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<FONT SIZE=+1>
<CENTER>
<P><H2> Homepage of </H2>
<H1> xorriso </H1>
<H2>ISO 9660 Rock Ridge Filesystem Manipulator for Linux and FreeBSD</H2>
</CENTER>
<P>
<H2>Purpose:</H2>
xorriso copies file objects from POSIX compliant filesystems
into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and allows
session-wise manipulation of such filesystems. It can load the management
information of existing ISO images and it writes the session results to
optical media or to filesystem objects.
<BR>
Vice versa xorriso is able to restore file objects from ISO 9660 filesystems.
</P>
<P>
<HR>
<A HREF="#download">Direct hop to download links -></A>
<P>
<H2>Hardware requirements:</H2>
A CD/DVD/BD recorder suitable for
<A HREF="http://libburnia-project.org">http://libburnia-project.org</A> <BR>
(SCSI , ATA , USB , or SATA writers compliant to standard MMC-3 for CD
and to MMC-5 for DVD or BD).
<BR>
</P>
<P>
<H2>Software requirements :</H2>
<DL>
<DT>Linux with kernel 2.4 or higher, libc, libpthread :</DT>
<DD>With kernel 2.4 an ATA drive has to be under ide-scsi emulation.</DD>
<DD>With kernel 2.6 the drive should not be under ide-scsi.</DD>
<DT>or FreeBSD, libc, libpthread :</DT>
<DD>ATAPI/CAM support has to be enabled in the kernel, see atapicam(4).</DD>
<DD>libcam has to be installed.</DD>
<DD>libiconv has to be installed.</DD>
<DT>or some other X/Open system, libc, libpthread :</DT>
<DD>
There will be no direct operation of optical drives, but only POSIX i/o
with objects of the local filesystem.
</DD>
<DD>
Might work with DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE but not with CD, DVD-R, DVD+R, BD-R.
</DD>
<DT>libreadline and libreadline-dev</DT>
<DD>are optional and eventually make dialog more convenient.</DD>
<DT>libacl and libacl-devel</DT>
<DD>are optional and eventually allow on Linux to get and set ACLs.</DD>
</DL>
</P>
<P>
<H2>
GPL software included:<BR>
</H2>
<DL>
<DT>libburn-0.6.5</DT>
<DD>reads and writes data from and to CD, DVD, BD.</DD>
<DD>(founded by Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens,
developed and maintained since August 2006 by
Thomas Schmitt from team of libburnia-project.org)</DD>
<DT>libisofs-0.6.16</DT>
<DD>operates on ISO 9660 filesystem images.</DD>
<DD>(By Vreixo Formoso, Mario Danic and Thomas Schmitt
from team of libburnia-project.org)</DD>
<DT>libisoburn-0.3.6</DT>
<DD>coordinates libburn and libisofs, emulates multi-session where needed.</DD>
<DD>(By Vreixo Formoso and Thomas Schmitt
from team of libburnia-project.org)</DD>
</DL>
<DD>The source code of this software is independent of
cdrecord and mkisofs.</A>
</DD>
</P>
<P>
This program has been tested on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris systems.<BR>
For ports to other usable systems <A HREF="#contact">contact us</A>.
</P>
<HR>
<P>
<H2>Special features:</H2>
<UL>
<LI>
ISO 9660 formatter and burner for CD, DVD, BD are fixely integrated.
</LI>
<LI>
Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
</LI>
<LI>
Copies files from filesystem into the ISO image.
</LI>
<LI>
Changes file properties, renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
</LI>
<LI>
Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
</LI>
<LI>
Writes result as completely new image or as add-on session
to optical media or filesystem objects.
</LI>
<LI>
Can activate ISOLINUX boot images by El Torito boot record and by MBR.
</LI>
<LI>
Can perform multi-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
</LI>
<LI>
Can restore single files and whole trees from ISO image to disk filesystem.
</LI>
<LI>
Can record and restore ACL and xattr of disk files.
</LI>
<LI>
Can issue commands to mount older sessions on Linux or FreeBSD.
</LI>
<LI>
Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
</LI>
<LI>
Scans for optical drives, blanks re-useable optical media, formats media.
</LI>
<LI>
Suitable for:
CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD-R, BD-RE.
</LI>
<LI>
Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and batch files.
</LI>
<LI>
Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
</LI>
</UL>
</P>
<P>
<H2>Command Examples:</H2>
<DL>
<DT>Get an overview of drives and their addresses</DT>
<DD>#<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -devices</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>...</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>0 -dev '/dev/sr0' rwrw-- : 'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S203B'</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>1 -dev '/dev/scd1' rwrw-- : 'PHILIPS ' 'SPD3300L'</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>2 -dev '/dev/hda' rwrw-- : 'HL-DT-ST' 'DVD-ROM GDR8162B'</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>...</KBD></DD>
<DT>Being superuser avoids permission problems with /dev/srN resp. /dev/hdX .
</DT>
<DT>Ordinary users should then get granted rw access to the /dev files
as listed by option -devices.</DT>
<DT>&nbsp;</DT>
<DT>Options are either performed as program arguments or as dialog input.
Some options have a parameter list of variable length. This list has to
be terminated by word '--' or by the end of the input line. Option -add
may accept pathspecs of form target=source as known from program mkisofs.</DT>
<HR>
<DT>Get info about a particular drive and loaded media:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -indev /dev/sr0 -du / -- -toc 2>&amp;1 | less</KBD></DD>
<DT>Make re-usable media writable again, delete any ISO 9660 image,
eventually prepare yet unused BD-RE:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed -eject all</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Write some directories into a new or existing ISO 9660 image:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 -add /home/me/sounds /home/me/pictures
</KBD></DD>
<DT>Have a look at the result:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -indev /dev/sr0 -du / -- -toc 2>&amp;1 | less</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Create new ISO-9660 filesystem image, compose content,
adjust permissions to make it publicly read-only,
write it to media and immediately eject media without
previously reloading the written image.
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;cd /home/me</KBD></DD>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-map /home/me/sounds /sounds \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-map /home/me/pictures /pictures \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-rm_r /sounds/indecent '/pictures/*private*' -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-cd / \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-add pictures/private/horses* -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-chmod_r a+r,a-w / -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-find / -type d -exec chmod a+x -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-volid SOUNDS_PICS_2008_01_16 \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-commit_eject all</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Load the previous session from media,
remove (i.e. hide) directory /sounds,
rename /pictures/private/horses,
add new directory trees /sounds and /movies,
disallow any access for group and others.
Finally write as additional session to media and eject:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -dev /dev/sr0 \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-rm_r /sounds -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-mv /pictures/private/horses /horse_show -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/sounds_dummy /sounds \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/movies /movies \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-chmod_r go-rwx / -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-volid SOUNDS_PICS_2008_01_17 \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-commit_eject all</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Merge the various sessions from old readable media into a single session
on new writeable media,
cleaning out all invalidated files and session overhead.
Touch / in order to mark the image as worth to be written.
<BR>
Important: -indev and -outdev have to be different drives.
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -indev /dev/dvd \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-alter_date a +0 / -- \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-outdev /dev/sr0 -blank fast \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;-commit_eject all</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Dialog mode accepts one or more options per line. An option and all its
arguments have to be given in one single line. Command -end stops the program
run. It will write eventually pending changes to media, if that has not
already been done by a previous -commit.</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -dialog on</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>enter option and arguments :</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD><B>-dev /dev/sr0</B></KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>enter option and arguments :</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD><B>-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/sounds_dummy /sounds</B></KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>enter option and arguments :</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD><B>-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/movies /movies</B></KBD></DD>
<DD>Available navigation commands: -cd, -ls, -du, -find</DD>
<DD><KBD>enter option and arguments :</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD><B>-commit</B></KBD></DD>
<DD>... perform further commands and finally do:</DD>
<DD><KBD>enter option and arguments :</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD><B>-end</B></KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>The following command performs incremental backup.
It can be run on blank media to create a copy of the mentioned disk
directory trees, and it can be run on appendable media to perform a
minimal set of change operations which update the old ISO copies
to match the new disk trees.
Older states can be retrieved by help of mount options like "sbsector="
or by help of xorriso option -mount.
<BR>
Eventual ACL or xattr will be recorded. Data reading will be avoided by
accelerator option -disk_dev_ino.
Only blank media or media with volume id "PROJECTS_MAIL_..." will be accepted.
Files with names ending by ".o" or ".swp" are excluded by options -not_leaf.
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -acl on -xattr on -disk_dev_ino on \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -assert_volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_*' FATAL \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -dev /dev/sr0 \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -volid PROJECTS_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -not_leaf '*.o' -not_leaf '*.swp' \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -update_r /home/thomas/open_source_projects /open_source_projects \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /personal_mail \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -commit -toc -eject all</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>
Operating systems usually mount the most recent session on media.
xorriso can issue the appropriate mount commands for older sessions.
First get an overview of the sessions on the media:
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -toc</KBD></DD>
<PRE>
TOC layout : Idx , sbsector , Size , Volume Id
ISO session : 1 , 0 , 104719s , PROJECTS_MAIL_2008_08_10_231435
ISO session : 2 , 106928 , 6785s , PROJECTS_MAIL_2008_08_14_184548
...
ISO session : 76 , 820384 , 11035s , PROJECTS_MAIL_2009_01_04_191150
</PRE>
<DT>
Then become superuser and let xorriso mount the session of August 14, 2008
to directory /mnt:
</DT>
<DD>#<KBD>
&nbsp;xorriso -osirrox on -mount /dev/sr0 volid '*_2008_08_14_*' /mnt
</KBD></DD>
<DT>
To be later unmounted by: <KBD>umount /mnt</KBD>
</DT>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>
After the user has already created a suitable file tree on disk
and copied the ISOLINUX files into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of
that tree, xorriso can burn an El Torito bootable media:
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -map /home/me/ISOLINUX_prepared_tree / \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux</KBD></DD>
<DT>
An additional MBR is generated if the file isolinux.bin is modern enough
(syslinux version 3.72) and ready for "isohybrid". An MBR enables booting
from hard disk or USB stick.
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>ISO images may not only be stored on optical media but also in
regular disk files or block devices for full multi-session operation.
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -dev /tmp/regular_file ...other.options...</DD>
<DT>
A default setting for safety reasons requires that files below /dev/
need prefix &quot;stdio:&quot; if they do not lead to MMC burner devices.
Be cautious not to overwrite your hard disk instead of your USB stick:
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -dev stdio:/dev/sdb ...other.options...</DD>
<DT>Other file types are suitable only for writing but not for reading:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev /tmp/named_pipe ...other.options...</DD>
<DT>In batch mode it is possible to operate xorriso in a pipeline
with an external consumer of the generated ISO image. Any message
output will be redirected to stderr in this case.</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -outdev - ...other.options... | consumer</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>
Let xorriso serve underneath growisofs via its alias name "xorrisofs"
which enables mkisofs emulation:
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;export MKISOFS="xorrisofs"</KBD></DD>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;growisofs -Z /dev/dvd /some/files</KBD></DD>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;growisofs -M /dev/dvd /more/files</KBD></DD>
<DT>
One may switch from mkisofs emulation to xorriso's own command mode:
</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;growisofs -M /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
</KBD></DD>
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>If for any reason the reading operating system mishandles the ISO image
or some files in it, one may enable reverse operation of xorriso and copy
files or trees to disk:
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;xorriso -acl on -xattr on \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -indev /dev/sr0 \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -osirrox on \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -cpx '/pictures/private/horses*/*buttercup*' \</KBD></DD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; /home/her/buttercup_dir -- \</KBD>
<DD><KBD>&nbsp;&nbsp; -extract /sounds /home/her/sounds_from_me</KBD></DD>
</DD>
<DT>Consider to enter dialog mode and use commands like
<KBD>-cd , -du , -lsl , -find<KBD>.
<DT>
<HR>
</DT>
<DT>Get overview of the options:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;<A HREF="xorriso_help">xorriso -help</A></KBD></DD>
<DT>Read the detailed manual page:</DT>
<DD>$<KBD>&nbsp;<A HREF="man_1_xorriso.html">man xorriso</A></KBD></DD>
</DL>
</P>
<HR>
<A NAME="download"></A>
<P>
<DL>
<DT><H3>Download as source code (see README):</H3></DT>
<DD><A HREF="xorriso-0.3.6.pl00.tar.gz">xorriso-0.3.6.pl00.tar.gz</A>
(1180 KB).
</DD>
</DL>
</DD>
</DL>
<DL><DT>Documentation:</DT>
<DD><A HREF="README_xorriso">README</A> about installation and drive setup</DD>
<DD><A HREF="xorriso_help">xorriso -help</A> gives an overview of options</DD>
<DD><A HREF="man_1_xorriso.html">man xorriso</A> is the manual page</DD>
</DL>
<A NAME="contact"></A>
<DL><DT>Contact:</DT>
<DD>Thomas Schmitt, <A HREF="mailto:scdbackup@gmx.net">scdbackup@gmx.net</A></DD>
<DD>libburn development mailing list,
<A HREF="mailto:libburn-hackers@pykix.org">libburn-hackers@pykix.org</A></DD>
</DL>
<DL><DT>License:</DT>
<DD><A HREF="COPYING_xorriso">GPL version 2</A>,
an <A HREF="http://www.opensource.org/">Open Source</A> approved license</DD>
<DD>&nbsp;</DD>
</DL>
</P>
<HR>
<P>
Bug fixes towards xorriso-0.3.4.pl00:
<UL>
<LI>Solaris recognized Rock Ridge in ISO images from xorriso
only if the new AAIP extension hid a bug with -compliance old_rr</LI>
<LI>Solaris was not able to use the ".." directory entry for navigation
in xorriso generated ISO images</LI>
<!--
<LI>- none -</LI>
-->
</UL>
</P>
<P>
Enhancements towards previous stable version xorriso-0.3.4.pl00:
<UL>
<LI>
Dummy MMC adapter for compilation on systems other than Linux, FreeBSD
</LI>
<LI>
Default of -compliance has been changed to "old_rr". The previous default is
now available as "new_rr".
</LI>
<LI>
New -stream_recording modes with start address or "data". "on" is now 32s.
</LI>
</UL>
</P>
<HR>
<P>
<DL>
<DT><H3>Development snapshot, version 0.3.7 :</H3></DT>
<DD>Bug fixes towards xorriso-0.3.6.pl00:
<UL>
<LI>- none yet -</LI>
<!--
-->
</UL>
</DD>
<DD>Enhancements towards stable version 0.3.6.pl00:
<UL>
<LI>- none yet -</LI>
<!--
<LI>- none yet -</LI>
-->
</UL>
</DD>
<DD>&nbsp;</DD>
<DD><A HREF="README_xorriso_devel">README 0.3.7</A>
<DD><A HREF="xorriso_help_devel">xorriso_0.3.7 -help</A></DD>
<DD><A HREF="man_1_xorriso_devel.html">man xorriso (as of 0.3.7)</A></DD>
<DD>&nbsp;</DD>
<DT>If you want to distribute development versions of xorriso, then use
this tarball which produces static linking between xorriso and the
libburnia libraries.
</DT>
<DD>Source (./bootstrap is already applied, build tested,
installation see README)
</DD>
<DD>
<A HREF="xorriso-0.3.7.tar.gz">xorriso-0.3.7.tar.gz</A>
(1180 KB).
</DD>
<DT>A dynamically linked development version of xorriso can be obtained
from repositories of
<A HREF="http://libburnia-project.org"> libburnia-project.org</A>.
xorriso is part of libisoburn/trunk and will get built by its "make".
</DT>
<DT>Be warned that the libraries in SVN and bzr are development versions with
possibly unstable API/ABI enhancements. Do not distribute development
versions for dynamic linking. Only release versions are safe for that.
</DT>
<DD>Download: <KBD><B>svn co http://svn.libburnia-project.org/libburn/trunk libburn</B>
</KBD></DD>
<DD>Install: <KBD><B>cd libburn ; ./bootstrap ; ./configure --prefix /usr ; make ; make install</B>
</KBD></DD>
<DD>Download: <KBD><B>bzr branch lp:libisofs</B></KBD></DD>
<DD>Install: <KBD><B>cd libisofs ; ./bootstrap ; ./configure --prefix /usr ; make ; make install</B>
</KBD></DD>
<DD>Download: <KBD><B>svn co http://svn.libburnia-project.org/libisoburn/trunk libisoburn</B>
</KBD></DD>
<DD>Install: <KBD><B>cd libisoburn ; ./bootstrap ; ./configure --prefix /usr ; make ; make install</B>
</KBD></DD>
<DT>Build of SVN versions needs <A HREF="http://sources.redhat.com/autobook/">
autotools</A> of at least version 1.7 installed.
But after the run of <KBD>./bootstrap</KBD>, only
vanilla tools like make and gcc are needed.
</DT>
<DD>&nbsp;</DD>
</DL>
</P>
<HR>
<P>
Many thanks to Derek Foreman and Ben Jansens for starting libburn.
<BR>
Very special thanks to Andy Polyakov whose
<A HREF="http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/tools">dvd+rw-tools</A>
provide the libburnia project with invaluable examples on how to deal
with DVD media and how to emulate multi-session on overwriteable media.
</P>
<HR>
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<HR>
<DL>
<DT>Links to my other published software projects :</DT>
<DD><A HREF=http://scdbackup.webframe.org/cdrskin_eng.html>
cdrskin, a cdrecord emulator</A></DD>
<DD><A HREF=http://scdbackup.webframe.org/main_eng.html>
scdbackup, multi volume CD backup</A></DD>
<DL><DD><A HREF=http://scdbackup.sourceforge.net/main_eng.html>
(a second source of above)</A></DD></DL>
<DD><A HREF=http://stic.sourceforge.net>Some Tools for Image Collectors</A></DD>
<DD><A HREF=http://scdbackup.webframe.org/pppoem>
pppoem, a DSL throughput monitor (mainly for Linux kernel 2.4)</A></DD>
</DL>
<BR><BR>
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