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libisoburn/xorriso-dd-target/xorriso-dd-target

723 lines
20 KiB

#!/bin/sh
# Copyright (c) 2019
# Nio Wiklund alias sudodus <nio dot wiklund at gmail dot com>
# Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>
# Provided under GPL version 2 or later.
# Check whether we are on GNU/Linux
if uname -s | grep -v '^Linux' >/dev/null
then
echo "This program is entirely specialized on Linux kernel device names." >&2
echo "Found to be on: '$(uname -s)'" >&2
exit 2
fi
# Accept sudo-executable commands only in well known directories.
# (Listed with increasing priority.)
lsblk_cmd=
dd_cmd=
if test "$(whoami)" = "root"
then
sudo_x_dir_list="/usr/bin /bin /usr/sbin /sbin"
else
sudo_x_dir_list="/usr/sbin /sbin /usr/bin /bin"
fi
for i in $sudo_x_dir_list
do
if test -x "$i"/lsblk
then
lsblk_cmd="$i"/lsblk
fi
if test -x "$i"/dd
then
dd_cmd="$i"/dd
fi
if test -x "$i"/umount
then
umount_cmd="$i"/umount
fi
done
if test -z "$lsblk_cmd"
then
echo "No executable program lsblk found in: $sudo_x_dir_list" >&2
exit 5
fi
print_usage() {
echo "usage: $0 [options] [device_name [device_name ...]]"
echo
echo "Looks on GNU/Linux for USB and Memory Card devices and evaluates"
echo "whether the found devices are plausible targets for image copying."
echo "If no device names and no -list_all are given, then a plain list of"
echo "advisable device names is printed to stdout. One per line."
echo "Device names must not begin by '-' and must be single words. They must"
echo "not contain '/'. E.g. 'sdc' is valid, '/dev/sdc' is not valid."
echo "If device names are given, then they get listed with advice shown."
echo "If one of the given device names gets not advised, the exit value is 1."
echo
echo "The option -plug_test can determine the desired target device by"
echo "inquiring the system with unplugged device and then with plugged one."
echo
echo "Only if option -DO_WRITE is given and -list_all is not, and if exactly"
echo "one advisable device is listed, it really gets overwritten by the"
echo "file content of the given -image_file. In this case the exit value"
echo "is zero if writing succeeded, non-zero else."
echo "Option -dummy prevents this kind of real action and rather shows the"
echo "unmount and write commands on stdout."
echo
echo "Options:"
echo " -plug_test Find the target device by asking the user to press"
echo " Enter when the desired target is _not_ plugged in,"
echo " to then plug it in, and to press Enter again."
echo " This overrides device names and option -list_all."
echo " The found device is then shown with advice, vendor,"
echo " and model. Option -DO_WRITE is obeyed if given."
echo " -list_all Print list of all found devices with advice, vendor"
echo " and model. One per line. Ignore any device names."
echo " Ignore -DO_WRITE."
echo " -with_vendor_model Print vendor and model with each submitted device."
echo
echo " -max_size n[M|G|T] Set upper byte size limit for advisable devices."
echo " Plain numbers get rounded down to full millions."
echo " Suffix: M = million, G = billion, T = trillion."
echo " Be generous to avoid problems with GB < GiB."
echo " -min_size n[M|G|T] Set lower byte size limit for advisable devices."
echo " After processing like with -max_size, one million"
echo " gets added to the size limit."
echo " -look_for_iso Demand presence of an ISO 9660 filesystem. If so,"
echo " any further filesystem type is acceptable on that"
echo " device. Else only ISO 9660 and VFAT are accepted."
echo " -with_sudo Run '$lsblk_cmd -o FSTYPE' by sudo."
echo " If no filesystems are detected and the program"
echo " has no superuser power, the device is not advised."
echo " If -DO_WRITE is given, run umount and dd by sudo."
echo " -image_file PATH Set the path of the image file which shall be"
echo " written to a device. Its size will be set as"
echo " -min_size."
echo " -DO_WRITE Write the given -image_file to the one advisable"
echo " device that is found. If more than one such device"
echo " is found, then they get listed but no writing"
echo " happens. In this case, re-run with one of the"
echo " advised device names to get a real write run."
echo " -dummy Report the -DO_WRITE actions but do not perform"
echo " them."
echo " -dummy_force If a single device name is given, do a run of"
echo " -dummy -DO_WRITE even against the advice of"
echo " this program. This probably shows you ways to"
echo " shoot your own foot."
echo " -help Print this text to stdout and then end the program."
echo "Examples:"
echo " $0 -with_sudo -list_all"
echo " $0 sdc"
echo " $0 -with_sudo -image_file debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso -DO_WRITE"
echo " $0 -with_sudo -image_file debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso -DO_WRITE -plug_test"
echo
}
# Roughly convert human readable sizes and plain numbers to 1 / million
round_down_div_million() {
sed -e 's/\.[0-9]*//' -e 's/[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]$//' \
-e 's/[Mm]//' -e 's/[Gg]/000/' -e 's/[Tt]/000000/'
}
### Assessing arguments and setting up the job
# Settings
reset_job() {
list_all=
show_reasons=
look_for_iso=
devs=
devs_named=
max_size=
with_vendor_model=
with_sudo=
image_file=
do_write=
dummy_run=
dummy_force=
do_plug_test=
# Status
sudo_cmd=
have_su_power=
}
arg_interpreter() {
next_is=
for i in "$@"
do
# The next_is option parameter readers get programmed by the -options
if test "$next_is" = "max_size"
then
max_size="$(echo "$i" | round_down_div_million)"
next_is=
elif test "$next_is" = "min_size"
then
min_size="$(echo "$i" | round_down_div_million)"
min_size="$(expr $min_size + 1)"
next_is=
elif test "$next_is" = "image_file"
then
image_file="$i"
min_size="$(stat -c '%s' "$i" | round_down_div_million)"
if test -z "$min_size"
then
echo "FAILURE: Cannot obtain size of -image_file '$i'" >&2
exit 13
else
min_size="$(expr $min_size + 1)"
fi
next_is=
elif test "$i" = "-list_all"
then
list_all=y
with_vendor_model=y
show_reasons=y
elif test "$i" = "-plug_test"
then
do_plug_test=y
elif test "$i" = "-max_size"
then
next_is="max_size"
elif test "$i" = "-min_size"
then
next_is="min_size"
elif test "$i" = "-with_vendor_model"
then
with_vendor_model=y
elif test "$i" = "-look_for_iso"
then
look_for_iso=y
elif test "$i" = "-with_sudo"
then
with_sudo=y
elif test "$i" = "-image_file"
then
next_is="image_file"
elif test "$i" = "-dummy"
then
dummy_run=y
elif test "$i" = "-dummy_force"
then
dummy_run=y
do_write=y
dummy_force=y
elif test "$i" = "-DO_WRITE"
then
do_write=y
elif test "$i" = "-help"
then
print_usage
exit 0
elif echo "$i" | grep -v '^-' >/dev/null
then
num=$(echo "$i" | wc -w)
if test "$num" = 1
then
devs_named=y
devs="$devs $i"
show_reasons=y
else
echo "$0 : Given device name is not a single word: '$i'" >&2
exit 12
fi
else
echo "$0 : Unknown option: $i" >&2
echo >&2
print_usage >&2
exit 1
fi
done
# Predict superuser power. Possibly enable sudo with lsblk -o FSTYPE and dd.
if test "$(whoami)" = "root"
then
have_su_power=y
elif test -n "$with_sudo"
then
echo "Testing sudo to possibly get password prompting done now:" >&2
if sudo "$lsblk_cmd" -h >/dev/null
then
echo "sudo $lsblk_cmd seems ok." >&2
echo >&2
sudo_cmd=sudo
have_su_power=y
else
echo "FAILURE: Cannot execute program $lsblk_cmd by sudo" >&2
exit 11
fi
fi
}
## Trying to find the desired device by watching plug-in effects
plug_in_watcher() {
found_devices=
echo >&2
echo "Caused by option -plug_test: Attempt to find the desired device" >&2
echo "by watching it appear after being plugged in." >&2
echo >&2
echo "Step 1:" >&2
echo "Please make sure that the desired target device is plugged _out_ now." >&2
echo "If it is currently plugged in, make sure to unmount all its fileystems" >&2
echo "and then unplug it." >&2
echo "Press the Enter key when ready." >&2
read dummy
old_device_list=' '$("$lsblk_cmd" -d -n -o NAME | grep -v '^sr[0-9]' | grep -v '^fd[0-9]' | tr '\n\r' ' ')' '
# <<< Mock-up to save USB socket wear-off by erasing items from old_device_list
# <<< Their presence in new_device_list will let them appear as fresh plugs
# old_device_list=' '$(echo -n $old_device_list | sed -e 's/sdc//')' '
echo "Found and noted as _not_ desired: $old_device_list" >&2
echo >&2
echo "Step 2:" >&2
echo "Please plug in the desired target device and then press the Enter key." >&2
read dummy
echo -n "Waiting up to 10 seconds for a new device to be listed ..." >&2
end_time="$(expr $(date +'%s') + 10)"
while test $(date +'%s') -le "$end_time"
do
new_device_list=' '$("$lsblk_cmd" -d -n -o NAME | grep -v '^sr[0-9]' | grep -v '^fd[0-9]' | tr '\n\r' ' ')' '
if test "$old_device_list" = "$new_device_list"
then
sleep 1
echo -n '.' >&2
else
for i in $new_device_list
do
if echo "$old_device_list" | grep -F -v ' '"$i"' ' >/dev/null
then
found_devices="$found_devices $i"
fi
# Break the waiting loop
end_time=0
done
fi
done
echo >&2
if test -z "$found_devices"
then
echo "SORRY: No new candidate device was found." >&2
return 8
fi
num=$(echo $found_devices | wc -w)
if test "$num" -gt 1
then
echo "SORRY: More than one new candidate device appeared: $found_devices" >&2
return 9
fi
echo "Found and noted as desired device: $found_devices" >&2
if test -n "$devs"
then
echo "(-plug_test is overriding device list given by arguments: $devs )" >&2
fi
if test -n "$list_all"
then
echo "(-plug_test is overriding -list_all)" >&2
list_all=
fi
devs_named=y
with_vendor_model=y
show_reasons=y
devs=$(echo -n $found_devices)
echo >&2
return 0
}
## Evaluation of available devices and suitability
list_devices() {
if test -n "$list_all"
then
devs=
fi
if test -z "$devs"
then
# Obtain list of top-level names which do not look like CD, floppy, RAM dev
devs=$("$lsblk_cmd" -d -n -o NAME | grep -v '^sr[0-9]' \
| grep -v '^fd[0-9]' | grep -v '^zram[0-9]')
fi
not_advised=0
for name in $devs
do
# Collect reasons
yucky=
reasons=
good_trans=
good_fs=
bad_trans=
bad_fs=
# Unwanted device name patterns
if (echo "$name" | grep '^sd[a-z][1-9]' >/dev/null) \
|| (echo "$name" | grep '^mmcblk.*p[0-9]' >/dev/null) \
|| (echo "$name" | grep '^nvme.*p[0-9]' >/dev/null)
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}looks_like_disk_partition- "
elif echo "$name" | grep '^sr[0-9]' >/dev/null
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}looks_like_cd_drive- "
elif echo "$name" | grep '^fd[0-9]' >/dev/null
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}looks_like_floppy- "
elif echo "$name" | grep '^zram[0-9]' >/dev/null
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}looks_like_ramdev- "
fi
# >>> recognize the device from which Debian Live booted
# Connection type. Normally by lsblk TRAN, but in case of mmcblk artificial.
if echo "$name" | grep '^mmcblk[0-9]' >/dev/null
then
transports="mmcblk"
elif echo "$name" | grep -F "/" >/dev/null
then
echo "NOTE: The device name must not contain '/' characters" >&2
transports=not_an_expected_name
reasons="${reasons}name_with_slash- "
else
transports=$("$lsblk_cmd" -n -o TRAN /dev/"$name")
fi
if test -z "$transports"
then
transports=lsblk_failed_tran
fi
for trans in $transports
do
if test "$trans" = "usb" -o "$trans" = "mmcblk"
then
good_trans="${trans}+"
elif test -n "$trans"
then
bad_trans="$trans"
yucky=y
if test "$transports" = "not_an_expected_name"
then
dummy=dummy
else
if echo "$reasons" | grep -F -v "not_usb" >/dev/null
then
reasons="${reasons}not_usb- "
fi
fi
fi
done
if test -z "$good_trans" -a -z "$bad_trans"
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}no_bus_info- "
elif test -z "$bad_trans"
then
reasons="${reasons}$good_trans "
fi
# Wanted or unwanted filesystem types
fstypes=$($sudo_cmd "$lsblk_cmd" -n -o FSTYPE /dev/"$name")
if test "$?" -gt 0
then
fstypes="lsblk_fstype_error"
fi
# Get overview of filesystems
has_iso=
has_vfat=
has_other=
for fstype in $fstypes
do
if test "$fstype" = "iso9660"
then
has_iso=y
if echo "$good_fs" | grep -F -v "has_$fstype" >/dev/null
then
good_fs="${good_fs}has_${fstype}+ "
fi
elif test "$fstype" = "vfat"
then
has_vfat=y
if echo "$good_fs" | grep -F -v "has_$fstype" >/dev/null
then
good_fs="${good_fs}has_${fstype}+ "
fi
elif test -n "$fstype"
then
has_other=y
if echo "$bad_fs" | grep -F -v "has_$fstype" >/dev/null
then
bad_fs="${bad_fs}has_${fstype}- "
fi
fi
done
# Decide whether the found filesystems look dispensible enough
reasons="${reasons}${good_fs}${bad_fs}"
if test "${bad_fs}${good_fs}" = "" -a -z "$have_su_power"
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}no_fs_while_not_su- "
elif test -n "$look_for_iso"
then
if test -n "$has_iso"
then
reasons="${reasons}look_for_iso++ "
else
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}no_iso9660- "
fi
elif test -n "$has_other"
then
yucky=y
fi
# Optional tests for size
if test -n "$max_size" -o -n "$min_size"
then
size=$("$lsblk_cmd" -n -b -o SIZE /dev/"$name" | head -1 | round_down_div_million)
if test -z "$size"
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}lsblk_no_size- "
fi
fi
if test -n "$max_size" -a -n "$size"
then
if test "$size" -gt "$max_size"
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}size_too_large- "
fi
fi
if test -n "$min_size" -a -n "$size"
then
if test "$size" -lt "$min_size"
then
yucky=y
reasons="${reasons}size_too_small- "
fi
fi
# Now decide overall and report
descr=
if test -n "$with_vendor_model"
then
descr=": "$("$lsblk_cmd" -n -o VENDOR,MODEL /dev/"$name" | tr '\n\r' ' ' | tr -s ' ')
fi
if test -n "$yucky"
then
if test -n "$show_reasons"
then
echo "$name : NO : $reasons$descr"
fi
not_advised=1
else
if test -n "$show_reasons"
then
echo "$name : YES : $reasons$descr"
else
echo "$name"
fi
fi
done
return 0;
}
## Puts list of mounted (sub-)devices of $1 into $mounted_devs
list_mounted_of() {
partitions=$("$lsblk_cmd" -l -n -p -o NAME /dev/"$1" \
| grep -v '^'/dev/"$1"'$' \
| tr '\n\r' ' ')
mounted_devs=
for i in /dev/"$1" $partitions
do
# Show the found mount lines and add their device paths to list
mount_line=$(mount | grep '^'"$i"' ')
if test -n "$mount_line"
then
echo " $mount_line"
mounted_devs="$mounted_devs $i"
fi
done
}
## Does the work of unmounting and dd-ing
write_image() {
if test -z "$umount_cmd"
then
echo "No executable program umount found in: $sudo_x_dir_list" >&2
return 6
fi
echo "Looking for mount points of $2:"
mounted_devs=
list_mounted_of "$2"
if test -n "$dummy_force"
then
echo "AGAINST THE ADVICE BY THIS PROGRAM, a daring user could do:"
dummy_run=y
elif test -n "$dummy_run"
then
echo "Would do if not -dummy:"
fi
if test -n "$mounted_devs"
then
for i in $mounted_devs
do
if test -n "$dummy_run"
then
echo " $sudo_cmd $umount_cmd $i"
else
if $sudo_cmd "$umount_cmd" "$i"
then
echo "Unmounted: $i"
else
echo "FAILURE: Non-zero exit value with: $sudo_cmd $umount_cmd $i" >&2
return 7
fi
fi
done
# Check again if any mount points still exist
if test -z "$dummy_run"
then
list_mounted_of "$2"
if test -n "$mounted_devs"
then
echo "FAILURE: $sudo_cmd $umount_cmd could not remove all mounts: $mounted_devs" >&2
return 7
fi
fi
fi
if test -z "$dd_cmd"
then
echo "No executable program dd found in: $sudo_x_dir_list" >&2
return 6
fi
if test -n "$dummy_run"
then
echo " $sudo_cmd $dd_cmd if='${1}' bs=1M of=/dev/'${2}' ; sync"
else
echo "Performing:"
echo " $sudo_cmd $dd_cmd if='${1}' bs=1M of=/dev/'${2}' ; sync"
$sudo_cmd "$dd_cmd" if="${1}" bs=1M of=/dev/"${2}" ; sync
fi
# >>> ??? Erase possible GPT backup table at end of device ?
if test -n "$dummy_force"
then
echo "BE SMART. BE CAUTIOUS. BEWARE."
fi
return 0
}
# main()
reset_job
arg_interpreter "$@"
if test -n "$do_plug_test"
then
plug_in_watcher
ret=$?
if test "$ret" -ne 0
then
exit $ret
fi
fi
list_devices
if test -n "$list_all"
then
dummy=dummy
elif test -n "$do_write"
then
with_vendor_model=
show_reasons=
candidates=$(list_devices | tr '\n\r' ' ')
num_cand=$(echo $candidates | wc -w)
num_devs=$(echo $devs| wc -w)
if test -n "$dummy_force" -a "$num_devs" -ne 1
then
echo "SORRY: Refusing -dummy_force with not exactly one device given." >&2
exit 10
fi
if test -n "$dummy_force" -a -n "$dummy_run" -a "$num_cand" -ne 1
then
# -dummy_force in a situation where the program would normally refuse
echo
echo "Overriding any advice because of -dummy_force"
candidates="$devs"
num_cand=1
elif test -n "$dummy_force"
then
# Downgrade -dummy_force to -dummy in order to avoid the ugly warning
dummy_force=
dummy_run=y
fi
if test "$num_cand" -eq 1
then
if test -n "$image_file"
then
if test -n "$do_plug_test"
then
echo >&2
echo "Step 3:" >&2
if test -n "$dummy_run"
then
echo "This would be the last chance to abort. Enter the word 'yes' to see -dummy report." >&2
else
echo "Last chance to abort. Enter the word 'yes' to start REAL WRITING." >&2
fi
read dummy
if test "$dummy" = "yes" -o "$dummy" = "'yes'" -o "$dummy" = '"yes"'
then
dummy=dummy
else
echo "WRITE RUN PREVENTED by user input '$dummy'." >&2
exit 12
fi
fi
write_image "$image_file" $candidates
exit $?
else
echo "Would write to /dev/$candidates if an -image_file were given."
exit 0
fi
elif test "$num_cand" -gt 1
then
echo "WILL NOT WRITE ! More than one candidate found for target device:" >&2
show_reasons=y
with_vendor_model=y
devs="$candidates"
list_devices >&2
echo "HINT: Unplug the unwanted devices from the machine," >&2
echo " or work with option -plug_test," >&2
echo " or add the desired name out of {$(echo $candidates | sed -e 's/ /,/g')} as additional argument." >&2
exit 3
else
if test -n "$devs_named"
then
echo "NO CANDIDATE FOR TARGET DEVICE AMONG THE GIVEN NAMES !" >&2
else
echo "NO CANDIDATE FOR TARGET DEVICE FOUND !" >&2
fi
echo "Overall available devices:" >&2
list_all=y
show_reasons=y
with_vendor_model=y
list_devices >&2
exit 4
fi
fi
if test -n "$devs"
then
exit $not_advised
fi