
MBR is read by PC\-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk,
and by PowerPC CHRP or PReP when booting.
An MBR partition with type 0xee indicates the presence of GPT.
Emulation \-as mkisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki,
the options used in GRUB script grub\-mkrescue, and the example in the
FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
A \fBGPT\fR (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.
It is read by EFI when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be used
for finding and mounting a HFS+ partition inside the ISO image.
An \fBAPM\fR (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.
It is read by Macs for booting and for mounting.
MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of
MBR boot code. All three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
There is support for further facilities:
MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS Little Endian (DEC), SUN SPARC, HP\-PA.
Those are mutually not combinable and also not combinable with MBR, GPT,
or APM.
are an advanced way of controlling access permissions to file objects. Neither
ISO 9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs. So libisofs has
introduced a standard conformant extension named AAIP for that purpose.
It uses this extension if enabled by command
AAIP enhanced images are supposed to be mountable normally, but one cannot
expect that the mounted filesystem will show and respect the ACLs.
For now, only \fBxorriso\fR is able to retrieve those ACLs.
It can bring them into
effect when files get restored to an ACL enabled file system or it can
print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
Files with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::" if
that entry exists. Nevertheless the non\-listed group members get handled
according to entry "group::". When removing ACL from a file,
\fBxorriso\fR brings "group::" into effect.
Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD.
\fBxattr\fR (aka EA, or extattr)
are pairs of name and value which can be attached to file objects. AAIP is
able to represent them and \fBxorriso\fR can record and restore them.
But be aware that pairs with names of non\-user namespaces are not necessarily
portable between operating systems and not even between filesystems.
Only those which begin with "user.", like "user.x" or "user.whatever",
can unconditionally be expected to be appropriate on other machines and disks.
Processing of other xattr may need administrator privileges.
Name has to be a 0 terminated string.
Value may be any array of bytes which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes.
xattr processing happens only if it is enabled by command
As with ACL, currently only \fBxorriso\fR is able to retrieve xattr
from AAIP enhanced images, to restore them to xattr capable file systems,
or to print them.
Recording and restoring of xattr from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD, where they are known as extattr.
.B Command processing:
Commands are either actions which happen immediately or settings which
influence following actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they are
given as program arguments and command
is among them.
Commands consist of a command word,
followed by zero or more parameter words. If the list of parameter words
is of variable length (indicated by "[...]" or "[***]") then it must be
terminated by either the \fBlist delimiter\fR, occur at the end of
the argument list, or occur at the end of an input line.
At program start the list delimiter is the string "\-\-".
This may be changed with the \-list_delimiter command in order to allow
"\-\-" as parameter in a variable length list.
However, it is advised to reset the delimiter to "\-\-"
immediately afterwards.
For brevity the list delimiter is referred as "\-\-"
throughout this text.
The list delimiter is silently ignored if it appears after the parameters of
a command with a fixed list length. It is handled as normal text if it
appears among the parameters of such a command.
\fBPattern expansion\fR
converts a list of pattern words into a list of existing file addresses.
Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered in that result list.
Pattern matching supports the usual shell parser wildcards '*' '?' '[xyz]'
and respects '/' as the path separator, which may only be matched literally.
Pattern expansion is a property of some particular commands and not a general
feature. It is controlled by commands \-iso_rr_pattern and \-disk_pattern.
Commands which use pattern expansion all have variable parameter
lists which are specified in this text by "[***]" rather than "[...]".
Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.
Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments, where
one argument is one word, or from quoted input lines where words are recognized
similar to the quotation rules of a shell parser.
\fBxorriso\fR is not a shell, although it might appear so at first glimpse.
Be aware that the interaction of quotation marks and pattern symbols like "*"
differs from the usual shell parsers. In \fBxorriso\fR, a quotation mark
does not make a pattern symbol literal.
\fBQuoted input\fR
converts whitespace\-separated text into words.
The double quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to
enclose whitespace and make it part of words (e.g. of file names). Each mark
type can enclose the marks of the other type. A trailing backslash \\ outside
quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to be appended.
Quoted input accepts any 8\-bit character except NUL (0) as the content of
the quotes.
Nevertheless it can be cumbersome for the user to produce those characters
directly. Therefore quoted input and program arguments offer optional
\fBBackslash Interpretation\fR
which can represent all 8\-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes
as in $'...' of bash.
This is not enabled by default. See command \-backslash_codes.
When the program starts then it first looks for argument \-no_rc. If this is
not present then it looks for its startup files and
reads their content as command input lines. Then it interprets
the program arguments as commands and parameters. Finally it enters
dialog mode if command \-dialog "on" has been executed by this point.
The program ends either by command \-end, or by the end of program arguments
if dialog mode has not been enabled at that point, or by a problem
event which triggers the threshold of command \-abort_on.
.B Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
Dialog mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words, and performs
them as commands with their parameters. It provides assisting services
to make dialog more comfortable.
Readline is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know it from
the bash shell. Whether it is available in \fBxorriso\fR depends on the
of package readline\-dev at the time when \fBxorriso\fR was built from
its sourcecode.
Readline lets the user move the cursor over the text in the line by help of the
Left and the Right arrow keys.
Text may be inserted at the cursor position. The Delete key removes the
character under the cursor. Up and Down arrow keys navigate through
the history of previous input lines.
See man readline
for more info about libreadline.
Command \-page activates a built\-in result text pager which may be convenient in
dialog mode. After an action has output the given number of terminal lines,
the pager prompts the user for a line of input.
An empty line lets \fBxorriso\fR resume work until the next page is output.
The single character "@" disables paging for the current action.
"@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and
suppress further result output.
Any other line input will be interpreted as new dialog line. The current action
is requested to abort. Afterwards, the input line is executed.
Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
The request to abort may or may not be obeyed by the current action.
All actions try to abort as soon as possible.
All command words are shown with a leading dash although this dash is not
mandatory for the command to be recognized. Nevertheless within command \-as
the dashes of the emulated commands are mandatory.
Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and
inner dashes are interpreted as underscores.
.B Execution order of program arguments:
By default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as a
sequence of commands which get performed exactly in the given order.
This requires the user to write commands for desired settings before the
commands which shall be influenced by those settings.
Many other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary ordering
and perform settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion.
xorriso provides an option to enable such a behavior
at the cost of loss of expressivity.
Enable automatic sorting of program arguments into a sequence that
(most likely) is sensible.
This command may be given at any position among the commands
which are handed over as program arguments.
Note: It works only if it is given as program argument and
with a single dash (i.e. "\-x"). It will not work in startup files, nor with
\-options_from_file, nor in dialog mode, nor as "x" and finally not as
It affects only the commands given as program arguments.
List all xorriso commands in the order which applies if command \-x is in
This list may also be helpful without \-x for a user who ponders over the
sequence in which to put commands. Deviations from the listed sorting order may
well make sense, though.
.B Acquiring source and target drive:
The effect of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands in the
next paragraph "Influencing the behavior of image loading".
If desired, their enabling commands have to be performed before the
commands which acquire the drive.
\fB\-dev\fR address
Set input and output drive to the same address and load an ISO image if it
is present.
If there is no ISO image then create a blank one.
Set the image expansion method to growing.
This is only allowed as long as no changes are pending in the currently
loaded ISO image. If changes are pending, then one has to perform \-commit
or \-rollback first.
Special address string "\-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current device
without acquiring a new one.
\fB\-indev\fR address
Set input drive and load an ISO image if present.
If the new input drive differs
from \-outdev then switch from growing to modifying or to blind growing.
It depends on the setting of \-grow_blindly which of both gets activated.
The same rules and restrictions apply as with \-dev.
\fB\-outdev\fR address
Set output drive and if it differs from the input drive then switch from
growing to modifying or to blind growing. Unlike \-dev and \-indev this action
does not load a new ISO image. So it can be performed even if there are pending
\-outdev can be performed without previous \-dev or \-indev. In that case an
empty ISO image with no changes pending is created. It can either be populated
by help of \-map, \-add or it can be discarded silently if \-dev or \-indev
are performed afterwards.
Special address string "\-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current output drive
without acquiring a new one. No writing is possible without an output drive.
\fB\-drive_class\fR "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
Add a drive path pattern to one of the safety lists or make those lists empty.
There are three lists defined which get tested in the following sequence:
If a drive address path matches the "harmless" list then the drive will be
accepted. If it is not a MMC device then the prefix "stdio:" will be prepended
automatically. This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will not be
accepted by \fBxorriso\fR but rather lead to a FAILURE event.
This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a MMC device,
then its address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it will be rejected.
This list has by default one entry: "/dev".
If a drive path matches no list then it is considered "harmless". By default
these are all paths which do not begin with directory "/dev".
A path matches a list if one of its parent paths or itself matches a list
entry. Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will be ignored when
testing for matches.
By pseudo\-class "clear_list" and pseudo\-patterns "banned", "caution",
"harmless", or "all", the lists may be made empty.
E.g.: \-drive_class clear_list banned
One will normally define the \-drive_class lists in one of the \fBxorriso\fR
Startup Files.
Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the superuser to
prevent inadverted mishaps. For reliably blocking access to a device file you
have to deny its rw\-permissions in the filesystem.
\fB\-drive_access\fR "exclusive"|"shared":"unrestricted"|"readonly"
Control whether device file locking mechanisms shall be used when acquiring a
drive, and whether status or content of the medium in the drive may be
altered. Useful and most harmless are the setting "shared:readonly"
and the default setting "exclusive:unrestricted".
"exclusive" enables tests and locks when acquiring the drive. It depends on the
operating system which locking mechanisms get applied, if any. On GNU/Linux
it is open(O_EXCL). On FreeBSD it is flock(LOCK_EX).
"shared" disables the use of these mechanisms to become able to acquire drives
which are mounted, or opened by some process, or guarded by /dev/pktcdvd*.
"unrestricted" enables all technically appropriate operations on an acquired
drive. "shared:unrestricted" risks to get own burn runs spoiled by other
processes or to vice versa spoil activities of such processes. So use
"exclusive:unrestricted" unless you know for sure that "shared" is safe.
"readonly" disables operations which might surprise a co\-user of the drive.
For \-outdev these are formatting, blanking, writing, ejecting. For \-indev
this is ejecting. Be aware that even reading and drive status inquiries can
disturb an ongoing burn run on CD\-R[W] and DVD\-R[W].
\fB\-scsi_dev_family\fR "default"|"sr"|"scd"|"sg"
GNU/Linux specific:
By default, xorriso tries to map Linux drive addresses to /dev/sr* before
they get opened for operating the drive. This coordinates well with
other use cases of optical drives, like mount(8). But since year 2010
all /dev/sr* share a global lock which allows only one drive to process
an SCSI command while all others have to wait for its completion.
This yields awful throughput if more than one drive is writing or reading
The global lock is not applied to device files /dev/sg* and also not if
the xorriso drive address is prepended by "stdio:".
So for simultaneous burn runs on modern GNU/Linux it is advisable to perform
\-scsi_dev_family "sg" before any \-dev, \-indev, or \-outdev. The drive addresses
may then well be given as /dev/sr* but will nevertheless get used as
the matching /dev/sg*.
If you decide so, consider to put the command into a global startup file like
\fB\-grow_blindly\fR "off"|predicted_nwa
If predicted_nwa is a non\-negative number then perform blind growing rather
than modifying if \-indev and \-outdev are set to different drives.
"off" or "\-1" switch to modifying, which is the default.
predicted_nwa is the block address where the add\-on session of blind
growing will finally end up. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure
this final position and the presence of the older sessions. Else the
overall ISO image will not be mountable or will produce read errors when
accessing file content. \fBxorriso\fR will write the session to the address
as obtained from examining \-outdev and not necessarily to predicted_nwa.
During a run of blind growing, the input drive is given up before output
begins. The output drive is given up when writing is done.
.B Influencing the behavior of image loading:
The following commands should normally be performed before loading an image
by acquiring an input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to activate
them only after image loading.
\fB\-read_speed\fR code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
Set the speed for reading. Default is "none", which avoids to send a speed
setting command to the drive before reading begins.
Further special speed codes are:
"max" (or "0") selects maximum speed as announced by the drive.
"min" (or "\-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a
desired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)
or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x\-speed factor can be set explicitly
by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
medium in the \-indev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
Depending on the drive, the reported read speeds can be deceivingly low
or high. Therefore "min" cannot become higher than 1x speed of the involved
medium type. Read speed "max" cannot become lower than 52xCD, 24xDVD,
or 20xBD, depending on the medium type.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as hint
for their own decision.
\fB\-load\fR entity id
Load a particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from \-dev or \-indev.
Usually all available sessions are shown with command \-toc.
entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular
address. The following entities are defined:
"auto" with any id addresses the last session in \-toc. This is the default.
"session" with id being a number as of a line "ISO session", column "Idx".
"track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track", column "Idx".
"lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column "sbsector".
"volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...",
column "Volume Id".
Addressing a non\-existing entity or one which does not represent an ISO
image will either abandon \-indev or at least lead to a blank image.
If an input drive is set at the moment when \-load is executed, then the
addressed ISO image is loaded immediately. Else, the setting will be pending
until the next \-dev or \-indev. After the image has been loaded once, the
setting is valid for \-rollback until next \-dev or \-indev, where it
will be reset to "auto".
\fB\-displacement\fR [-]lba
Compensate a displacement of the image versus the start address
for which the image was prepared. This affects only loading of ISO images
and reading of their files. The multi\-session method of growing is not allowed
as long as \-displacement is non\-zero. I.e. \-indev and \-outdev must be
different. The displacement gets reset to 0 before the drive
gets re\-acquired after writing.
If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied to a disk file
where it begins at block 0, then this copy can be loaded with
\-displacement \-123456
If an ISO image was written onto a partition with offset of 640000 blocks of
512 bytes, then it can be loaded from the base device by
\-load sbsector 160000 \-displacement 160000
(If the partition start address is not divisible by 4, then you will have
to employ a loop device instead.)
In both cases, the ISO sessions should be self contained, i.e. not add\-on
sessions to an ISO image outside their track or partition.
\fB\-read_fs\fR "any"|"norock"|"nojoliet"|"ecma119"
Specify which kind of filesystem tree to load if present. If the wish cannot
be fulfilled, then ECMA\-119 names are loaded and converted according
to \-ecma119_map.
"any" first tries to read Rock Ridge. If not present, Joliet is tried.
"norock" does not try Rock Ridge.
"nojoliet" does not try Joliet.
"ecma119" tries neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet.
\fB\-assert_volid\fR pattern severity
Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the given
search pattern. When refusing an image, give up the input drive and issue
an event of the given severity (like FAILURE, see \-abort_on). An empty search
pattern accepts any image.
This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from blank
input media and does not discard an already loaded image.
\fB\-in_charset\fR character_set_name
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an
image. See paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations.
When loading the written image after \-commit the setting of \-out_charset
will be copied to \-in_charset.
\fB\-auto_charset\fR "on"|"off"
Enable or disable recording and interpretation of the output character
set name in an xattr attribute of the image root directory. If enabled and
if a recorded character set name is found, then this name will be used as
name of the input character set when reading an image.
Note that the default output charset is the local character set of the
terminal where \fBxorriso\fR runs. Before attributing this local
character set
to the produced ISO image, check whether the terminal properly displays
all intended filenames, especially exotic national characters.
\fB\-hardlinks\fR mode[:mode...]
Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
In default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers at image load
time. Each iso_rr file object which has no inode number at image generation
time will get a new unique inode number if \-compliance is set to new_rr.
Mode "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if such numbers
were recorded.
When committing a session it searches for families of iso_rr files
which stem from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and have
identical properties. The family members all get the same inode number.
Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating
Command \-lsl displays hardlink counts if "lsl_count" is enabled. This can
slow down the command substantially after changes to the ISO image have
been made. Therefore the default is "no_lsl_count".
Commands \-update and \-update_r track splits and fusions of hard links in
filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers. This can cause
automatic last minute changes before the session gets written. Command
\-hardlinks "perform_update" may be used to do these changes earlier,
e.g. if you need to apply filters to all updated files.
Mode "without_update" avoids hardlink processing during update commands.
Use this if your filesystem situation does not allow \-disk_dev_ino "on".
\fBxorriso\fR commands which extract files from an ISO image try to
hardlink files
with identical inode number. The normal scope of this operation is from
image load to image load. One may give up the accumulated hard link addresses
by \-hardlinks "discard_extract".
A large number of hardlink families may exhaust \-temp_mem_limit
if not \-osirrox "sort_lba_on" and \-hardlinks "cheap_sorted_extract"
are both in effect. This restricts hard linking to other files restored by
the same single extract command. \-hardlinks "normal_extract" re\-enables
wide and expensive hardlink accumulation.
\fB\-acl\fR "on"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of ACLs.
If enabled, then \fBxorriso\fR will obtain ACLs from disk file objects,
store ACLs in the ISO image using the libisofs specific AAIP format,
load AAIP data from ISO images, test ACL during file comparison,
and restore ACLs to disk files when extracting them from ISO images.
See also commands \-getfacl, \-setfacl.
\fB\-xattr\fR "on"|"user"|"any"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of xattr attributes.
If enabled, then \fBxorriso\fR will handle xattr similar to ACL.
See also commands \-getfattr, \-setfattr and above paragraph about xattr.
Modes "on" and "user" read and write only attributes from namespace "user".
Mode "any" processes attributes of all namespaces. This might need
administrator privileges, even if the owner of the disk file tries to read or
write the attributes.
Note that xattr from namespace "isofs." are never read from disk or restored
to disk. Further it is not possible to set them via xorriso xattr manipulation
\fB\-md5\fR "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
Enable or disable processing of MD5 checksums for the overall session and for
each single data file. If enabled then images with checksum tags get loaded
only if the tags of superblock and directory tree match properly. The MD5
checksums of data files and whole session get loaded from the image if there
are any.
With commands \-compare and \-update the recorded MD5 of a file
will be used to avoid content reading from the image. Only the disk file
content will be read and compared with that MD5. This can save much time
if \-disk_dev_ino "on" is not suitable.
At image generation time they are computed for each file which gets its data
written into the new session. The checksums of files which have their data
in older sessions get copied into the new session. Superblock, tree and whole
session get a checksum tag each.
Mode "all" will additionally check during image generation whether the checksum
of a data file changed between the time when its reading began and the time
when it ended. This implies reading every file twice.
Mode "load_check_off" together with "on" or "all" will load recorded MD5 sums
but not test the recorded checksum tags of superblock and directory tree.
This is necessary if growisofs was used as burn program, because it does
not overwrite the superblock checksum tag of the first session.
Therefore load_check_off is in effect when \fBxorriso\fR \-as mkisofs
option \-M is performed.
The test can be re\-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
Checksums can be exploited via commands \-check_md5, \-check_md5_r, via find
actions get_md5, check_md5, and via \-check_media.
Enable all extra features which help to produce or to restore backups with
highest fidelity of file properties. Currently this is a shortcut for:
\-hardlinks on \-acl on \-xattr any \-md5 on
If you restore a backup with xattr from non\-user namespaces, then make sure
that the target operating system and filesystem know what these attributes
mean. Possibly you will need administrator privileges to record or restore
such attributes. At recording time, xorriso will try to tolerate missing
privileges and just record what is readable.
But at restore time, missing privileges will cause failure events.
Command \-xattr "user" after command \-for_backup excludes non\-user attributes
from being recorded or restored.
\fB\-ecma119_map\fR "stripped"|"unmapped"|"lowercase"|"uppercase"
Choose the conversion of file names from the loaded session if neither
a Rock Ridge name nor a Joliet name was read from the session.
Mode "stripped" is the default. It shows the names as found in the ISO but
removes trailing ";1" or ".;1" if present.
Mode "unmapped" shows names as found without removing characters.
Mode "lowercase" is like "stripped" but also maps uppercase letters to
lowercase letters. This is compatible to default GNU/Linux mount behavior.
Mode "uppercase" is like "stripped" but maps lowercase letters to uppercase,
if any occur despite the prescriptions of ECMA\-119.
\fB\-iso_nowtime\fR "dynamic"|timestring
Choose whether to use the current time ("dynamic") or a fixed time point
for timestamps of ISO 9660 nodes without a disk source file and as default
for superblock timestamps.
If a timestring is given, then it is used for such timestamps. For the formats
of timestrings see command \fB\-alter_date\fR.
\fB\-disk_dev_ino\fR "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of recorded file identification numbers
(dev_t and ino_t). If enabled they are stored as xattr and can
substantially accelerate file comparison. The root node gets a global start
timestamp. If during comparison a file with younger timestamps is found in the
ISO image, then it is suspected to have inconsistent content.
If device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems are persistent
and if no irregular alterations of timestamps or system clock happen,
then potential content changes can be detected without reading that content.
File content change is assumed if any of mtime, ctime, device number or inode
number have changed.
Mode "ino_only" replaces the precondition that device numbers are stable by the
precondition that mount points in the compared tree always lead to the
same filesystems. Use this if mode "on" always sees all files changed.
The speed advantage appears only if the loaded session was produced with
\-disk_dev_ino "on" too.
Note that \-disk_dev_ino "off" is totally in effect only if \-hardlinks is "off",
\fB\-file_name_limit\fR [+]number
Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255.
Path components which are longer than the given number will get truncated
and have their last 33 bytes overwritten by a colon ':' and the
hex representation of the MD5 of the first 4095 bytes of the whole
oversized name. Potential incomplete UTF\-8 characters will get their
leading bytes replaced by '_'.
iso_rr_paths with the long components will still be able to access the
file paths with truncated components.
If \-file_name_limit is executed while an ISO tree is present, the file names
in the ISO tree get checked for existing truncated file names of the current
limit and for name collisions between newly truncated files and existing files.
In both cases, the setting will be refused with a SORRY event.
One may lift this ban by prepending the character "+" to the argument
of \-file_name_limit. Truncated filenames may then get truncated again,
invalidating their MD5 part. Colliding truncated names are made unique,
consuming at least 9 more bytes of the remaining name part.
If writing of xattr is enabled, then the length will be stored in "isofs.nt"
of the root directory.
If reading of xattr is enabled and "isofs.nt" is found, then the found length
will get into effect if it is smaller than the current setting
of \-file_name_limit.
File name patterns will only work if they match the truncated name.
This might change in future.
Files with truncated names get deleted and re\-added unconditionally
during \-update and \-update_r. This might change in future.
Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length 254 and 255.
If you expect such names in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO
by such Linux kernels, consider to set \-file_name_limit 253.
Else just avoid names longer than 253 characters.
\fB\-rom_toc_scan\fR "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
Read\-only drives do not tell the actual media type but show any media as
ROM (e.g. as DVD\-ROM). The session history of MMC multi\-session media might
be truncated to first and last session or even be completely false.
(The emulated history of overwritable media is not affected by this.)
To have in case of failure a chance of getting the session history and
especially the address of the last session, there is a scan for ISO 9660
filesystem headers which might help but also might yield worse results
than the drive's table of content. At its end it can cause read attempts
to invalid addresses and thus ugly drive behavior.
Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read\-only media.
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi\-session DVD or BD. If on such a system \fBxorriso\fR has no own MMC
capabilities then it may still find that session from a scanned table of
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwritable media
can hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables
the elsewise trustworthy table\-of\-content scan for those media.
The table\-of\-content scan on overwritable media normally searches only up to
the end of the session that is pointed to by the superblock at block 0.
Setting "on:emul_wide" lets the scan continue up to the end of the medium.
This may be useful after copying a medium with \-check_media patch_lba0=on
when not the last session was loaded.
\fB\-calm_drive\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives stay alert
for substantial time after they have been used for reading. This reduces
the startup time for the next drive operation but can be loud and waste
energy if no i/o with the drive is expected to happen soon.
Modes "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down \-indev, \-outdev, or both,
Mode "revoke" immediately alerts both.
Mode "on" causes \-calm_drive to be performed automatically after each \-dev,
\-indev, and \-outdev. Mode "off" disables this.
Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow
to write the result into files of nearly arbitrary type.
Once set, this command cannot be revoked.
\fB\-early_stdio_test\fR "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
If enabled by "on" then regular files and block devices get tested for
effective access permissions. This implies to try opening those files for
writing, which otherwise will happen only later and only if actual
writing is desired.
The test result is used for classifying the pseudo drives as overwritable,
read\-only, write\-only, or uselessly empty. This may lead to earlier detection
of severe problems, and may avoid some less severe error events.
Mode "appendable_wo" is like "on" with the additional property that
non\-empty write\-only files are regarded as appendable rather than blank.
\fB\-data_cache_size\fR number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
Set the size and granularity of the data cache which is used when ISO images
are loaded and when file content is read from ISO images. The cache consists
of several tiles, which each consists of several blocks. A larger cache
reduces the need for tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might
additionally improve the data throughput from the drive, but can be
wasteful if the data are scattered over the medium.
Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives. They are an
inferior alternative to \-osirrox option "sort_lba_on".
blocks_per_tile must be a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32, or 64. The overall cache
size must not exceed 1 GiB.
The default values can be restored by parameter "default" instead of one or
both of the numbers.
Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32 blocks = 2 MiB.
.B Inserting files into ISO image:
The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
is the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the ISO image.
If no Rock Ridge information is recorded in the loaded ISO image, then you
will see ISO 9660 names which are of limited length and character set.
If no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in an emerging ISO image, then
their names will get mapped to such restricted ISO 9660 (aka ECMA\-119) names.
Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access
permissions of the existing files in the image do not apply to your write
operations. They are intended to be in effect with the read\-only mounted image.
If the iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an existing
file object in the ISO image, then the following collision handling
If both objects are directories then they get merged by recursively inserting
the subobjects from filesystem into ISO image.
If other file types collide then the setting of command
Renaming of files has similar collision handling, but directories can only
be replaced, not merged. Note that if the target directory exists, then \-mv
inserts the source objects into this directory rather than attempting
to replace it. Command \-move, on the other hand, would attempt to replace it.
The commands in this section alter the ISO image and not the local filesystem.
\fB\-disk_pattern\fR "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the disk_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables this feature for all commands which are marked in this
man page by "disk_path [***]" or "disk_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"disk_pattern [***]".
Default is "ls".
\fB\-add\fR pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
If \-pathspecs is set to "on" or "as_mkisofs" then pattern expansion is always
disabled and character '=' has a special meaning. It separates the ISO image
path from the disk path:
Character '=' in the iso_rr_path must be escaped by '\\' (i.e. as "\\=").
With \-pathspecs "on", the character '\\' must not be escaped. The character '='
in the disk_path must not be escaped.
With \-pathspecs "as_mkisofs", all characters '\\' must be escaped in both,
iso_rr_path and disk_path. The character '=' may or may not be escaped
in the disk_path.
If iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then \-cd is prepended.
If disk_path does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended.
If no '=' is given then the word is used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path.
If in this case the word does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended to
the disk_path and \-cd is prepended to the iso_rr_path.
If \-pathspecs is set to "off" then \-disk_pattern expansion applies, if enabled.
The resulting words are used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative
path words get prepended the setting of \-cdx to disk_path and the setting
of \-cd to iso_rr_path.
\fB\-add_plainly\fR mode
If set to mode "unknown" then any command word that does not begin with "\-" and
is not recognized as known command will be subject to a virtual \-add command.
I.e. it will be used as pathspec or as disk_path and added to the image.
If enabled, \-disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized command
words even if they begin with "\-".
Mode "any" announces that all further words are to be added as pathspecs
or disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
Mode "none" is the default. It prevents any words from being understood
as files to add, if they are not parameters to appropriate commands.
\fB\-path_list\fR disk_path
Like \-add but read the parameter words from file disk_path
or standard input if disk_path is "\-".
The list must contain exactly one pathspec or disk_path pattern per line.
\fB\-quoted_path_list\fR disk_path
Like \-path_list but with quoted input reading rules. Lines get split into
parameter words for \-add. Whitespace outside quotes is discarded.
\fB\-map\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Insert file object disk_path into the ISO image as iso_rr_path. If disk_path
is a directory then its whole sub tree is inserted into the ISO image.
\fB\-map_single\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Like \-map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree is not inserted.
\fB\-map_l\fR disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform \-map with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
\fB\-update\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Compare file object disk_path with file object iso_rr_path. If they do not
match, then perform the necessary image manipulations to make iso_rr_path
a matching copy of disk_path. By default this comparison will imply lengthy
content reading before a decision is made. Commands \-disk_dev_ino or \-md5 may
accelerate comparison if they were already in effect when the loaded session
was recorded.
If disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then the
whole subtree will be inserted. Else only directory attributes will be
\fB\-update_r\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Like \-update but working recursively. I.e. all file objects below both
addresses get compared whether they have counterparts below the other address
and whether both counterparts match. If there is a mismatch then the necessary
update manipulation is done.
Note that the comparison result may depend on command \-follow. Its setting
should always be the same as with the first adding of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
If iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then it gets added. If disk_path does not
exist, then iso_rr_path gets deleted.
\fB\-update_l\fR disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform \-update_r with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
\fB\-update_li\fR iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
Perform \-update_r with each of the iso_rr_path parameters. disk_path will be
composed from iso_rr_path by replacing iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.
\fB\-update_lxi\fR disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform \-update_r with each of the disk_path parameters and with iso_rr_paths
in the ISO filesystem which are derived from the disk_path parameters after
exchanging disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix. So, other than \-update_l, this detects
missing matches of disk_path and deletes the corresponding iso_rr_path.
Note that relative disk_paths and disk_path patterns are interpreted as
sub paths of the current disk working directory \-cdx. The corresponding
iso_rr_paths are derived by exchanging disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix before
pattern expansion happens. The current \-cdi directory has no influence.
\fB\-cut_out\fR disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if
it exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB \- 1 for old operating systems,
or the limit of 4 GiB \- 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels
seem to read properly files >= 4 GiB \- 1.
A clumsy remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces and to concatenate
them at restore time. A well tested chopping size is 2047m.
It is permissible to request a higher byte_count than available. The
resulting file will be truncated to the correct size of a final piece.
To request a byte_offset higher than available yields no file in
the ISO image but a SORRY event.
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \\
/file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \\
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \\
/file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \\
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \\
While command \-split_size is set larger than 0, and if all pieces of a file
reside in the same ISO directory with no other files, and if the names look
like above, then their ISO directory will be recognized and handled like a
regular file. This affects commands \-compare*, \-update*, and overwrite
See command \-split_size for details.
\fB\-cpr\fR disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
The rules for generating the ISO addresses are similar as with
shell command cp \-r. Nevertheless, directories of the iso_rr_path
are created if necessary. Especially a not yet existing iso_rr_path
will be handled as directory if multiple disk_paths are present.
The leafnames of the multiple disk_paths will be grafted under that
directory as would be done with an existing directory.
If a single disk_path is present then a non\-existing iso_rr_path will
get the same type as the disk_path.
If a disk_path does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended.
If the iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then \-cd is prepended.
\fB\-mkdir\fR iso_rr_path [...]
Create empty directories if they do not exist yet.
Existence as directory generates a WARNING event, existence as
other file causes a FAILURE event.
\fB\-lns\fR target_text iso_rr_path
Create a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points to target_text.
iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
Hint: Command \-clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.
\fB\-clone\fR iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
Create a copy of the ISO file object iso_rr_path_original with the new
address iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory then copy all
files and directories underneath. If iso_rr_path_original is a boot catalog
file, then it gets not copied but is silently ignored.
The copied ISO file objects have the same attributes. Copied data files
refer to the same content source as their originals.
The copies may then be manipulated independendly of their originals.
This command will refuse execution if the address iso_rr_path_copy
already exists in the ISO tree.
\fB\-cp_clone\fR iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
Create copies of one or more ISO file objects as with command \-clone.
In case of collision merge directories with existing ones, but do not overwrite
existing ISO file objects.
The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with
command \-cpr (see above) or shell command cp \-r. Other than with \-cpr,
relative iso_rr_path_original will get prepended the \-cd path and not
the \-cdx path. Consider to \-mkdir iso_rr_path_dest before \-cp_clone
so the copy address does not depend on the number of iso_rr_path_original
.B Settings for file insertion:
\fB\-file_size_limit\fR value [value [...]] --
Set the maximum permissible size for a single data file. The values get
summed up for the actual limit. If the only value is "off" then the file
size is not limited by \fBxorriso\fR.
Default is a limit of 100 extents, 4g \-2k each:
\-file_size_limit 400g \-200k \-\-
When mounting ISO 9660 filesystems, old operating systems can handle only files
up to 2g \-1 \-\-. Newer ones are good up to 4g \-1 \-\-.
You need quite a new Linux kernel to read correctly the final bytes
of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned to 2048 byte blocks.
\fBxorriso\fR's own data read capabilities are not affected by
operating system size limits. Such limits apply to mounting only. Nevertheless,
the target filesystem of an \-extract must be able to take the file size.
\fB\-not_mgt\fR code[:code[...]]
Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the ISO image
and before disk files get compared with image files.
The absolute disk path of the source is matched against the \-not_paths list.
The leafname of the disk path is matched against the patterns in the \-not_leaf
list. If a match is detected then the disk path will not be regarded as an
existing file and not be added to the ISO image.
Several codes are defined.
The _on/_off settings persist until they are revoked by their_off/_on
"erase" empties the lists which were accumulated by \-not_paths and \-not_leaf.
"reset" is like "erase" but also re\-installs default behavior.
"off" disables exclusion processing temporarily without invalidating
the lists and settings.
"on" re\-enables exclusion processing.
"param_off" applies exclusion processing only to paths below disk_path
parameter of commands. I.e. explicitly given disk_paths are exempted
from exclusion processing.
"param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as well as
to files below such parameters.
"subtree_off" with "param_on" excludes parameter paths only if they
match a \-not_paths item exactly.
"subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to a file
address below any \-not_paths item.
"ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing. I.e. they
get reported with \-compare and deleted from the image with \-update.
"ignore_on" keeps excluded files out of \-compare or \-update activities.
\fB\-not_paths\fR disk_path [***]
Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths. If a given
path is relative, then the current \-cdx is prepended to form an absolute path.
Pattern matching, if enabled, happens at definition time and not when exclusion
checks are made.
(Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "\-\-")
\fB\-not_leaf\fR pattern
Add a single shell parser style pattern to the list of exclusions for
disk leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when the exclusion checks are
\fB\-not_list\fR disk_path
Read lines from disk_path and use each of them either as \-not_paths parameter,
if they contain a / character, or as \-not_leaf pattern.
\fB\-quoted_not_list\fR disk_path
Like \-not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is
handled as one parameter for \-not_paths or \-not_leaf.
\fB\-follow\fR occasion[:occasion[...]]
Enable or disable resolution of symbolic links and mountpoints under
disk_paths. This applies to actions \-add, \-du*x, \-ls*x, \-findx, \-concat,
and to \-disk_pattern expansion.
There are three kinds of follow decisison to be made:
\fBlink\fR is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for the
purpose of reading. I.e. not for command \-concat.
If enabled then symbolic links are handled as their target file objects,
else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
\fBmount\fR is the hop from one filesystem to another subordinate filesystem.
If enabled then mountpoint directories are handled as any other directory,
else mountpoints are handled as empty directories if they are encountered in
directory tree traversals.
\fBconcat\fR is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for
the purpose of writing. I.e. for command \-concat. This is a security risk !
Less general than above occasions:
\fBpattern\fR is mount and link hopping, but only during \-disk_pattern
\fBparam\fR is link hopping for parameter words (after eventual pattern
If enabled then \-ls*x will show the link targets rather than the links
themselves. \-du*x, \-findx, and \-add will process the link targets but not
follow links in an eventual directory tree below the targets (unless "link"
is enabled).
Occasions can be combined in a colon separated list. All occasions
mentioned in the list will then lead to a positive follow decision.
\fBoff\fR prevents any positive follow decision. Use it if no other occasion
\fBdefault\fR is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
\fBon\fR always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount:concat".
Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
\fBlimit=\fR<number> which sets the maximum number of link hops.
A link hop consists of a sequence of symbolic links and a final target
of different type. Nevertheless those hops can loop. Example:
$ ln \-s .. uploop
Link hopping has a built\-in loop detection which stops hopping at the first
repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link is handled as itself
and not as its target.
Regrettably one can construct link networks which
cause exponential workload before their loops get detected.
The number given with "limit=" can curb this workload at the risk of truncating
an intentional sequence of link hops.
\fB\-pathspecs\fR "on"|"off"|"as_mkisofs"
Control parameter interpretation with \fBxorriso\fR
actions \-add and \-path_list.
Mode "as_mkisofs" enables pathspecs of the form
like with program mkisofs \-graft\-points.
All characters '\\' must be escaped in both, iso_rr_path and disk_path.
The character '=' must be escaped in the iso_rr_path and
may or may not be escaped in the disk_path.
This mode temporarily disables \-disk_pattern expansion for command \-add.
Mode "on" does nearly the same. But '=' must only be escaped in the iso_rr_path
and '\\' must not be escaped at all. This has the disadvantage that one
cannot express an iso_rr_path which ends by '\\'.
Mode "off" disables pathspecs of the form target=source
and re\-enables \-disk_pattern expansion.
\fB\-overwrite\fR "on"|"nondir"|"off"
Allow or disallow overwriting of existing files in the
ISO image by files with the same name.
With setting "off", name collisions with at least one non\-directory file
cause FAILURE events. Collisions of two directories lead to merging of their
file lists.
With setting "nondir", only directories are protected by such events, other
existing file types get treated with \-rm before the new file gets added.
Setting "on" enables automatic \-rm_r. I.e. a non\-directory can replace an
existing directory and all its subordinates.
If restoring of files is enabled, then the overwrite rule applies to the
target file objects on disk as well, but "on" is downgraded to "nondir".
\fB\-split_size\fR number["k"|"m"]
Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such splitting
maps a large disk file onto a ISO directory with several part files in it.
This is necessary if the size of the disk file exceeds \-file_size_limit.
Older operating systems can handle files in mounted ISO 9660 filesystems
only if they are smaller than 2 GiB or in other cases 4 GiB.
Default is 0 which will exclude files larger than \-file_size_limit by a
FAILURE event.
A well tested \-split_size is 2047m. Sizes above \-file_size_limit are not
While command \-split_size is set larger than 0 such a directory with split
file pieces will be recognized and handled like a regular file by commands
\-compare* , \-update*, and in overwrite situations. There are \-osirrox
parameters "concat_split_on" and "concat_split_off" which control the handling
when files get restored to disk.
In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to
describe the splitting by 5 numbers:
which are embedded in the following text form:
Scaling characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect.
All digits are interpreted as decimal, even if leading zeros are present.
E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
No other files are allowed in the directory. All parts have to be present and
their numbers have to be plausible. E.g. byte_count must be valid as \-cut_out
parameter and their contents may not overlap.
.B File manipulations:
The following commands manipulate files in the ISO image, regardless whether
they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.
\fB\-iso_rr_pattern\fR "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands which are marked
in this man page by "iso_rr_path [***]" or "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Default is "on".
\fB\-rm\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
Note: This does not free any space on the \-indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
medium in modification mode.
\fB\-rm_r\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image.
See also the note with command \-rm.
\fB\-rmdir\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete empty directories.
\fB\-move\fR iso_rr_path iso_rr_path
Rename the file given by the first (origin) iso_rr_path to the second
(destination) iso_rr_path.
Deviate from rules of shell command mv by not moving the origin file underneath
an existing destination directory. The origin file will rather replace such a
directory, if this is allowed by command \-overwrite.
\fB\-mv\fR iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
Rename the given file objects in the ISO tree to the last
parameter in the list. Use the same rules as with shell command mv.
If pattern expansion is enabled and if the last parameter contains wildcard
characters then it must match exactly one existing file address, or else the
command fails with a FAILURE event.
\fB\-chown\fR uid iso_rr_path [***]
Set ownership of file objects in the ISO image. uid may either be a decimal
number or the name of a user known to the operating system.
\fB\-chown_r\fR uid iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-chgrp\fR gid iso_rr_path [***]
Set group attribute of file objects in the ISO image. gid may either be a
decimal number or the name of a group known to the operating system.
\fB\-chgrp_r\fR gid iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-chmod\fR mode iso_rr_path [***]
Equivalent to shell command chmod in the ISO image.
mode is either an octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated
list of statements of the form [ugoa]*[+\-=][rwxst]* .
Like: go\-rwx,u+rwx .
u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
+ adds given permissions, \- revokes given permissions,
= revokes all old permissions and then adds the given ones.
r=read, w=write, x=execute|inspect, s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
For octal numbers see man 2 stat.
\fB\-chmod_r\fR mode iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfacl\fR acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given ACL to the given iso_rr_paths. If the files already have
ACLs, then those get deleted before the new ones get into effect.
If acl_text is empty, or contains the text "clear" or the text
then the existing ACLs will be removed and no new ones will be
attached. Any other content of acl_text will be interpreted as a list of
ACL entries. It may be in the long multi\-line format as put out by \-getfacl
but may also be abbreviated as follows:
ACL entries are separated by comma or newline. If an entry is empty text or
begins with "#" then it will be ignored. A valid entry has to begin
by a letter out of {ugom} for "user", "group", "other", "mask". It has to
contain two colons ":". A non\-empty text between those ":" gives a user id
or group id. After the second ":" there may be letters out of {rwx\- #}.
The first three give read, write, or execute permission.
Letters "\-", " " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of the entry to
be ignored. Letter "X" or any other letters are not supported. Examples:
A valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following characters and ":".
This indicates that the entry goes to the "default" ACL rather than to the
"access" ACL. Example:
\fB\-setfacl_r\fR acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-setfacl but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfacl_list\fR disk_path
Read the output of \-getfacl_r or shell command getfacl \-R and apply it to the
iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". This will change
ownership, group and ACL of the given files.
If disk_path is "\-" then lines are read from standard input. Line "@" ends the
list, "@@@" aborts without changing the pending iso_rr_path.
Since \-getfacl and getfacl \-R strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting of
\-cd does always matter.
\fB\-setfattr\fR [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given xattr pair of name and value to the given iso_rr_paths.
If the given name is prefixed by "\-", then the pair with that name gets
removed from the xattr list. If name is "\-\-remove\-all"
then all user namespace
xattr of the given iso_rr_paths get deleted. In case of deletion, value must
be an empty text.
Which names are permissible depends on the setting of command \-xattr.
"on" or "user" restricts them to namespace "user". I.e. a name has to look
like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
\-xattr setting "any" enables names from all namespaces except "isofs".
Values and names undergo the normal input processing of \fBxorriso\fR.
See also command \-backslash_codes. Other than with command \-setfattr_list,
the byte value 0 cannot be expressed via \-setfattr.
\fB\-setfattr_r\fR [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-setfattr but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfattr_list\fR disk_path
Read the output format of \-getfattr_r or shell command getfattr \-Rd and apply
it to the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:".
All previously existing xattr of the acceptable namespaces will be deleted
before the new xattr get attached. The set of acceptable names depends on the
setting of command \-xattr.
If disk_path is "\-" then lines are read from standard input.
Since \-getfattr and getfattr \-Rd strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting
of \-cd does always matter.
Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will be ignored
(except "# file:"). Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing
the pending iso_rr_path. Other input lines must have the form
The separator "=" is not allowed in names.
Value may contain any kind of bytes. It must be in quotes. Trailing
whitespace after the end quote will be ignored. Non\-printables bytes and quotes
must be represented as \\XYZ by their octal 8\-bit code XYZ.
Use code \\000 for 0\-bytes.
\fB\-alter_date\fR type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Alter the date entries of files in the ISO image. type may be one of
the following:
"a" sets access time, updates ctime.
"m" sets modification time, updates ctime.
"b" sets access time and modification time, updates ctime.
"a\-c", "m\-c", and "b\-c" set the times without updating ctime.
"c" sets the ctime.
timestring may be in the following formats
(see also section EXAMPLES):
As expected by program date:
As produced by program date:
[Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
Relative times counted from current clock time:
where "s" means seconds, "h" hours, "d" days, "w" weeks, "m"=30d,
"y"=365.25d plus 1d added to multiplication result.
Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
\fBxorriso\fR's own timestamps:
scdbackup timestamps:
where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
ECMA\-119 volume timestamps:
These are normally given as GMT. The suffix "LOC" causes local timezone
conversion. E.g. 2013010720574700, 2013010720574700LOC.
The last two digits cc (centiseconds) will be ignored, but must be present
in order to make the format recognizable.
\-alter_date m\-c 2013.11.27.103951 /file1 /file2 \-\-
This command does not persistently apply to the boot catalog, which gets fresh
timestamps at \-commit time. Command \-volume_date "uuid" can set this time
\fB\-alter_date_r\fR type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-alter_date but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-hide\fR hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
Prevent the names of the given files from showing up in the directory trees
of ISO 9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+ when the image gets written.
The data content of such hidden files will be included in the
resulting image, even if they do not show up in any directory.
But you will need own means to find nameless data in the image.
Warning: Data which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree will not be copied
by the write method of modifying.
Possible values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from ISO 9660 tree,
"joliet" for Joliet tree, "hfsplus" for HFS+, "on" for them all.
"off" means visibility in all directory trees.
These values may be combined.
E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
This command does not apply to the boot catalog.
Rather use: \-boot_image "any" "cat_hidden=on"
.B Tree traversal command -find:
\fB\-find\fR iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] --
A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image.
It performs an action on matching file objects at or below iso_rr_path.
If not used as last command in the line then the parameter list
needs to get terminated by "\-\-".
Tests are optional. If they are omitted then action is applied to all file
objects. If tests are given then they form together an expression.
The action is applied only if the expression matches the file object. Default
expression operator between tests is \-and, i.e. the expression matches only
if all its tests match.
Available tests are:
\fB\-name\fR pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file leaf name. If the pattern does not contain
any of the characters "*?[", then it will be truncated according
to \-file_name_limit and thus match the truncated name in the ISO filesystem.
\fB\-wholename\fR pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file path as it would be printed by action
"echo". Character '/' can be matched by wildcards. If pattern pieces
between '/' do not contain any of the characters "*?[", they will
be truncated according to \-file_name_limit.
\fB\-disk_name\fR pattern :
Like \-name but testing the leaf name of the file source on disk.
Can match only data files which do not stem from the loaded image,
or for directories above such data files. With directories the result can
change between \-find runs if their content stems from multiple sources.
\fB\-disk_path\fR disk_path :
Matches if the given disk_path is equal to the path of the file source
on disk. The same restrictions apply as with \-disk_name.
\fB\-type\fR type_letter :
Matches files of the given type:
"block", "char", "dir", "pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito",
and "Xotic" which matches what is not matched by the other types.
Only the first letter is interpreted. E.g.: \-find / \-type d
\fB\-maxdepth\fR number :
Matches only files which are at most at the given depth level relative to
the iso_rr_path where \-find starts. That path itself is at depth 0, its
directory children are at 1, their directory children at 2, and so on.
\fB\-mindepth\fR number :
Matches only files which are at least at the given depth level.
\fB\-damaged\fR :
Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged by a previous
run of \-check_media. The damage info vanishes when a new ISO image gets
Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the session as damaged.
If finer distinction is desired, perform \-md5 off before \-check_media.
\fB\-pending_data\fR :
Matches files which get their content from outside the loaded ISO image.
\fB\-lba_range\fR start_lba block_count :
Matches files which use data blocks within the range of start_lba
and start_lba+block_count\-1.
\fB\-has_acl\fR :
Matches files which have a non\-trivial ACL.
\fB\-has_xattr\fR :
Matches files which have xattr name\-value pairs from user namespace.
\fB\-has_aaip\fR :
Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
\fB\-has_any_xattr\fR :
Matches files which have any xattr other than ACL.
\fB\-has_md5\fR :
Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
\fB\-has_hfs_crtp\fR creator type :
Matches files which have the given HFS+ creator and type attached.
These are codes of 4 characters which get stored if \-hfsplus is
enabled. Use a single dash '\-' as wildcard that matches any such code.
\-has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
\-has_hfs_crtp \- \-
\fB\-has_hfs_bless\fR blessing :
Matches files which bear the given HFS+ blessing. It may be one of :
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder",
"any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
\fB\-has_filter\fR :
Matches files which are filtered by \-set_filter.
\fB\-hidden\fR hide_state :
Matches files which are hidden in "iso_rr" tree, in "joliet" tree,
in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees ("on"), or not hidden in any tree ("off").
Those which are hidden in some tree match \-not \-hidden "off".
\fB\-bad_outname\fR namespace :
Matches files with names which change when converted forth and back
between the local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge",
"joliet", "ecma119", "hfsplus".
All applicable \-compliance rules are taken into respect.
Rule "omit_version" is always enabled, because else
namespaces "joliet" and "ecma119" would cause changes with every
non\-directory name.
Consider to also enable rules "no_force_dots" and "no_j_force_dots".
The namespaces use different character sets and apply further restrictions
to name length, permissible characters, and mandatory name components.
"rockridge" uses the character set defined by \-out_charset,
"joliet" uses UCS\-2BE, "ecma119" uses ASCII, "hfsplus" uses UTF\-16BE.
\fB\-name_limit_blocker\fR length :
Matches file names which would prevent command \-file_name_limit with the
given length. The command itself reports only the first problem file.
\fB\-prune\fR :
If this test is reached and the tested file is a directory then \-find will not
dive into that directory. This test itself does always match.
\fB\-use_pattern\fR "on"|"off" :
This pseudo test controls the interpretation of wildcards with tests
\-name, \-wholename, and \-disk_name. Default is "on". If interpretation
is disabled by "off", then the parameters of \-name, \-wholename, and \-disk_name
have to match literally rather than as search pattern.
This test itself does always match.
\fB\-or_use_pattern\fR "on"|"off" :
Like \-use_pattern, but automatically appending the test by \-or rather
than by \-and. Further the test itself does never match. So a subsequent
test \-or will cause its other operand to be performed.
\fB\-decision\fR "yes"|"no" :
If this test is reached then the evaluation ends immediately and action
is performed if the decision is "yes" or "true". See operator \-if.
\fB\-true\fR and \fB\-false\fR :
Always match or match not, respectively. Evaluation goes on.
\fB\-sort_lba\fR :
Always match. This causes \-find to perform its action in a sequence sorted by
the ISO image block addresses of the files. It may improve throughput with
actions which read data from optical drives. Action will always get the
absolute path as parameter.
Available operators are:
\fB\-not\fR :
Matches if the next test or sub expression does not match.
Several tests do this specifically:
\-undamaged, \-lba_range with negative start_lba, \-has_no_acl, \-has_no_xattr,
\-has_no_aaip, \-has_no_filter .
\fB\-and\fR :
Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
\fB\-or\fR :
Matches if at least one of both neighboring tests or expressions matches.
\fB\-sub\fR ... \fB\-subend\fR or \fB(\fR ... \fB)\fR :
Enclose a sub expression which gets evaluated first before it
is processed by neighboring operators.
Normal precedence is: \-not, \-or , \-and.
\fB\-if\fR ... \fB\-then\fR\ ... \fB\-elseif\fR ... \fB\-then\fR ...
\fB\-else\fR ... \fB\-endif\fR :
Enclose one or more sub expressions. If the \-if expression matches, then
the \-then expression is evaluated as the result of the whole expression
up to \-endif. Else the next \-elseif expression is evaluated and if it matches,
its \-then expression. Finally in case of no match, the \-else expression
is evaluated.
There may be more than one \-elseif. Neither \-else nor \-elseif are mandatory.
If \-else is missing and would be hit, then the result is a non\-match.
\-if\-expressions are the main use case for above test \-decision.
Default action is \fBecho\fR,
i.e. to print the address of the found file. Other actions are certain
\fBxorriso\fR commands which get performed on the found files.
These commands
may have specific parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
\fBchown\fR and \fBchown_r\fR
change the ownership and get the user id
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chown thomas \-\-
\fBchgrp\fR and \fBchgrp_r\fR
change the group attribute and get the group id
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chgrp_r staff \-\-
\fBchmod\fR and \fBchmod_r\fR
change access permissions and get a mode string
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chmod a\-w,a+r \-\-
\fBalter_date\fR and \fBalter_date_r\fR
change the timestamps. They get a type
character and a timestring as parameters.
E.g.: \-exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" \-\-
sets the ctime and atime to the value found in mtime.
prints file information like shell command ls \-dl.
performs command \-compare with the found file address as
iso_rr_path and the corresponding file address below its parameter
disk_path_start. For this the iso_rr_path of the \-find command gets
replaced by the disk_path_start.
E.g.: \-find /thomas \-exec compare /home/thomas \-\-
performs command \-update with the found file address as
iso_rr_path. The corresponding file address is determined like with above
action "compare".
is like update but does not delete the found file if it is missing on disk.
It may be run several times and records with all visited files whether their
counterpart on disk has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.
Finally, a \-find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that
saw no counterpart on disk.
Up to the next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge" all newly inserted files will
get marked as having a disk counterpart.
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is not a directory
with files in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image, including whole
directory trees.
removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by one or more previous actions
"update_merge" and saw no counterpart on disk in any of them. The marking from
the update actions is removed in any case.
removes an eventual marking from action "update_merge".
classifies files whether they hit a data block that is
marked as damaged. The result is printed together with the address
of the first damaged byte, the maximum span of damages, file size, and the
path of the file.
prints files which are associated to image data blocks.
It tells the logical block address, the block number, the byte size,
and the path of each file. There may be reported more than one
line per file if the file has more than one section.
In this case each line has a different extent number in column "xt".
like report_lba but telling the byte sizes of the particular sections rather
than the overall byte size of the file.
prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result channel.
attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new
ACL is given in text form as defined with command \-setfacl.
E.g.: \-exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::\-,m::rw \-\-
prints xattr name\-value pairs to the result channel. The choice of namespaces
depends on the setting of command \-xattr: "on" or "user" restricts it to the
namespace "user", "any" only omits namespace "isofs".
prints xattr name\-value pairs from any namespace
except ACL to the result channel. This is mostly for debugging of
namespace "isofs".
\fBlist_extattr\fR mode
prints a script to the result channel, which would use FreeBSD command
setextattr to set the file's xattr name\-value pairs of user namespace.
Parameter mode controls the form of the output of names and values.
Default mode "e" prints harmless characters in shell quotation marks,
but represents texts with octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded
echo \-e command.
Mode "q" prints any characters in shell quotation marks. This might not be
terminal\-safe but should work in script files.
Mode "r" uses no quotation marks. Not safe.
Mode "b" prints backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
E.g. \-exec list_extattr e \-\-
Command \-backslash_codes does not affect the output.
prints the MD5 sum, if recorded, together with file path.
compares the MD5 sum, if recorded, with the file content
and reports if mismatch.
E.g.: \-find / \-not \-pending_data \-exec check_md5 FAILURE \-\-
equips a data file with an MD5 sum of its content. Useful to
upgrade the files in the loaded image to full MD5 coverage by the next
commit with \-md5 "on".
E.g.: \-find / \-type f \-not \-has_md5 \-exec make_md5 \-\-
sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
E.g.: \-find / \-has_xattr \-exec setfattr \-\-remove\-all '' \-\-
adds, changes, or removes HFS+ creator and type attributes.
E.g.: \-exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
E.g.: \-find /my/dir \-prune \-exec set_hfs_crtp \-\-delete \-
prints the HFS+ creator and type attributes together with the iso_rr_path,
if the file has such attributes at all.
E.g.: \-exec get_hfs_crtp
applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are roles which can be attributed to
up to four directories and a data file:
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder".
They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "intel_bootfile"
is the one that would apply to a data file. All others apply to directories.
The \-find run will end as soon as the first blessing is issued. The previous
bearer of the blessing will lose it then.
No file object can bear more than one blessing.
E.g.: \-find /my/blessed/directory \-exec set_hfs_bless p
Further there is blessing "none" or "n" which revokes any blessing from
the found files. This \-find run will not stop when the first match is reached.
E.g.: \-find / \-has_hfs_bless any \-exec set_hfs_bless none
prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path, if the file is blessed
at all.
E.g.: \-exec get_hfs_bless
applies or removes filters.
E.g.: \-exec set_filter \-\-zisofs \-\-
applies the rules of mkisofs \-r to the file object:
user id and group id become 0, all r\-permissions get granted, all w denied.
If there is any x\-permission, then all three x get granted.
s\- and t\-bits get removed.
attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
The number may range from \-2147483648 to 2147483647. The higher it is, the
lower will be the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image.
Currently the boot catalog has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion.
Normally it should occupy the block with the lowest possible address.
Data files which are loaded by \-indev or \-dev get a weight between 1 and
2 exp 28 = 268,435,456, depending on their block address. This shall keep
them roughly in the same order if the write method of modifying is applied.
Data files which are added by other commands get an initial weight of 0.
Boot image files have a default weight of 2.
E.g.: \-exec sort_weight 3 \-\-
shows the content stream chain of a data file.
is like show_stream, but also prints between stream type and first ":"
in square brackets libisofs id numbers: [fs_id,dev_id,ino_id].
brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr", "joliet",
"hfsplus", "off". They may be combined. E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
\-find / \-disk_name *_secret \-exec hide on
prints in the first line the filename as registered by the program model,
and in the second line the filename after conversion forth and back between
local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge", "joliet", "ecma119",
or "hfsplus". The third output line is "\-\-" .
The name conversion does not take into respect the possibility of name
collisions in the target namespace. Such collisions are most likely in "joliet"
and "ecma119", where they get resolved by automatic file name changes.
\-find / \-bad_outname joliet \-exec print_outname joliet
prints a lower and an upper estimation of the number of blocks which the
found files together will occupy in the emerging ISO image.
This does not account for the superblock,
for the directories in the \-find path, or for image padding.
performs another run of \-find on the matching file address.
It accepts the same params as \-find, except iso_rr_path.
\-find / \-name '???' \-type d \-exec find \-name '[abc]*' \-exec chmod a\-w,a+r \-\-
.B Filters for data file content:
\fBFilters\fR may be installed between data files in the ISO image and their
content source outside the image. They may also be used vice versa between
data content in the image and target files on disk.
Built\-in filters are "\-\-zisofs" and
"\-\-zisofs\-decode". The former is to be
applied via \-set_filter, the latter is automatically applied if zisofs
compressed content is detected with a file when loading the ISO image.
Another built\-in filter pair is "\-\-gzip"
and "\-\-gunzip" with suffix ".gz".
They behave about like external gzip and gunzip but avoid forking a process
for each single file. So they are much faster if there are many small files.
\fB\-external_filter\fR name option[:option] program_path [arguments] --
Register a content filter by associating a name with a program path,
program arguments, and some behavioral options. Once registered it can be
applied to multiple data files in the ISO image, regardless whether their
content resides in the loaded ISO image or in the local filesystem.
External filter processes may produce synthetic file content by reading the
original content from stdin and writing to stdout whatever they want.
They must deliver the same output on the same input in repeated runs.
Options are:
"default" means that no other option is intended.
"suffix=..." sets a file name suffix. If it is not empty then it will be
appended to the file name or removed from it.
"remove_suffix" will remove a file name suffix
rather than appending it.
"if_nonempty" will leave 0\-sized files unfiltered.
"if_reduction" will try filtering and revoke it if the content size does not
"if_block_reduction" will revoke if the number of 2 kB blocks does not shrink.
"used=..." is ignored. Command \-status shows it with the number of
files which currently have the filter applied.
\-external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \\
/usr/bin/bzip2 \-\-
\-external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \\
/usr/bin/bunzip2 \-\-
\fB\-unregister_filter\fR name
Remove an \-external_filter registration. This is only possible if the filter
is not applied to any file in the ISO image.
Irrevocably ban commands \-concat "pipe", \-external_filter,
and \-unregister_filter, but not \-set_filter. Use this to prevent external
filtering in general or when all intended filters are registered and \-concat
mode "pipe" shall be disallowed.
External filters may also be banned totally at compile time of
By default they are banned if \fBxorriso\fR runs under setuid permission.
\fB\-set_filter\fR name iso_rr_path [***]
Apply an \-external_filter or a built\-in filter to the given data files in the
ISO image.
If the filter suffix is not empty , then it will be applied to the file name.
Renaming only happens if the filter really gets attached and is not revoked by
its options.
By default files which already bear the suffix will not get filtered. The
others will get the suffix appended to their names.
If the filter has option "remove_suffix", then the filter will only be
applied if the suffix is present and can be removed.
Name oversize or collision caused by suffix change will prevent filtering.
With most filter types this command will immediately run the filter once for
each file in order to determine the output size.
Content reading operations like \-extract , \-compare and image generation will
perform further filter runs and deliver filtered content.
At image generation time the filter output must still be the same as the
output from the first run. Filtering for image generation does not happen
with files from the loaded ISO image if the write method of growing is in
effect (i.e \-indev and \-outdev are identical).
The reserved filter name "\-\-remove\-all\-filters" revokes
filtering. This will revoke suffix renamings as well.
Use "\-\-remove\-all\-filters+" to
prevent any suffix renaming.
Attaching or detaching filters will not alter the state of \-changes_pending.
If the filter manipulations shall be the only changes in a write run, then
explicitly execute \-changes_pending "yes".
\fB\-set_filter_r\fR name iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-set_filter but affecting all data files below eventual directories.
.B Writing the result, drive control:
(see also paragraph about settings below)
Discard the manipulated ISO image and reload it from \-indev.
(Use \-rollback_end if immediate program end is desired.)
\fB\-changes_pending\fR "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
Write runs are performed only if a change of the image has been made
since the image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the program will
start a write run for pending changes when it ends normally (i.e. not by abort
and not by command \-rollback_end).
The command \-changes_pending can be used to override the automatically
determined state. This is mainly useful for setting state "yes" despite
no real changes were made. The sequence \-changes_pending "no" \-end
is equivalent to the command \-rollback_end. State "mkisofs_printed"
is caused by emulation command \-as mkisofs if option \-print\-size is present.
The pseudo\-state "show_status" can be used to print the current state to result
Image loading or manipulations which happen after this command will again
update automatically the change status of the image.
Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if \-outdev is readable, make it
the new \-dev and load the image from there.
Switch to growing mode.
(A subsequent \-outdev will activate modification mode or blind growing.)
\-commit is performed automatically at end of program if there
are uncommitted manipulations pending.
So, to perform a final write operation with no new \-dev
and no new loading of image, rather execute command \-end.
If you want to go on without image loading, execute \-commit_eject "none".
To eject after write without image loading, use \-commit_eject "all".
To suppress a final write, execute \-rollback_end.
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few
minutes after all data have been transmitted.
\fBxorriso\fR and the drives are in a client\-server relationship.
The drives have much freedom about what to do with the media.
Some combinations of drives and media simply do not work,
despite the promises by their vendors.
If writing fails then try other media or another drive. The reason
for such failure is hardly ever in the code of the various
burn programs but you may well try some of those listed below
under SEE ALSO.
\fB\-eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"
Eject the medium in \-indev, \-outdev, or both drives, respectively.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
\fB\-commit_eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
Combined \-commit and \-eject. When writing has finished do not make
\-outdev the new \-dev, and load no ISO image. Rather eject
\-indev and/or \-outdev. Give up any non\-ejected drive.
\fB\-blank\fR mode
Make media ready for writing from scratch (if not \-dummy is activated).
This affects only the \-outdev not the \-indev.
If both drives are the same and if the ISO image was altered
then this command leads to a FAILURE event.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
"as_needed" cares for used CD\-RW, DVD\-RW and for used overwritable media
by applying \-blank "fast". It applies \-format "full" to yet unformatted
DVD\-RAM and BD\-RE. Other media in blank state are gracefully ignored.
Media which cannot be made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE
"fast" makes CD\-RW and unformatted DVD\-RW re\-usable, or invalidates
overwritable ISO images. "all" might work more thoroughly and need more time.
"deformat" converts overwritable DVD\-RW into unformatted ones.
"deformat_quickest" is a faster way to deformat or blank DVD\-RW
but produces media which are only suitable for a single session.
Some drives announce this state by not offering feature 21h,
but some drives offer it anyway.
If feature 21h is missing, then \fBxorriso\fR
will refuse to write on DVD\-RW if not command \-close is set to "on".
The progress reports issued by some drives while blanking are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Blanking was successful if no SORRY event or
worse occurred.
Mode may be prepended by "force:" in order to override the evaluation
of the medium state by libburn. E.g. "force:fast".
Blanking will nevertheless only succeed if the drive is willing to do it.
\fB\-format\fR mode
Convert unformatted DVD\-RW into overwritable ones, "de\-ice" DVD+RW, format
newly purchased BD\-RE or BD\-R, re\-format DVD\-RAM or BD\-RE.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>,
by_size_<num>, fast_by_size_<num>, without_spare
"as_needed" formats yet unformatted DVD\-RW, DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or blank
unformatted BD\-R. Other media are left untouched.
"full" (re\-)formats DVD\-RW, DVD+RW, DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or blank unformatted BD\-R.
"fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
"by_index_" selects a format out of the descriptor list issued by command
\-list_formats. The index number from that list is to be appended to the
mode word. E.g: "by_index_3".
"fast_by_index_" does the same as "by_index_" but tries to be quicker.
"by_size_" selects a format out of the descriptor list which provides at
least the given size. That size is to be appended to the mode word.
E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with Defect Management.
On BD\-RE it will not choose format 0x31, which offers no Defect Management.
"fast_by_size_" does the same as "by_size_" but tries to be quicker.
"without_spare" selects the largest format out of the descriptor list
which provides no Spare Area for Defect Management. On BD\-RE this
will be format 0x31.
The formatting action has no effect on media if \-dummy is activated.
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium,
if ever. But it is a reason for re\-formatting if:
DVD\-RW was deformatted by \-blank,
DVD+RW has read failures (re\-format before next write),
DVD\-RAM or BD\-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
BD\-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first use.
Formatting activates Defect Management which tries to catch and repair
bad spots on media during the write process at the expense of half speed
even with flawless media.
The progress reports issued by some drives while formatting are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Formatting was successful if no SORRY event
or worse occurred. Be patient with apparently frozen progress.
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for
the current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s")
and the same size in MiB.
MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are:
"00h" general formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD\-RAM,
"26h" for DVD+RW, "30h" for BD\-RE with reserve space,
"31h" for BD\-RE without reserve space, "32h" for BD\-R.
Smaller format size with DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or BD\-R means more reserve space.
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the drives with the loaded
media. The list tells read speeds of the input drive and of the output
drive. Further it tells write speeds of the output drive.
The list of write speeds does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired
speed as possible.
At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"
are the best guesses for lower and upper write speed limit.
"Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may appear only with CD
and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear
"Write speed 0", which tells the outcome of speed selection by command
\-speed 0, if it deviates from "Write speed H".
"Read speed L" and "Read speed H" tell the minimum and maximum read speeds,
as reported by the drive. They would be chosen by \-read_speed "min" or
"max" if they undercut or surpass the built\-in limits. These are "1x",
"52xCD", "24xDVD", "20xBD".
\fB\-close_damaged\fR "as_needed"|"force"
Try to close the upcoming track and session if the drive reported the medium
as damaged. This may apply to CD\-R, CD\-RW, DVD\-R, DVD\-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL,
or BD\-R media. It is indicated by warning messages when the drive gets
acquired, and by a remark "but next track is damaged" with the line
"Media status :" of command \-toc.
The setting of command \-close determines whether the medium stays appendable.
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not reported as
damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation even with media which
appear undamaged.
No image changes are allowed to be pending before this command is performed.
After closing was attempted, both drives are given up.
\fB\-list_profiles\fR "in"|"out"|"all"
Put out a list of media types supported by \-indev, \-outdev, or both,
The currently recognized type is marked by text "(current)".
.B Settings for result writing:
Rock Ridge info will be generated by default.
ACLs will be written according to the setting of command \-acl.
\fB\-joliet\fR "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge
\fB\-hfsplus\fR "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image
and mark it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area,
the first 32 KiB of the image.
This may collide with data submitted by \-boot_image system_area=.
The first 8 bytes of the System Area get overwritten by
{ 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff }
which can be executed as x86 machine code without negative effects.
So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 bytes
should contain no essential commands.
The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by APM entries.
The first one covers the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem
metadata. The second one marks the range from HFS+ metadata to the end
of file content data. If more ISO image data follow, then a third partition
entry gets produced. Other features of xorriso might cause the need for
more APM entries.
The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add\-on sessions produced by the
multi\-session method of growing. An existing ISO image may nevertheless
be the base for a new image produced by the method of modifying.
If \-hfsplus is enabled when \-indev or \-dev gets executed, then AAIP
attributes get loaded from the input image and checked for information about
HFS creator, filetype, or blessing. If found, then they get enabled as
settings for the next image production.
Therefore it is advisable to perform \-hfsplus "on" before \-indev or \-dev.
Information about HFS creator, type, and blessings gets stored by xorriso
if \-hfsplus is enabled at \-commit time. It is stored as copy outside the
HFS+ partition, but rather along with the Rock Ridge information.
xorriso does not read any information from the HFS+ meta data.
Be aware that HFS+ is case\-insensitive although it can record file names
with upper\-case and lower\-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr
name tree may collide in the HFS+ name tree. In this case they get changed
by adding underscore characters and counting numbers. In case of very long
names, it might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".
\fB\-rockridge\fR "on"|"off"
Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the ISO 9660 file
objects. The multi\-session capabilities of xorriso depend much on the naming
fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is strongly discouraged to deviate from
default setting "on".
\fB\-compliance\fR rule[:rule...]
Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA\-119 and its
contemporary extensions. In some
cases it is worth to deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs of the intended
reader system or to get unofficial extra features.
There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If they
are mentioned with this command then their rule gets added to the relaxation
list. This list can be erased by rules "strict" or "clear". It can be reset
to its start setting by "default". All of the following relaxation rules
can be revoked individually by appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
Rule keywords are:
"iso_9660_level="number chooses level 1 with ECMA\-119 names of the form 8.3
and \-file_size_limit <= 4g \- 1, or level 2 with ECMA\-119 names up to
length 32 and the same \-file_size_limit, or level 3 with ECMA\-119 names up to
length 32 and \-file_size_limit >= 400g \-200k. If necessary \-file_size_limit
gets adjusted.
"allow_dir_id_ext" allows ECMA\-119 names of directories to have a name extension
as with other file types. It does not force dots and it omits the version
number, though. This is a bad tradition of mkisofs which violates ECMA\-119.
Especially ISO level 1 only allows 8 characters in a directory name and
not 8.3.
"omit_version" does not add versions (";1") to ECMA\-119 and Joliet file names.
"only_iso_version" does not add versions (";1") to Joliet file names.
"deep_paths" allows ECMA\-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
"long_paths" allows ECMA\-119 file paths longer than 255 characters.
"long_names" allows up to 37 characters with ECMA\-119 file names.
"no_force_dots" does not add a dot to ECMA\-119 file names which have none.
"no_j_force_dots" does not add a dot to Joliet file names which have none.
"lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
"7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7\-bit characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
Not allowed are 0x0 and '/'. If not "lowercase" is enabled, then lowercase
letters get converted to uppercase.
"full_ascii" allows all 8\-bit characters except 0x0 and '/'
in ECMA\-119 file names.
"untranslated_names" might be dangerous for inadverted reader programs
which rely on the restriction to at most 37 characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
This rule allows ECMA\-119 file names up to 96 characters with no character
conversion. If a file name has more characters, then image production will
fail deliberately.
"untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a smaller limit
for the length of file names. 0 disables this feature, \-1 chooses maximum
length limit, numbers larger than 0 give the desired length limit.
"joliet_long_names" allows Joliet leaf names up to 103 characters rather
than 64.
"joliet_long_paths" allows Joliet paths longer than 240 characters.
"joliet_utf16" encodes Joliet names in UTF\-16BE rather than UCS\-2.
The difference is with characters which are not present
in UCS\-2 and get encoded in UTF\-16 by 2 words of 16 bit each.
Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS\-2.
"always_gmt" stores timestamps in GMT representation with timezone 0.
"rec_mtime" records with non\-RockRidge directory entries the disk file's
mtime and not the creation time of the image. This applies to the ECMA\-119
tree (plain ISO 9660), to Joliet, and to ISO 9660:1999. "rec_time" is
default. If disabled, it gets automatically re\-enabled by \-as mkisofs emulation
when a pathspec is encountered.
"new_rr" uses Rock Ridge version 1.12 (suitable for GNU/Linux but not for older
FreeBSD or for Solaris). This implies "aaip_susp_1_10_off" which may be changed
by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10".
Default is "old_rr" which uses Rock Ridge version 1.10. This implies also
"aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10_off".
"aaip_susp_1_10" allows AAIP to be written as unofficial extension of RRIP
rather than as official extension under SUSP\-1.12.
"no_emul_toc" saves 64 kB with the first session on overwritable media
but makes the image incapable of displaying its session history.
"iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory tree
compliant to ISO 9660:1999. It can record long filenames for readers which
do not understand Rock Ridge.
"old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the range
of [0,31] to files with no own data content. The new way is to have
a dedicated block to which all such files will point.
Default setting is
Note: The term "ECMA\-119 name" means the plain ISO 9660 names and attributes
which get visible if the reader ignores Rock Ridge.
\fB\-rr_reloc_dir\fR name
Specify the name of the relocation directory in which deep directory subtrees
shall be placed if \-compliance is set to "deep_paths_off" or "long_paths_off".
A deep directory is one that has a chain of 8 parent directories (including
root) above itself, or one that contains a file with an ECMA\-119 path of more
than 255 characters.
The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interpreted
as Rock Ridge tree. It will appear as re\-arranged if only ECMA\-119
information is considered.
The default relocation directory is the root directory. By giving a non\-empty
name with \-rr_reloc_dir, a directory in the root directory may get this role.
If that directory does not already exist at \-commit time, then it will get
created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefact. At least on
GNU/Linux it will not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer than
255 bytes.
\fB\-volid\fR text
Specify the volume ID, which most operating systems will consider to be
the volume name of the image or medium.
\fBxorriso\fR accepts any text up to 32 characters,
but according to rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
ECMA\-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A\-Z0\-9_]. Like:
Joliet allows 16 UCS\-2 characters. Like:
"Windows name"
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as the name of the
mount point when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default "ISOIMAGE"
or to "", then the volume ID of the loaded image will become the effective
volume id for the next write run. But as soon as command \-volid is performed
afterwards, this pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
Consider this when setting \-volid "ISOIMAGE" before executing \-dev, \-indev,
or \-rollback.
If you insist in \-volid "ISOIMAGE", set it again after those commands.
\fB\-volset_id\fR text
Set the volume set ID string to be written with the next \-commit.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-publisher\fR text
Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the person or organisation who specified what shall be recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-application_id\fR text
Set the application ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the specification of how the data are recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
which is normally written as \-preparer_id. It is a wrong tradition to write
the program ID as \-application_id.
\fB\-system_id\fR text
Set the system ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the system which can recognize and act upon the content of the
System Area in image blocks 0 to 15.
Permissible are up to 32 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-volume_date\fR type timestring
Set one of the four overall timestamps for subsequent image writing.
Available types are:
"c" time when the volume was created.
"m" time when volume was last modified.
"x" time when the information in the volume expires.
"f" time since when the volume is effectively valid.
"all_file_dates" sets mtime, atime, and ctime of all files and
directories to the given time. If the timestring is "set_to_mtime", then the
atime and ctime of each file and directory get set to the value found in their
These actions stay delayed until actual ISO production begins.
Up to then they can be revoked by "all_file_dates" with empty timestring
or timestring "default".
The timestamps of the El Torito boot catalog file get refreshed when the ISO
is produced. They can be influenced by "uuid".
"uuid" sets a timestring that overrides "c" and "m" times literally and sets
the time of the El Torito boot catalog.
It must consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with
YYYY between 1970 and 2999. Time zone is GMT.
It is supposed to match this GRUB line:
search \-\-fs\-uuid \-\-set YYYY\-MM\-DD\-hh\-mm\-ss\-cc
E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
Timestrings for the other types may be given as with command \-alter_date.
Some of them are prone to timezone computations. The timestrings "default" or
"overridden" cause default settings: "c" and "m" will show the current time
of image creation. "x" and "f" will be marked as insignificant.
"uuid" will be deactivated.
At \-commit time, some timestamps get set to the maximum value of effectively
written volume creation and modification time: El Torito boot catalog,
HFS+ superblock, ECMA\-119 file modification time if \-compliance "no_rec_mtime".
The isohybrid MBR id is computed from "uuid" if given, else from the effective
volume modification date.
\fB\-copyright_file\fR text
Set the copyright file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains a copyright
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-abstract_file\fR text
Set the abstract file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains an abstract
statement about the image content.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-biblio_file\fR text
Set the biblio file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains bibliographic
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
Set the preparer ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the person or other entity which controls the preparation of the data
which shall be recorded. Normally this should be the ID of \fBxorriso\fR
and not of the person or program which operates \fBxorriso\fR.
Please avoid to change it. Permissible are up to 128 characters.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
\fBxorriso\fR which is default at program startup.
Unlike other ID strings, this setting is not influenced by image loading.
\fB\-application_use\fR character|0xXY|disk_path
Specify the content of the Application Use field which can take at most
512 bytes.
If the parameter of this command is empty, then the field is filled
with 512 0\-bytes. If it is a single character, then it gets repeated 512 times.
If it begins by "0x" followed by two hex digits [0\-9a\-fA\-F], then the digits
are read as byte value which gets repeated 512 times.
Any other parameter text is used as disk_path to open a data file and to
read up to 512 bytes from it. If the file is smaller than 512 bytes, then the
remaining bytes in the field get set to binary 0.
This setting is not influenced by image loading.
\fB\-out_charset\fR character_set_name
Set the character set to which file names get converted when writing an
image. See paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations.
When loading the written image after \-commit the setting of \-out_charset
will be copied to \-in_charset.
\fB\-uid\fR uid
User id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.
\fB\-gid\fR gid
Group id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.
\fB\-zisofs\fR option[:options]
Set global parameters for zisofs compression. This data format is recognized
and transparently uncompressed by some Linux kernels. It is to be applied
via command \-set_filter with built\-in filter "\-\-zisofs".
Parameters are:
"level="[0\-9] zlib compression: 0=none, 1=fast,..., 9=slow
"block_size="32k|64k|128k size of compression blocks
"by_magic=on" enables an expensive test at image generation time which checks
files from disk whether they already are zisofs compressed, e.g. by program
"default" same as "level=6:block_size=32k:by_magic=off"
\fB\-speed\fR code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
Set the burn speed. Default is "max" (or "0") = maximum speed as announced
by the drive.
Further special speed codes are:
"min" (or "\-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
"none" avoids to send a speed setting command to the drive before
burning begins.
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a
desired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)
or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x\-speed factor can be set explicitly
by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
medium in the \-outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as upper limit
for their own decision.
\fB\-stream_recording\fR "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management of defects on DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE,
or BD\-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged media usable. But it reduces
write speed to half nominal speed even if the medium is in perfect shape.
For the case of flawless media, one may use \-stream_recording "on" to get
full speed.
"full" tries full speed with all write operations, whereas "on" does this
only above byte address 32s. One may give a number of at least 16s
in order to set an own address limit.
"data" causes full speed to start when superblock and directory entries are
written and writing of file content blocks begins.
\fB\-dvd_obs\fR "default"|"32k"|"64k"
GNU/Linux specific:
Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to DVD
or BD media. A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with bus systems which
show latency problems. The default depends on media type, on command
\-stream_recording , and on compile time options.
\fB\-modesty_on_drive\fR parameter[:parameters]
Control whether the drive buffer shall be kept from getting completely filled.
Parameter "on" (or "1") keeps the program from trying to write to the burner
drive while its buffer is in danger to be filled over a given limit.
If this limit is exceeded then the program will wait until the filling
reaches a given low percentage value.
This can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus help
with achieving better input bandwidth if disk and burner are not on independent
controllers (like hda and hdb). It may also help with throughput problems of
simultaneous burns on different burners with Linux kernels like 3.16, if one
has reason not to fix the problem by \-scsi_dev_family "sg".
On the other hand it increases the risk of buffer underflow and thus
reduced write speed.
Some burners are not suitable because they
report buffer fill with granularity too coarse in size or time,
or expect their buffer to be filled to the top before they go to full speed.
Parameters "off" or "0" disable this feature.
The threshold for beginning to wait is given by parameter "max_percent=".
Parameter "min_percent=" defines the threshold for resuming transmission.
Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100. Numbers in this
range without a prepended name are interpreted as "on:min_percent=".
E.g.: \-modesty_on_drive 75
The optimal values depend on the buffer behavior of the drive.
Parameter "timeout_sec=" defines after which time of unsuccessful waiting
the modesty shall be disabled because it does not work.
Parameter "min_usec=" defines the initial sleeping period in microseconds.
If the drive buffer appears to be too full for sending more data, the
program will wait the given time and inquire the buffer fill state again.
If repeated inquiry shows not enough free space, the sleep time will
slowly be increased to what parameter "max_usec=" defines.
Parameters, which are not mentioned with a \-modesty_on_drive command,
stay unchanged.
Default is:
\-modesty_on_drive off:min_percent=90:max_percent=95:
\fB\-use_immed_bit\fR "on"|"off"|"default"
Control whether several long lasting SCSI commands shall be executed with the
Immed bit, which makes the commands end early while the drive operation is
still going on. xorriso then inquires progress indication until the drive
reports to be ready again. If this feature is turned off, then blanking and
formatting will show no progress indication.
It may depend on the operating system whether \-use_immed_bit is set to "off"
by default. Command \-status will tell by appending "/on" or "/off" if a drive
has already been acquired and \-use_immed_bit is currently set to "default".
Command \-use_immed_bit tolerates and ignores such appended text.
\fB\-stdio_sync\fR "on"|"off"|"end"|number
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to stdio: pseudo drives.
This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of
pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".
Forced output can be disabled by "off", or be delayed by "end" until all
data are produced. If a number is chosen, then it must be at least 64k.
\fB\-dummy\fR "on"|"off"
If "on" then simulate burning or refuse with FAILURE event if
no simulation is possible, do neither blank nor format.
\fB\-fs\fR number["k"|"m"]
Set the size of the fifo buffer which smoothens the data
stream from ISO image generation to media burning. Default
is 4 MiB, minimum 64 kiB, maximum 1 GiB.
The number may be followed by letter "k" or "m"
which means unit is kiB (= 1024) or MiB (= 1024 kiB).
\fB\-close\fR "on"|"off"|"as_needed"
If \-close is set to "on" then mark the written medium as not appendable
any more. This will have no effect on overwritable media types.
Setting "on" is the contrary of cdrecord option \-multi,
and is one aspect of growisofs option \-dvd\-compat.
If set to "off" then keep the medium writable for an appended session.
If set to "as_needed" then use "on" only if "off" is predicted to
fail with the given medium and its state.
Not all drives correctly recognize fast\-blanked DVD\-RW which need "on".
If there is well founded suspicion that a burn run failed due to
\-close "off", then \-close "as_needed" causes a re\-try with "on".
Note that emulation command \-as "cdrecord" temporarily overrides
the current setting of \-close by its own default \-close "on" if
its option \-multi is missing.
\fB\-write_type\fR "auto"|"tao"|"sao/dao"
Set the write type for the next burn run. "auto" will select SAO with blank
CD media, DAO with blank DVD\-R[W] if \-close is "on", and elsewise CD TAO or the
equivalent write type of the particular DVD/BD media.
Choosing TAO or SAO/DAO explicitly might cause the burn run to fail if the
desired write type is not possible with the given media state.
\fB\-padding\fR number["k"|"m"]|"included"|"appended"
Append the given number of extra bytes to the image stream.
This is a traditional remedy for a traditional bug in block
device read drivers. Needed only for CD recordings in TAO mode.
Since one can hardly predict on what media an image might end up,
\fBxorriso\fR adds the traditional 300k of padding by default to
all images.
For images which will never get to a CD it is safe to use \-padding 0 .
Normally padding is not written as part of the ISO image but appended
after the image end. This is \-padding mode "appended".
Emulation command \-as "mkisofs" and command \-jigdo cause padding to be
written as part of the image.
The same effect is achieved by \-padding mode "included".
.B Bootable ISO images:
Contrary to published specifications many BIOSes will load an El Torito
record from the first session on media and not from the last one, which
gets mounted by default. This makes no problems with overwritable media,
because they appear to inadverted readers as one single session.
But with multi\-session media CD\-R[W], DVD\-R[W], DVD+R, it implies that the
whole bootable system has to reside already in the first session and that
the last session still has to bear all files which the booted system expects
after mounting the ISO image.
If a boot image from ISOLINUX or GRUB is known to be present on media then
it is advised to patch it
when a follow\-up session gets written. But one should not rely on the
capability to influence the bootability of the existing sessions, unless one
can assume overwritable media.
Normally the boot images are data files inside the ISO filesystem. By
special path "\-\-interval:appended_partition_NNN:all::" it is possible to
refer to an appended partition. The number NNN gives the partition number
as used with the corresponding command \-append_partition.
\-append_partition 2 0xef /tmp/efi.img
\-boot_image any efi_path=\-\-interval:appended_partition_2:all::
There are booting mechanisms which do not use an El Torito record but rather
start at the first bytes of the image: PC\-BIOS MBR or EFI GPT for
hard\-disk\-like devices,
APM partition entries for Macs which expect HFS+ boot images,
MIPS Volume Header for old SGI computers,
DEC Boot Block for old MIPS DECstation,
SUN Disk Label for SPARC machines,
HP\-PA boot sector for HP PA\-RISC machines,
DEC Alpha SRM boot sector for old DEC Alpha machines.
Several of the following commands expect disk paths as input but also accept
description strings for the libisofs interval reader, which is able to cut
out data from disk files or \-indev and to zeroize parts of the content:
command \-append_partition,
boot specs system_area=, grub2_mbr=, prep_boot_part=, efi_boot_part=.
The description string consists
of the following components, separated by colon ':'
The component "\-\-interval" states that this is not
a plain disk path but rather an interval reader description string.
The component Flags modifies the further interpretation:
"local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
"imported_iso" demands to read from the \-indev. This works only if \-outdev
is not the same as \-indev. The Source component is ignored.
"appended_partition_NNN" with a decimal number NNN works only for \-boot_image
bootspecs which announce El Torito boot image paths: bin_path=, efi_path=.
The number gives the partition number as used with the corresponding
command \-append_partition.
The component Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated by a "\-" character. E.g. "0\-429" means to read bytes 0 to 429.
The component Zeroizers consists of zero or more comma separated strings.
They define which part of the read data to zeroize. Byte number 0 means
the byte read from the Interval start address.
Each string may be one of:
"zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table if
bytes 510 and 511 bear the MBR signature 0x55 0xaa.
"zero_gpt" demands to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023,
to zeroize it and its partition table blocks.
"zero_apm" demands to check for an APM block 0 and to zeroize
its partition table blocks.
Start_byte"\-"End_byte demands to zeroize the read\-in bytes beginning
with number Start_byte and ending after End_byte.
The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored with
flag "imported_iso".
Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix out of {k,m,g,t,s,d} meaning
multiplication by {1024, 1024k, 1024m, 1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled value
end number depicts the last byte of the scaled range.
E.g. "0d\-0d" is "0\-511".
\fB\-boot_image\fR "any"|"isolinux"|"grub"
Define the equipment of the emerging filesystem with boot entry points.
With systems which boot via BIOS or EFI this is a set of El Torito
boot images, possibly MBR boot code, and possibly partition tables of
type MBR, GPT, or APM.
Such file sets get produced by boot loader systems like ISOLINUX or GRUB.
Each \-boot_image command has two parameters: type and setting. More than one
\-boot_image command may be used to define the handling of one or more boot
images. Sequence matters.
Types \fBisolinux\fR and \fBgrub\fR care for known peculiarities.
Type \fBany\fR makes
no assumptions about the origin of the boot images.
When loading an ISO filesystem, system area and El Torito boot images get
loaded, too. The default behavior is not to write loaded El Torito boot images
and to write the loaded system area content without alterations.
\fBdiscard\fR gives up the El Torito boot catalog and its boot images.
regardless whether loaded from an ISO filesystem or defined by commands.
Any BIOS or EFI related boot options get revoked.
Nevertheless, loaded system area data stay valid. If desired, they have to be
erased by
\-boot_image any system_area=/dev/zero
\fBkeep\fR keeps or copies El Torito boot images unaltered and writes a new catalog.
\fBpatch\fR applies patching to existing El Torito boot images
if they seem to bear a boot info table.
A boot info table needs to be patched when the boot image gets newly
introduced into the ISO image or if an existing image gets relocated.
This is automatically done if type "isolinux" or "grub"
is given, but not with "any".
If patching is enabled, then boot images from previous sessions will
be checked whether they seem to bear a boot info table. If not,
then they stay unpatched. This check is not infallible. So if
you do know that the images need no patching, use "any" "keep".
"grub" "patch" will not patch EFI images (platform_id=0xef).
\fBreplay\fR is a more modern version of "patch", which not only cares
for existing El Torito boot equipment but also for the recognizable
boot provisions in the System Area. It discards any existing \-boot_image
setting and executes the commands proposed by command \-report_el_torito "cmd".
This action will only succeed if the file objects mentioned in the
output of command \-report_el_torito "cmd" are still available. Do not
remove or rename boot image files after \-indev.
Drop unknown El Torito: \-boot_image "any" "discard"
Maintain recognizable stuff: \-boot_image "any" "replay"
El Torito only for GRUB: \-boot_image "grub" "patch"
El Torito only for ISOLINUX: \-boot_image "isolinux" "patch"
\fBshow_status\fR will print what is known about the loaded boot images
and their designated fate.
A \fBbootspec\fR is a word of the form name=value. It is used to describe
the parameters of a boot feature.
The names "dir", "bin_path", "efi_path" lead to El Torito bootable images.
Name "system_area" activates a given file as MBR or other disk header.
On all media types this is possible within the first session. In further
sessions an existing boot image can get replaced by a new one, but depending
on the media type this may have few effect at boot time. See above.
El Torito boot images have to be added to the ISO image by
normal means (image loading, \-map, \-add, ...). In case of ISOLINUX the files
should reside either in ISO image directory /isolinux or in /boot/isolinux .
In that case it suffices to use as bootspec the text "\fBdir=/isolinux\fR"
or "dir=/boot/isolinux". E.g.:
\-boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux
which bundles these individual settings:
\-boot_image isolinux bin_path=/boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin
\-boot_image isolinux cat_path=/boot/isolinux/
\-boot_image isolinux load_size=2048
\-boot_image any boot_info_table=on
An El Torito boot catalog file gets inserted into the ISO image with address
\fBcat_path=\fR with the first \-boot_image "any" "next" or at \-commit time.
It is subject to normal \-overwrite and \-reassure processing if there is already
a file with the same name.
The catalog lists the boot images and is read by the boot facility to choose
one of the boot images. But it is not necessary that it appears in the
directory tree at all. One may hide it in all trees by \fBcat_hidden=on\fR.
Other possible values are "iso_rr", "joliet", "hfsplus", and the default "off".
The timestamps of the boot catalog file are refreshed at commit time.
Command \-volume_date "uuid" can be used to set their value.
\fBbin_path=\fR depicts an El Torito boot image file, a binary program
which is to be started by the hardware boot facility (e.g. the BIOS)
at boot time.
\fBefi_path=\fR depicts an El Torito boot image file that is ready for
EFI booting. This is normally a FAT filesystem image not larger than
65535 blocks of 512 bytes (= 32 MiB \- 512).
Its load_size is determined automatically, no boot info table gets
written, no boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
\fBemul_type=\fR can be one of "no_emulation", "hard_disk", "diskette".
It controls the boot medium emulation code of a boot image.
The default "no_emulation" is suitable for ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
\fBload_size=\fR is a value which depends on the boot image.
Default is 2048 which matches the expectations of most boot images.
The special value "full" means the full size of the boot image file
rounded up to a multiple of 2048 bytes. Maximum is 33,552,384 bytes.
\fBboot_info_table=on\fR causes address patching to bytes 8 to 63
of the boot image which is given by "any" "bin_path=".
"boot_info_table=off" disables this patching.
\fBgrub2_boot_info=on\fR causes address patching to byte 2548
of the boot image which is given by "any" "bin_path=".
The address is written as 64 bit little\-endian number. It is the
2KB block address of the boot image content, multiplied by 4,
and then incremented by 5.
"grub2_boot_info=off" disables this patching.
\fBplatform_id=\fR defines by a hexadecimal or decimal number
the Platform ID of the boot image. "0x00" is 80x86 PC\-BIOS, "0x01" is PowerPC,
"0x02" is Mac, "0xef" is EFI (decimal "239").
\fBid_string=\fRtext|56_hexdigits defines the ID string of the boot catalog
section where the boot image will be listed. If the value consists of 56
characters [0\-9A\-Fa\-f] then it is converted into 28 bytes, else the first
28 characters become the ID string.
The ID string of the first boot image becomes the overall catalog ID.
It is limited to 24 characters. Other id_strings become section IDs.
\fBsel_crit=\fRhexdigits defines the Selection Criteria of the boot image.
Up to 20 bytes get read from the given characters [0\-9A\-Fa\-f].
They get attributed to the boot image entry in the catalog.
\fBnext\fR ends the definition of a boot image and starts a new one.
Any following \-bootimage bootspecs will affect the new image.
The first "next" discards loaded boot images and their catalog.
\fBsystem_area=\fRdisk_path copies at most 32768 bytes from the given
disk file to the very start of the ISO image.
This System Area is reserved for system dependent boot software, e.g. an MBR
which can be used to boot from USB stick or hard disk.
Other than an El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added
to the ISO image.
\fB\-boot_image isolinux system_area=\fR implies "partition_table=on".
In this case, the disk path should lead to one of the SYSLINUX files
isohdp[fp]x*.bin or to a file which was derived from one of those files.
E.g. to the first 512 bytes from an ISOLINUX isohybrid ISO image.
In this case, El Torito boot images (dir=, bin_path=, efi_path=)
may be augmented by
\fBisolinux partition_entry=gpt_basdat\fR
or \fBisolinux partition_entry=gpt_hfsplus\fR,
and by \fBisolinux partition_entry=apm_hfsplus\fR.
The boot image will then be mentioned in GPT as Basic Data
or GPT HFS+ partition, and in APM as HFS+ partition.
The first three GPT partitions will also be marked by MBR partitions.
In multi\-session situations the existing System Area is preserved by default.
In in this case, the special disk_path "." prevents reading of
a disk file but nevertheless causes adjustments in the
loaded system area data. Such adjustments may get ordered by \-boot_image
\fB\-boot_image any gpt_disk_guid=\fRvalue controls whether an emerging GPT
shall get a randomly generated disk GUID or whether the GUID is supplied by
the user.
Value "random" is default. Value "volume_date_uuid" produces a low quality
GUID from the value set by \-volume_date "uuid".
A string of 32 hex digits, or a RFC 4122 compliant GUID string may be used to
set the disk GUID directly. UEFI prescribes the first three components of
a RFC 4122 GUID string to be byte\-swapped in the binary representation:
E.g. gpt_disk_guid=2303cd2a\-73c7\-424a\-a298\-25632da7f446
equals gpt_disk_guid=2acd0323c7734a42a29825632da7f446
The partition GUIDs get generated by minimally varying the disk GUID.
\fB\-boot_image any part_like_isohybrid=on\fR enables
\-boot_image isolinux partition_entry= even if no
\-boot_image isolinux system_area= is given.
No MBR partition of type 0xee emerges, even if GPT gets produced.
Gaps between GPT and APM partitions will not be filled by more partitions.
Appended partitions get mentioned in APM if other APM partitions emerge.
\fB\-boot_image any iso_mbr_part_type=\fRnumber sets the partition type
of the MBR partition which represents the ISO or at least protects it.
Number may be 0x00 to 0xff. The text "default" re\-enables the default types
of the various occasions to create an ISO MBR partition.
This is without effect if no such partition emerges by other settings or
if the partition type is prescribed mandatorily like 0xee for GPT protective
MBR or 0x96 for CHRP.
If instead a type_guid is given by a 32\-digit hex string like
a2a0d0ebe5b9334487c068b6b72699c7 or by a structured text like
EBD0A0A2\-B9E5\-4433\-87C0\-68B6B72699C7, then it will be used as partition type
if the ISO filesystem appears as partition in GPT.
In MBR, C12A7328\-F81F\-11D2\-BA4B\-00A0C93EC93B will be mapped to 0xef.
Any other GUID will be mapped to 0x83.
\fBgrub2_mbr=\fRdisk_path works like "any" system_area= with additional
patching for modern GRUB MBRs. The content start address of the first boot
image is converted to a count of 512 byte blocks, and an offset of 4 is added.
The result is written as 64 bit little\-endian number to byte address 0x1b0.
This feature can be revoked either by grub2_mbr= with empty disk path,
or by submitting a disk_path via system_area=.
\fBpartition_table=on\fR causes a simple partition table to be written
into bytes 446 to 511 of the System Area.
With type "isolinux" it shows a partition that begins at byte 0 and it causes
the LBA of the first boot image to be written into the MBR. For the first
session this works only if also "system_area=" and "bin_path=" or "dir="
is given.
With types "any" and "grub" it shows a single
partition which starts at byte 512 and ends where the ISO image ends.
This works with or without system_area= or boot image.
Bootspecs chrp_boot_part=, prep_boot_part=, and efi_boot_part= overwrite
this entry in the MBR partition table.
If types "isolinux" or "grub" are set to "patch", then "partition_table=on"
is activated without new boot image.
In this case the existing System Area gets checked whether it bears addresses