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.\" Hey, EMACS: -*- nroff -*-
.\" The original of this file is kept in xorriso/xorriso.texi
.\" This here was generated by program xorriso/make_xorriso_1
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.\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
.\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
.TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.2.5, Dec 25, 2012"
.\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
.\" Some roff macros, for reference:
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xorriso \- creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images
with Rock Ridge extensions.
.B xorriso
.RI [ settings | actions ]
is a program which copies file objects from POSIX compliant
filesystems into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and allows
session\-wise manipulation of such filesystems. It can load the management
information of existing ISO images and it writes the session results to
optical media or to filesystem objects.
Vice versa \fBxorriso\fR is able to copy file objects out of ISO 9660
A special property of \fBxorriso\fR is that it needs neither an external
ISO 9660
formatter program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD or BD but rather
incorporates the libraries of libburnia\ .
.B Overview of features:
Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
Changes file properties in the ISO image.
Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
Writes result either as completely new image or as add\-on session
to optical media or filesystem objects.
Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
Can perform multi\-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
Scans for optical drives, blanks re\-useable optical media.
Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.
.B General information paragraphs:
Session model
Media types and states
Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
Libburn drives
Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
Command processing
Dialog, Readline, Result pager
.sp 1
Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of
this text before reading the next few hundred lines of background information.
\fBSession model:\fR
Unlike other filesystems, \fBISO 9660\fR (aka \fBECMA\-119\fR)
is not intended for read\-write operation but
rather for being generated in a single sweep and being written to media as a
The data content of the session is called filesystem \fBimage\fR.
The written image in its session can then be mounted by the operating system
for being used read\-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO images from block
devices, which may represent optical media, other media or via a loop device
even from regular disk files. FreeBSD mounts ISO images from devices that
represent arbitrary media or from regular disk files.
This session usage model has been extended on CD media by the concept of
\fBmulti\-session\fR ,
which allows to add information to the CD and gives the mount programs
of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points of each
session. The mount programs recognize block devices which represent
CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium
which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
The multi\-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media
types. But program growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this
functionality to overwriteable media or disk files which carry valid ISO 9660
\fBxorriso\fR provides growing as well as an own method named
\fBmodifying\fR which produces a completely new ISO image from the old
one and the modifications.
See paragraph Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.
\fBxorriso\fR adopts the concept of multi\-session by loading an
image directory tree if present,
by allowing to manipulate it by several actions,
and by writing the new image to the target medium.
The first session of a \fBxorriso\fR run begins by the definition of
the input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
The session ends by command \-commit which triggers writing. A \-commit is
done automatically when the program ends regularly.
After \-commit a new session begins with the freshly written one as input.
A new input drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO image was
not altered. Pending alteration can be revoked by command \-rollback.
Writing a session to the target is supposed to be very expensive in terms of
time and of consumed space on appendable or write\-once media. Therefore all
intended manipulations of a particular ISO image should be done in a single
session. But in principle it is possible
to store intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.
.B Media types and states:
There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
\fBMulti\-session media\fR are CD\-R, CD\-RW, DVD\-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD\-R, and
unformatted DVD\-RW. These media provide a table of content which
describes their existing sessions. See command \fB\-toc\fR.
Similar to multi\-session media are DVD\-R DL and minimally blanked DVD\-RW.
They allow only a single session of which the size must be known in advance.
\fBxorriso\fR will write onto them only if command \-close is set to "on".
\fBOverwriteable media\fR are DVD\-RAM, DVD+RW, BD\-RE, and formatted DVD\-RW.
They allow random write access but do not provide information about their
session history. If they contain one or more ISO 9660 sessions and if the
first session was written by \fBxorriso\fR, then a table of content can
be emulated. Else only a single overall session will be visible.
DVD\-RW media can be formatted by \-format "full".
They can be made unformatted by \-blank "deformat".
Regular files and block devices are handled as overwriteable media.
Pipes and other writeable file types are handled as blank multi\-session media.
These media can assume several states in which they offer different
\fBBlank\fR media can be written from scratch. They contain no ISO image
suitable for \fBxorriso\fR.
Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media.
With used CD\-RW and DVD\-RW it can be achieved by action \-blank "as_needed".
Overwriteable media are considered blank if they are new or if they have
been marked as blank by \fBxorriso\fR.
Action \-blank "as_needed" can be used to do this marking on overwriteable
media, or to apply mandatory formatting to new media if necessary.
\fBAppendable\fR media accept further sessions. Either they are MMC
multi\-session media in appendable state, or they are overwriteable media
which contain an ISO image suitable for \fBxorriso\fR.
Appendable is the state after writing a session with command \-close off.
\fBClosed\fR media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image suitable
for \fBxorriso\fR.
Closed is the state of DVD\-ROM media and of multi\-session media which were
written with command \-close on. If the drive is read\-only hardware then it will
probably show any media as closed CD\-ROM resp. DVD\-ROM.
Overwriteable media assume this state in such read\-only drives or if they
contain unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
Read\-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi\-session
media. Often only the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes
not even that. Command \-rom_toc_scan might or might not help in such cases.
.B Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
A new empty ISO image gets \fBcreated\fR
if there is no input drive with a valid ISO 9660 image when the first time
an output drive is defined. This is achieved by command \-dev on blank media
or by command \-outdev on media in any state.
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image gets loaded
as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation of input
and output drive determines which write method will be used.
They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
The method of \fBgrowing\fR adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older sessions.
Growing is achieved by command \-dev.
The write method of \fBmodifying\fR produces compact filesystem
images with no outdated files or directory trees. Modifying can write its
images to target media which are completely unsuitable for multi\-session
operations. E.g. DVD\-RW which were treated with \-blank deformat_quickest,
DVD\-R DL, named pipes, character devices, sockets.
On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media
but to blank media only.
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with
filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and
if command \-grow_blindly is set to its default "off".
This is achieved by commands \-indev and \-outdev.
If command \-grow_blindly is set to a non\-negative number and if \-indev and
\-outdev are both set to different drives, then \fBblind growing\fR is
performed. It produces an add\-on session which is ready for being written
to the given block address. This is the usage model of
mkisofs \-M $indev \-C $msc1,$msc2 \-o $outdev
which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should thus only be
employed if a strict distinction between ISO formatter \fBxorriso\fR
and the burn program is desired. \-C $msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
\-load sbsector $msc1 \-grow_blindly $msc2
.B Libburn drives:
Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be any random
access readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data,
blank optical media, regular files, block devices.
Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive.
Some drive types do not support the method of growing but only the methods
of modifying and blind growing. They all are suitable for newly created images.
All drive file objects have to offer rw\-permission to the user of
Even those which will not be useable for reading an ISO image.
MMC compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed by
the path of their block device or of their generic character device. E.g.
\-dev /dev/sr0
\-dev /dev/hdc
\-dev /dev/sg2
On FreeBSD the device files have names like
\-dev /dev/cd0
On OpenSolaris:
\-dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
Get a list of accessible drives by command
It might be necessary to do this as
in order to see all drives and to then allow rw\-access for the intended users.
Consider to bundle the authorized users in a group like old "floppy".
Filesystem objects of nearly any type can be addressed by prefix "stdio:" and
their path in the filesystem. E.g.:
\-dev stdio:/dev/sdc
The default setting of \-drive_class allows to address files outside the
/dev tree without that prefix. E.g.:
\-dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the emulated drive
is random access readable and can be used for the method of growing if it
already contains a valid ISO 9660 image. Any other file type is not readable
via "stdio:" and can only be used as target for the method of modifying or
blind growing.
Non\-existing paths in existing directories are handled as empty regular files.
A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are
depicted by "stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
Addresses "\-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" depict standard output, which normally is
the output channel for result texts.
To prevent a fatal intermingling of ISO image and text messages, all result
texts get redirected to stderr if \-*dev "\-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is among
the start arguments of the program.
Standard output is currently suitable for creating one session
per program run without dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged
and several restrictions apply:
It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was not
among the start arguments. Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor addresses
to stdout.
If stdout is used as drive, then \-use_readline is permanently disabled.
Use of backdoors can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.
Be aware that especially the superuser can write into any accessible file or
device by using its path with the "stdio:" prefix. By default any address
in the /dev tree without prefix "stdio:" will work only if it leads to a MMC
One may use command
to surely prevent this risk and to allow only MMC drives.
One may prepend "mmc:" to a path to surely disallow any automatic "stdio:".
By command \-drive_class one may ban certain paths or allow access without
prefix "stdio:" to other paths.
.B Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
\fBRock Ridge\fR
is the name of a set of additional information which enhance
an ISO 9660 filesystem so that it can represent a POSIX compliant filesystem
with ownership, access permissions, symbolic links, and other attributes.
This is what \fBxorriso\fR uses for a decent representation of the disk
files within the ISO image. \fBxorriso\fR produces Rock Ridge information
by default. It is strongly discouraged to disable this feature.
\fBxorriso\fR is not named "porriso" because POSIX only guarantees
14 characters
of filename length. It is the X/Open System Interface standard XSI which
demands a file name length of up to 255 characters and paths of up to 1024
characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.
An \fBEl Torito\fR
boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one or more boot
images, which are binary program files stored in the ISO image.
The content of the boot image files is not in the scope of El Torito.
Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images.
\fBxorriso\fR is able to create or maintain an El Torito object which
makes such an image bootable. For details see command \-boot_image.
It is possible to make ISO images bootable from USB stick or other
hard\-disk\-like media. Several options install a \fBMBR\fR
(Master Boot Record), It may get adjusted according to the needs of the
intended boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.
A MBR contains boot code and a partition table.
The new MBR of a follow\-up session can get in effect
only on overwriteable media.
MBR is read by PC\-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk,
and by PowerPC CHRP or PReP when booting.
An MBR partiton with type 0xee indicates the presence of GPT.
Emulation \-as mkisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki,
the options used in GRUB script grub\-mkrescue, and the example in the
FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
A \fBGPT\fR (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way.
It is read by EFI when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be used
for finding and mounting a HFS+ partition inside the ISO image.
An \fBAPM\fR (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition.
It is read by Macs for booting and for mounting.
MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of
MBR boot code. All three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
There is support for further facilities:
MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS Little Endian (DEC), SUN SPARC.
Those are mutually not combinable and also not combinable with MBR, GPT,
or APM.
are an advanced way of controlling access permissions to file objects. Neither
ISO 9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs. So libisofs has
introduced a standard conformant extension named AAIP for that purpose.
It uses this extension if enabled by command
AAIP enhanced images are supposed to be mountable normally, but one cannot
expect that the mounted filesystem will show and respect the ACLs.
For now, only \fBxorriso\fR is able to retrieve those ACLs.
It can bring them into
effect when files get restored to an ACL enabled file system or it can
print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
Files with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::" if
that entry exists. Nevertheless the non\-listed group members get handled
according to entry "group::". When removing ACL from a file,
\fBxorriso\fR brings "group::" into effect.
Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD.
\fBxattr\fR (aka EA, or extattr)
are pairs of name and value which can be attached to file objects. AAIP is
able to represent them and \fBxorriso\fR allows to record and restore
pairs which
have names out of the user namespace. I.e. those which begin with "user.",
like "user.x" or "user.whatever". Name has to be a 0 terminated string.
Value may be any array of bytes which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes.
xattr processing happens only if it is enabled by command
As with ACL, currently only \fBxorriso\fR is able to retrieve xattr
from AAIP enhanced images, to restore them to xattr capable file systems,
or to print them.
Recording and restoring of xattr from and to local files works currently
only on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD, where they are known as extattr.
.B Command processing:
Commands are either actions which happen immediately or settings which
influence following actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they are
given as program arguments and command
is among them.
Commands consist of a command word,
followed by zero or more parameter words. If the list of parameter words
is of variable length (indicated by "[...]" or "[***]") then it must be
terminated by either the \fBlist delimiter\fR, occur at the end of
the argument list, or occur at the end of an input line.
At program start the list delimiter is the string "\-\-".
This may be changed with the \-list_delimiter command in order to allow
"\-\-" as parameter in a variable length list.
However, it is advised to reset the delimiter to "\-\-"
immediately afterwards.
For brevity the list delimiter is referred as "\-\-"
throughout this text.
The list delimiter is silently ignored if it appears after the parameters of
a command with a fixed list length. It is handled as normal text if it
appears among the parameters of such a command.
\fBPattern expansion\fR
converts a list of pattern words into a list of existing file addresses.
Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered in that result list.
Pattern matching supports the usual shell parser wildcards '*' '?' '[xyz]'
and respects '/' as the path separator, which may only be matched literally.
Pattern expansion is a property of some particular commands and not a general
feature. It is controlled by commands \-iso_rr_pattern and \-disk_pattern.
Commands which use pattern expansion all have variable parameter
lists which are specified in this text by "[***]" rather than "[...]".
Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.
Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments, where
one argument is one word, or from quoted input lines where words are recognized
similar to the quotation rules of a shell parser.
\fBxorriso\fR is not a shell, although it might appear so at first glimpse.
Be aware that the interaction of quotation marks and pattern symbols like "*"
differs from the usual shell parsers. In \fBxorriso\fR, a quotation mark
does not make a pattern symbol literal.
\fBQuoted input\fR
converts whitespace\-separated text into words.
The double quotation mark " and the single quotation mark ' can be used to
enclose whitespace and make it part of words (e.g. of file names). Each mark
type can enclose the marks of the other type. A trailing backslash \\ outside
quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to be appended.
Quoted input accepts any 8\-bit character except NUL (0) as the content of
the quotes.
Nevertheless it can be cumbersome for the user to produce those characters
directly. Therefore quoted input and program arguments allow optional
\fBBackslash Interpretation\fR
which can represent all 8\-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes
as in $'...' of bash.
This is not enabled by default. See command \-backslash_codes.
When the program starts then it first looks for argument \-no_rc. If this is
not present then it looks for its startup files and
reads their content as command input lines. Then it interprets
the program arguments as commands and parameters. Finally it enters
dialog mode if command \-dialog "on" has been executed by this point.
The program ends either by command \-end, or by the end of program arguments
if dialog mode has not been enabled at that point, or by a problem
event which triggers the threshold of command \-abort_on.
.B Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
Dialog mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words, and performs
them as commands with their parameters. It provides assisting services
to make dialog more comfortable.
Readline is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know it from
the bash shell. Whether it is available in \fBxorriso\fR depends on the
of package readline\-dev at the time when \fBxorriso\fR was built from
its sourcecode.
Readline allows to move the cursor over the text in the line by help of the
Left and the Right arrow keys.
Text may be inserted at the cursor position. The Delete key removes the
character under the cursor. Up and Down arrow keys navigate through
the history of previous input lines.
See man readline
for more info about libreadline.
Command \-page activates a built\-in result text pager which may be convenient in
dialog mode. After an action has output the given number of terminal lines,
the pager prompts the user for a line of input.
An empty line lets \fBxorriso\fR resume work until the next page is output.
The single character "@" disables paging for the current action.
"@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and
suppress further result output.
Any other line input will be interpreted as new dialog line. The current action
is requested to abort. Afterwards, the input line is executed.
Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
The request to abort may or may not be obeyed by the current action.
All actions try to abort as soon as possible.
All command words are shown with a leading dash although this dash is not
mandatory for the command to be recognized. Nevertheless within command \-as
the dashes of the emulated commands are mandatory.
Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and
inner dashes are interpreted as underscores.
.B Execution order of program arguments:
By default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as a
sequence of commands which get performed exactly in the given order.
This requires the user to write commands for desired settings before the
commands which shall be influenced by those settings.
Many other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary ordering
and perform settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion.
xorriso provides an option to enable such a behavior
at the cost of loss of expressivity.
Enable automatic sorting of program arguments into a sequence that
(most likely) is sensible.
This command may be given at any position among the commands
which are handed over as program arguments.
Note: It works only if it is given as program argument and
with a single dash (i.e. "\-x"). It will not work in startup files, nor with
\-options_from_file, nor in dialog mode, nor as "x" and finally not as
It affects only the commands given as program arguments.
List all xorriso commands in the order which applies if command \-x is in
This list may also be helpful without \-x for a user who ponders over the
sequence in which to put commands. Deviations from the listed sorting order may
well make sense, though.
.B Acquiring source and target drive:
The effect of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands in the
next paragraph "Influencing the behavior of image loading".
If desired, their enabling commands have to be performed before the
commands which acquire the drive.
\fB\-dev\fR address
Set input and output drive to the same address and load an ISO image if it
is present.
If there is no ISO image then create a blank one.
Set the image expansion method to growing.
This is only allowed as long as no changes are pending in the currently
loaded ISO image. If changes are pending, then one has to perform \-commit
or \-rollback first.
Special address string "\-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current device
without acquiring a new one.
\fB\-indev\fR address
Set input drive and load an ISO image if present.
If the new input drive differs
from \-outdev then switch from growing to modifying or to blind growing.
It depends on the setting of \-grow_blindly which of both gets activated.
The same rules and restrictions apply as with \-dev.
\fB\-outdev\fR address
Set output drive and if it differs from the input drive then switch from
growing to modifying or to blind growing. Unlike \-dev and \-indev this action
does not load a new ISO image. So it can be performed even if there are pending
\-outdev can be performed without previous \-dev or \-indev. In that case an
empty ISO image with no changes pending is created. It can either be populated
by help of \-map, \-add or it can be discarded silently if \-dev or \-indev
are performed afterwards.
Special address string "\-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current output drive
without acquiring a new one. No writing is possible without an output drive.
\fB\-grow_blindly\fR "off"|predicted_nwa
If predicted_nwa is a non\-negative number then perform blind growing rather
than modifying if \-indev and \-outdev are set to different drives.
"off" or "\-1" switch to modifying, which is the default.
predicted_nwa is the block address where the add\-on session of blind
growing will finally end up. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure
this final position and the presence of the older sessions. Else the
overall ISO image will not be mountable or will produce read errors when
accessing file content. \fBxorriso\fR will write the session to the address
as obtained from examining \-outdev and not necessarily to predicted_nwa.
During a run of blind growing, the input drive is given up before output
begins. The output drive is given up when writing is done.
.B Influencing the behavior of image loading:
The following commands should normally be performed before loading an image
by acquiring an input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to activate
them only after image loading.
\fB\-load\fR entity id
Load a particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from \-dev or \-indev.
Usually all available sessions are shown with command \-toc.
entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular
address. The following entities are defined:
"auto" with any id addresses the last session in \-toc. This is the default.
"session" with id being a number as of a line "ISO session", column "Idx".
"track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track", column "Idx".
"lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column "sbsector".
"volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...",
column "Volume Id".
Adressing a non\-existing entity or one which does not represent an ISO
image will either abandon \-indev or at least lead to a blank image.
If an input drive is set at the moment when \-load is executed, then the
addressed ISO image is loaded immediately. Else, the setting will be pending
until the next \-dev or \-indev. After the image has been loaded once, the
setting is valid for \-rollback until next \-dev or \-indev, where it
will be reset to "auto".
\fB\-displacement\fR [-]lba
Compensate a displacement of the image versus the start address
for which the image was prepared. This affects only loading of ISO images
and reading of their files. The multi\-session method of growing is not allowed
as long as \-displacement is non\-zero. I.e. \-indev and \-outdev must be
different. The displacement gets reset to 0 before the drive
gets re\-acquired after writing.
If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied to a disk file
where it begins at block 0, then this copy can be loaded with
\-displacement \-123456.
If an ISO image was written onto a partition with offset of 640000 blocks of
512 bytes, then it can be loaded from the base device by \-displacement 160000.
In both cases, the ISO sessions should be self contained, i.e. not add\-on
sessions to an ISO image outside their track resp. partition.
\fB\-drive_class\fR "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
Add a drive path pattern to one of the safety lists or make those lists empty.
There are three lists defined which get tested in the following sequence:
If a drive address path matches the "harmless" list then the drive will be
accepted. If it is not a MMC device then the prefix "stdio:" will be prepended
automatically. This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will not be
accepted by \fBxorriso\fR but rather lead to a FAILURE event.
This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a MMC device,
then its address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it will be rejected.
This list has by default one entry: "/dev".
If a drive path matches no list then it is considered "harmless". By default
these are all paths which do not begin with directory "/dev".
A path matches a list if one of its parent paths or itself matches a list
entry. Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will be ignored when
testing for matches.
By pseudo\-class "clear_list" and pseudo\-patterns "banned", "caution",
"harmless", or "all", the lists may be made empty.
E.g.: \-drive_class clear_list banned
One will normally define the \-drive_class lists in one of the \fBxorriso\fR
Startup Files.
Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the superuser to
prevent inadverted mishaps. For reliably blocking access to a device file you
have to deny its rw\-permissions in the filesystem.
\fB\-assert_volid\fR pattern severity
Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the given
search pattern. When refusing an image, give up the input drive and issue
an event of the given severity (like FAILURE, see \-abort_on). An empty search
pattern accepts any image.
This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from blank
input media and does not discard an already loaded image.
\fB\-in_charset\fR character_set_name
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an
image. See paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations.
When loading the written image after \-commit the setting of \-out_charset
will be copied to \-in_charset.
\fB\-auto_charset\fR "on"|"off"
Enable or disable recording and interpretation of the output character
set name in an xattr attribute of the image root directory. If enabled and
if a recorded character set name is found, then this name will be used as
name of the input character set when reading an image.
Note that the default output charset is the local character set of the
terminal where \fBxorriso\fR runs. Before attributing this local
character set
to the produced ISO image, check whether the terminal properly displays
all intended filenames, especially exotic national characters.
\fB\-hardlinks\fR mode[:mode...]
Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
In default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers at image load
time. Each iso_rr file object which has no inode number at image generation
time will get a new unique inode number if \-compliance is set to new_rr.
Mode "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if such numbers
were recorded.
When committing a session it searches for families of iso_rr files
which stem from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and have
identical properties. The family members all get the same inode number.
Whether these numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating
Commands \-update and \-update_r track splits and fusions of hard links in
filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers. This can cause
automatic last minute changes before the session gets written. Command
\-hardlinks "perform_update" may be used to do these changes earlier,
e.g. if you need to apply filters to all updated files.
Mode "without_update" avoids hardlink processing during update commands.
Use this if your filesystem situation does not allow \-disk_dev_ino "on".
\fBxorriso\fR commands which extract files from an ISO image try to
hardlink files
with identical inode number. The normal scope of this operation is from
image load to image load. One may give up the accumulated hard link addresses
by \-hardlinks "discard_extract".
A large number of hardlink families may exhaust \-temp_mem_limit
if not \-osirrox "sort_lba_on" and \-hardlinks "cheap_sorted_extract"
are both in effect. This restricts hard linking to other files restored by
the same single extract command. \-hardlinks "normal_extract" re\-enables
wide and expensive hardlink accumulation.
\fB\-acl\fR "on"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of ACLs.
If enabled, then \fBxorriso\fR will obtain ACLs from disk file objects,
store ACLs in the ISO image using the libisofs specific AAIP format,
load AAIP data from ISO images, test ACL during file comparison,
and restore ACLs to disk files when extracting them from ISO images.
See also commands \-getfacl, \-setfacl.
\fB\-xattr\fR "on"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of xattr attributes in user namespace.
If enabled, then \fBxorriso\fR will handle xattr similar to ACL.
See also commands \-getfattr, \-setfattr and above paragraph about xattr.
\fB\-md5\fR "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
Enable or disable processing of MD5 checksums for the overall session and for
each single data file. If enabled then images with checksum tags get loaded
only if the tags of superblock and directory tree match properly. The MD5
checksums of data files and whole session get loaded from the image if there
are any.
With commands \-compare and \-update the recorded MD5 of a file
will be used to avoid content reading from the image. Only the disk file
content will be read and compared with that MD5. This can save much time
if \-disk_dev_ino "on" is not suitable.
At image generation time they are computed for each file which gets its data
written into the new session. The checksums of files which have their data
in older sessions get copied into the new session. Superblock, tree and whole
session get a checksum tag each.
Mode "all" will additionally check during image generation whether the checksum
of a data file changed between the time when its reading began and the time
when it ended. This implies reading every file twice.
Mode "load_check_off" together with "on" or "all" will load recorded MD5 sums
but not test the recorded checksum tags of superblock and directory tree.
This is necessary if growisofs was used as burn program, because it does
not overwrite the superblock checksum tag of the first session.
Therefore load_check_off is in effect when \fBxorriso\fR \-as mkisofs
option \-M is performed.
The test can be re\-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
Checksums can be exploited via commands \-check_md5, \-check_md5_r, via find
actions get_md5, check_md5, and via \-check_media.
Enable all extra features which help to produce or to restore backups with
highest fidelity of file properties.
Currently this is a shortcut for: \-hardlinks on \-acl on \-xattr on \-md5 on.
\fB\-disk_dev_ino\fR "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of recorded file identification numbers
(dev_t and ino_t). If enabled they are stored as xattr and allow
to substantially accelerate file comparison. The root node gets a global start
timestamp. If during comparison a file with younger timestamps is found in the
ISO image, then it is suspected to have inconsistent content.
If device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems are persistent
and if no irregular alterations of timestamps or system clock happen,
then potential content changes can be detected without reading that content.
File content change is assumed if any of mtime, ctime, device number or inode
number have changed.
Mode "ino_only" replaces the precondition that device numbers are stable by the
precondition that mount points in the compared tree always lead to the
same filesystems. Use this if mode "on" always sees all files changed.
The speed advantage appears only if the loaded session was produced with
\-disk_dev_ino "on" too.
Note that \-disk_dev_ino "off" is totally in effect only if \-hardlinks is "off",
\fB\-rom_toc_scan\fR "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
Read\-only drives do not tell the actual media type but show any media as
ROM (e.g. as DVD\-ROM). The session history of MMC multi\-session media might
be truncated to first and last session or even be completely false.
(The emulated history of overwriteable media is not affected by this.)
To have in case of failure a chance of getting the session history and
especially the address of the last session, there is a scan for ISO 9660
filesystem headers which might help but also might yield worse results
than the drive's table of content. At its end it can cause read attempts
to invalid addresses and thus ugly drive behavior.
Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read\-only media.
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi\-session DVD or BD. If on such a system \fBxorriso\fR has no own MMC
capabilities then it may still find that session from a scanned table of
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwriteable media
can hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables
the elsewise trustworthy table\-of\-content scan for those media.
The table\-of\-content scan on overwriteable media normally searches only up to
the end of the session that is pointed to by the superblock at block 0.
Setting "on:emul_wide" lets the scan continue up to the end of the medium.
This may be useful after copying a medium with \-check_media patch_lba0=on
when not the last session was loaded.
\fB\-calm_drive\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives stay alert
for substantial time after they have been used for reading. This reduces
the startup time for the next drive operation but can be loud and waste
energy if no i/o with the drive is expected to happen soon.
Modes "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down \-indev, \-outdev, resp. both.
Mode "revoke" immediately alerts both.
Mode "on" causes \-calm_drive to be performed automatically after each \-dev,
\-indev, and \-outdev. Mode "off" disables this.
Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow
to write the result into files of nearly arbitrary type.
Once set, this command cannot be revoked.
\fB\-early_stdio_test\fR "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
If enabled by "on" then regular files and block devices get tested for
effective access permissions. This implies to try opening those files for
writing, which otherwise will happen only later and only if actual
writing is desired.
The test result is used for classifying the pseudo drives as overwriteable,
read\-only, write\-only, or uselessly empty. This may lead to earlier detection
of severe problems, and may avoid some less severe error events.
Mode "appendable_wo" is like "on" with the additional property that
non\-empty write\-only files are regarded as appendable rather than blank.
\fB\-data_cache_size\fR number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
Set the size and granularity of the data cache which is used when ISO images
are loaded and when file content is read from ISO images. The cache consists
of several tiles, which each consists of several blocks. A larger cache
reduces the need for tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might
additionally improve the data throughput from the drive, but can be
wasteful if the data are scattered over the medium.
Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives. They are an
inferior alternative to \-osirrox option "sort_lba_on".
blocks_per_tile must be a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32, or 64. The overall cache
size must not exceed 1 GiB.
The default values can be restored by parameter "default" instead of one or
both of the numbers.
Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32 blocks = 2 MiB.
.B Inserting files into ISO image:
The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
is the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the ISO image.
If no Rock Ridge information is recorded in the loaded ISO image, then you
will see ISO 9660 names which are of limited length and character set.
If no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in an emerging ISO image, then
their names will get mapped to such restricted ISO 9660 names.
Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access
permissions of the existing files in the image do not apply to your write
operations. They are intended to be in effect with the read\-only mounted image.
If the iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an existing
file object in the ISO image, then the following collision handling
If both objects are directories then they get merged by recursively inserting
the subobjects from filesystem into ISO image.
If other file types collide then the setting of command
Renaming of files has similar collision handling, but directories can only
be replaced, not merged. Note that if the target directory exists, then \-mv
inserts the source objects into this directory rather than attempting
to replace it.
The commands in this section alter the ISO image and not the local filesystem.
\fB\-disk_pattern\fR "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the disk_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables this feature for all commands which are marked in this
man page by "disk_path [***]" or "disk_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"disk_pattern [***]".
Default is "ls".
\fB\-add\fR pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
If \-pathspecs is set to "on" then pattern expansion is always disabled and
character '=' has a special meaning. It separates the ISO image path
from the disk path:
The separator '=' can be escaped by '\\'.
If iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then \-cd is prepended.
If disk_path does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended.
If no '=' is given then the word is used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path.
If in this case the word does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended to
the disk_path and \-cd is prepended to the iso_rr_path.
If \-pathspecs is set to "off" then \-disk_pattern expansion applies, if enabled.
The resulting words are used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative
path words get prepended the setting of \-cdx to disk_path and the setting
of \-cd to iso_rr_path.
\fB\-add_plainly\fR mode
If set to mode "unknown" then any command word that does not begin with "\-" and
is not recognized as known command will be subject to a virtual \-add command.
I.e. it will be used as pathspec or as disk_path and added to the image.
If enabled, \-disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized command
words even if they begin with "\-".
Mode "any" announces that all further words are to be added as pathspecs
or disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
Mode "none" is the default. It prevents any words from being understood
as files to add, if they are not parameters to appropriate commands.
\fB\-path_list\fR disk_path
Like \-add but read the parameter words from file disk_path
or standard input if disk_path is "\-".
The list must contain exactly one pathspec resp. disk_path pattern per line.
\fB\-quoted_path_list\fR disk_path
Like \-path_list but with quoted input reading rules. Lines get split into
parameter words for \-add. Whitespace outside quotes is discarded.
\fB\-map\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Insert file object disk_path into the ISO image as iso_rr_path. If disk_path
is a directory then its whole sub tree is inserted into the ISO image.
\fB\-map_single\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Like \-map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree is not inserted.
\fB\-map_l\fR disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform \-map with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
\fB\-update\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Compare file object disk_path with file object iso_rr_path. If they do not
match, then perform the necessary image manipulations to make iso_rr_path
a matching copy of disk_path. By default this comparison will imply lengthy
content reading before a decision is made. Commands \-disk_dev_ino or \-md5 may
accelerate comparison if they were already in effect when the loaded session
was recorded.
If disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then the
whole subtree will be inserted. Else only directory attributes will be
\fB\-update_r\fR disk_path iso_rr_path
Like \-update but working recursively. I.e. all file objects below both
addresses get compared whether they have counterparts below the other address
and whether both counterparts match. If there is a mismatch then the necessary
update manipulation is done.
Note that the comparison result may depend on command \-follow. Its setting
should always be the same as with the first adding of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
If iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then it gets added. If disk_path does not
exist, then iso_rr_path gets deleted.
\fB\-update_l\fR disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform \-update_r with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
\fB\-cut_out\fR disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if
it exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB \- 1 for old operating systems,
or the limit of 4 GiB \- 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels
seem to read properly files >= 4 GiB \- 1.
A clumsy remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces and to concatenate
them at restore time. A well tested chopping size is 2047m.
It is permissible to request a higher byte_count than available. The
resulting file will be truncated to the correct size of a final piece.
To request a byte_offset higher than available yields no file in
the ISO image but a SORRY event.
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \\
/file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \\
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \\
/file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \\
\-cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \\
While command \-split_size is set larger than 0, and if all pieces of a file
reside in the same ISO directory with no other files, and if the names look
like above, then their ISO directory will be recognized and handled like a
regular file. This affects commands \-compare*, \-update*, and overwrite
See command \-split_size for details.
\fB\-cpr\fR disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem
into the ISO image.
The rules for generating the ISO addresses are similar as with
shell command cp \-r. Nevertheless, directories of the iso_rr_path
are created if necessary. Especially a not yet existing iso_rr_path
will be handled as directory if multiple disk_paths are present.
The leafnames of the multiple disk_paths will be grafted under that
directory as would be done with an existing directory.
If a single disk_path is present then a non\-existing iso_rr_path will
get the same type as the disk_path.
If a disk_path does not begin with '/' then \-cdx is prepended.
If the iso_rr_path does not begin with '/' then \-cd is prepended.
\fB\-mkdir\fR iso_rr_path [...]
Create empty directories if they do not exist yet.
Existence as directory generates a WARNING event, existence as
other file causes a FAILURE event.
\fB\-lns\fR target_text iso_rr_path
Create a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points to target_text.
iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
Hint: Command \-clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.
\fB\-clone\fR iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
Create a copy of the ISO file object iso_rr_path_original with the new
address iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory then copy all
files and directories underneath. If iso_rr_path_original is a boot catalog
file, then it gets not copied but is silently ignored.
The copied ISO file objects have the same attributes. Copied data files
refer to the same content source as their originals.
The copies may then be manipulated independendly of their originals.
This command will refuse execution if the address iso_rr_path_copy
already exists in the ISO tree.
\fB\-cp_clone\fR iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
Create copies of one or more ISO file objects as with command \-clone.
In case of collision merge directories with existing ones, but do not overwrite
existing ISO file objects.
The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with
command \-cpr (see above) resp. shell command cp \-r. Other than with \-cpr,
relative iso_rr_path_original will get prepended the \-cd path and not
the \-cdx path. Consider to \-mkdir iso_rr_path_dest before \-cp_clone
so the copy address does not depend on the number of iso_rr_path_original
.B Settings for file insertion:
\fB\-file_size_limit\fR value [value [...]] --
Set the maximum permissible size for a single data file. The values get
summed up for the actual limit. If the only value is "off" then the file
size is not limited by \fBxorriso\fR.
Default is a limit of 100 extents, 4g \-2k each:
\-file_size_limit 400g \-200k \-\-
When mounting ISO 9660 filesystems, old operating systems can handle only files
up to 2g \-1 \-\-. Newer ones are good up to 4g \-1 \-\-.
You need quite a new Linux kernel to read correctly the final bytes
of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned to 2048 byte blocks.
\fBxorriso\fR's own data read capabilities are not affected by
operating system size limits. Such limits apply to mounting only. Nevertheless,
the target filesystem of an \-extract must be able to take the file size.
\fB\-not_mgt\fR code[:code[...]]
Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the ISO image
and before disk files get compared with image files.
The absolute disk path of the source is matched against the \-not_paths list.
The leafname of the disk path is matched against the patterns in the \-not_leaf
list. If a match is detected then the disk path will not be regarded as an
existing file and not be added to the ISO image.
Several codes are defined.
The _on/_off settings persist until they are revoked by their_off/_on
"erase" empties the lists which were accumulated by \-not_paths and \-not_leaf.
"reset" is like "erase" but also re\-installs default behavior.
"off" disables exclusion processing temporarily without invalidating
the lists and settings.
"on" re\-enables exclusion processing.
"param_off" applies exclusion processing only to paths below disk_path
parameter of commands. I.e. explicitly given disk_paths are exempted
from exclusion processing.
"param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as well as
to files below such parameters.
"subtree_off" with "param_on" excludes parameter paths only if they
match a \-not_paths item exactly.
"subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to a file
address below any \-not_paths item.
"ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing. I.e. they
get reported with \-compare and deleted from the image with \-update.
"ignore_on" keeps excluded files out of \-compare or \-update activities.
\fB\-not_paths\fR disk_path [***]
Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths. If a given
path is relative, then the current \-cdx is prepended to form an absolute path.
Pattern matching, if enabled, happens at definition time and not when exclusion
checks are made.
(Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "\-\-")
\fB\-not_leaf\fR pattern
Add a single shell parser style pattern to the list of exclusions for
disk leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when the exclusion checks are
\fB\-not_list\fR disk_path
Read lines from disk_path and use each of them either as \-not_paths parameter,
if they contain a / character, or as \-not_leaf pattern.
\fB\-quoted_not_list\fR disk_path
Like \-not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is
handled as one parameter for \-not_paths resp. \-not_leaf.
\fB\-follow\fR occasion[:occasion[...]]
Enable or disable resolution of symbolic links and mountpoints under
disk_paths. This applies to actions \-add, \-du*x, \-ls*x, \-findx,
and to \-disk_pattern expansion.
There are two kinds of follow decisison to be made:
"link" is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object.
If enabled then symbolic links are handled as their target file objects,
else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
"mount" is the hop from one filesystem to another subordinate filesystem.
If enabled then mountpoint directories are handled as any other directory,
else mountpoints are handled as empty directories if they are encountered in
directory tree traversals.
Less general than above occasions:
"pattern" is mount and link hopping, but only during \-disk_pattern expansion.
"param" is link hopping for parameter words (after eventual pattern expansion).
If enabled then \-ls*x will show the link targets rather than the links
themselves. \-du*x, \-findx, and \-add will process the link targets but not
follow links in an eventual directory tree below the targets (unless "link"
is enabled).
Occasions can be combined in a colon separated list. All occasions
mentioned in the list will then lead to a positive follow decision.
"off" prevents any positive follow decision. Use it if no other occasion
"default" is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
"on" always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount".
Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
"limit="<number> which sets the maximum number of link hops.
A link hop consists of a sequence of symbolic links and a final target
of different type. Nevertheless those hops can loop. Example:
$ ln \-s .. uploop
Link hopping has a built\-in loop detection which stops hopping at the first
repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link is handled as itself
and not as its target.
Regrettably one can construct link networks which
cause exponential workload before their loops get detected.
The number given with "limit=" can curb this workload at the risk of truncating
an intentional sequence of link hops.
\fB\-pathspecs\fR "on"|"off"
Control parameter interpretation with \fBxorriso\fR
actions \-add and \-path_list.
"on" enables pathspecs of the form
like with program mkisofs \-graft\-points.
It also disables \-disk_pattern expansion for command \-add.
"off" disables pathspecs of the form target=source
and re\-enables \-disk_pattern expansion.
\fB\-overwrite\fR "on"|"nondir"|"off"
Allow or disallow to overwrite existing files in the
ISO image by files with the same name.
With setting "off", name collisions cause FAILURE events.
With setting "nondir", only directories are protected by such events, other
existing file types get treated with \-rm before the new file gets added.
Setting "on" allows automatic \-rm_r. I.e. a non\-directory can replace an
existing directory and all its subordinates.
If restoring of files is enabled, then the overwrite rule applies to the
target file objects on disk as well, but "on" is downgraded to "nondir".
\fB\-split_size\fR number["k"|"m"]
Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such splitting
maps a large disk file onto a ISO directory with several part files in it.
This is necessary if the size of the disk file exceeds \-file_size_limit.
Older operating systems can handle files in mounted ISO 9660 filesystems
only if they are smaller than 2 GiB resp. 4 GiB.
Default is 0 which will exclude files larger than \-file_size_limit by a
FAILURE event.
A well tested \-split_size is 2047m. Sizes above \-file_size_limit are not
While command \-split_size is set larger than 0 such a directory with split
file pieces will be recognized and handled like a regular file by commands
\-compare* , \-update*, and in overwrite situations. There are \-ossirox
parameters "concat_split_on" and "concat_split_off" which control the handling
when files get restored to disk.
In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to
describe the splitting by 5 numbers:
which are embedded in the following text form:
Scaling characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect.
All digits are interpreted as decimal, even if leading zeros are present.
E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
No other files are allowed in the directory. All parts have to be present and
their numbers have to be plausible. E.g. byte_count must be valid as \-cut_out
parameter and their contents may not overlap.
.B File manipulations:
The following commands manipulate files in the ISO image, regardless whether
they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.
\fB\-iso_rr_pattern\fR "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of several
commands which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands which are marked
in this man page by "iso_rr_path [***]" or "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by
"iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Default is "on".
\fB\-rm\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
Note: This does not free any space on the \-indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
medium in modification mode.
\fB\-rm_r\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image.
See also the note with command \-rm.
\fB\-rmdir\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete empty directories.
\fB\-mv\fR iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
Rename the given file objects in the ISO tree to the last
parameter in the list. Use the same rules as with shell command mv.
If pattern expansion is enabled and if the last parameter contains wildcard
characters then it must match exactly one existing file address, or else the
command fails with a FAILURE event.
\fB\-chown\fR uid iso_rr_path [***]
Set ownership of file objects in the ISO image. uid may either be a decimal
number or the name of a user known to the operating system.
\fB\-chown_r\fR uid iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-chgrp\fR gid iso_rr_path [***]
Set group attribute of file objects in the ISO image. gid may either be a
decimal number or the name of a group known to the operating system.
\fB\-chgrp_r\fR gid iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-chmod\fR mode iso_rr_path [***]
Equivalent to shell command chmod in the ISO image.
mode is either an octal number beginning with "0" or a comma separated
list of statements of the form [ugoa]*[+\-=][rwxst]* .
Like: go\-rwx,u+rwx .
u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
+ adds given permissions, \- revokes given permissions,
= revokes all old permissions and then adds the given ones.
r=read, w=write, x=execute|inspect, s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
For octal numbers see man 2 stat.
\fB\-chmod_r\fR mode iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfacl\fR acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given ACL to the given iso_rr_paths. If the files already have
ACLs, then those get deleted before the new ones get into effect.
If acl_text is empty, or contains the text "clear" or the text
then the existing ACLs will be removed and no new ones will be
attached. Any other content of acl_text will be interpreted as a list of
ACL entries. It may be in the long multi\-line format as put out by \-getfacl
but may also be abbreviated as follows:
ACL entries are separated by comma or newline. If an entry is empty text or
begins with "#" then it will be ignored. A valid entry has to begin
by a letter out of {ugom} for "user", "group", "other", "mask". It has to
contain two colons ":". A non\-empty text between those ":" gives a user id
resp. group id. After the second ":" there may be letters out of {rwx\- #}.
The first three give read, write resp. execute permission.
Letters "\-", " " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of the entry to
be ignored. Letter "X" or any other letters are not supported. Examples:
A valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following characters and ":".
This indicates that the entry goes to the "default" ACL rather than to the
"access" ACL. Example:
\fB\-setfacl_r\fR acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-setfacl but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfacl_list\fR disk_path
Read the output of \-getfacl_r or shell command getfacl \-R and apply it to the
iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". This will change
ownership, group and ACL of the given files.
If disk_path is "\-" then lines are read from standard input. Line "@" ends the
list, "@@@" aborts without changing the pending iso_rr_path.
Since \-getfacl and getfacl \-R strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting of
\-cd does always matter.
\fB\-setfattr\fR [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given xattr pair of name and value to the given iso_rr_paths.
If the given name is prefixed by "\-", then the pair with that name gets
removed from the xattr list. If name is "\-\-remove\-all"
then all user namespace
xattr of the given iso_rr_paths get deleted. In case of deletion, value must
be an empty text.
Only names from the user namespace are allowed. I.e. a name has to begin with
"user.", like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
Values and names undergo the normal input processing of \fBxorriso\fR.
See also command \-backslash_codes. Other than with command \-setfattr_list,
the byte value 0 cannot be expressed via \-setfattr.
\fB\-setfattr_r\fR [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-setfattr but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-setfattr_list\fR disk_path
Read the output of \-getfattr_r or shell command getfattr \-Rd and apply it to
the iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". All previously
existing user space xattr of the given iso_rr_paths will be deleted.
If disk_path is "\-" then lines are read from standard input.
Since \-getfattr and getfattr \-Rd strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting
of \-cd does always matter.
Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will be ignored
(except "# file:"). Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing
the pending iso_rr_path. Other input lines must have the form
Name must be from user namespace. I.e. where xyz should consist of
printable characters only. The separator "=" is not allowed in names.
Value may contain any kind of bytes. It must be in quotes. Trailing
whitespace after the end quote will be ignored. Non\-printables bytes and quotes
must be represented as \\XYZ by their octal 8\-bit code XYZ.
Use code \\000 for 0\-bytes.
\fB\-alter_date\fR type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Alter the date entries of a file in the ISO image. type is
one of "a", "m", "b" for access time, modification time,
both times.
timestring may be in the following formats
(see also section EXAMPLES):
As expected by program date:
As produced by program date:
[Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
Relative times counted from current clock time:
where "s" means seconds, "h" hours, "d" days, "w" weeks, "m"=30d,
"y"=365.25d plus 1d added to multiplication result.
Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
\fBxorriso\fR's own timestamps:
scdbackup timestamps:
where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
\fB\-alter_date_r\fR type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-alter_date but affecting all files below eventual directories.
\fB\-hide\fR hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
Prevent the names of the given files from showing up in the directory trees
of ISO 9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+ when the image gets written.
The data content of such hidden files will be included in the
resulting image, even if they do not show up in any directory.
But you will need own means to find nameless data in the image.
Warning: Data which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree will not be copied
by the write method of modifying.
Possible values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from ISO 9660 tree,
"joliet" for Joliet tree, "hfsplus" for HFS+, "on" for them all.
"off" means visibility in all directory trees.
These values may be combined.
E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
This command does not apply to the boot catalog.
Rather use: \-boot_image "any" "cat_hidden=on"
.B Tree traversal command -find:
\fB\-find\fR iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] --
A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image.
It performs an action on matching file objects at or below iso_rr_path.
If not used as last command in the line then the parameter list
needs to get terminated by "\-\-".
Tests are optional. If they are omitted then action is applied to all file
objects. If tests are given then they form together an expression.
The action is applied only if the expression matches the file object. Default
expression operator between tests is \-and, i.e. the expression matches only
if all its tests match.
Available tests are:
\fB\-name\fR pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file leaf name.
\fB\-wholename\fR pattern :
Matches if pattern matches the file path as it would be printed by action
"echo". Character '/' is not special but can be matched by wildcards.
\fB\-disk_name\fR pattern :
Like \-name but testing the leaf name of the file source on disk.
Can match only data files which do not stem from the loaded image,
or for directories above such data files. With directories the result can
change between \-find runs if their content stems from multiple sources.
\fB\-disk_path\fR disk_path :
Matches if the given disk_path is equal to the path of the file source
on disk. The same restrictions apply as with \-disk_name.
\fB\-type\fR type_letter :
Matches files of the given type:
"block", "char", "dir", "pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito",
and "Xotic" which matches what is not matched by the other types.
Only the first letter is interpreted. E.g.: \-find / \-type d
\fB\-damaged\fR :
Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged by a previous
run of \-check_media. The damage info vanishes when a new ISO image gets
Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the session as damaged.
If finer distinction is desired, perform \-md5 off before \-check_media.
\fB\-pending_data\fR :
Matches files which get their content from outside the loaded ISO image.
\fB\-lba_range\fR start_lba block_count :
Matches files which use data blocks within the range of start_lba
and start_lba+block_count\-1.
\fB\-has_acl\fR :
Matches files which have a non\-trivial ACL.
\fB\-has_xattr\fR :
Matches files which have xattr name\-value pairs from user namespace.
\fB\-has_aaip\fR :
Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
\fB\-has_any_xattr\fR :
Matches files which have any xattr other than ACL.
\fB\-has_md5\fR :
Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
\fB\-has_hfs_crtp\fR creator type :
Matches files which have the given HFS+ creator and type attached.
These are codes of 4 characters which get stored if \-hfsplus is
enabled. Use a single dash '\-' as wildcard that matches any such code.
\-has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
\-has_hfs_crtp \- \-
\fB\-has_hfs_bless\fR blessing :
Matches files which bear the given HFS+ blessing. It may be one of :
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder",
"any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
\fB\-has_filter\fR :
Matches files which are filtered by \-set_filter.
\fB\-hidden\fR hide_state :
Matches files which are hidden in "iso_rr" tree, in "joliet" tree,
in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees ("on"), or not hidden in any tree ("off").
Those which are hidden in some tree match \-not \-hidden "off".
\fB\-prune\fR :
If this test is reached and the tested file is a directory then \-find will not
dive into that directory. This test itself does always match.
\fB\-decision\fR "yes"|"no" :
If this test is reached then the evaluation ends immediately and action
is performed if the decision is "yes" or "true". See operator \-if.
\fB\-true\fR and \fB\-false\fR :
Always match resp. match not. Evaluation goes on.
\fB\-sort_lba\fR :
Always match. This causes \-find to perform its action in a sequence sorted by
the ISO image block addresses of the files. It may improve throughput with
actions which read data from optical drives. Action will always get the
absolute path as parameter.
Available operators are:
\fB\-not\fR :
Matches if the next test or sub expression does not match.
Several tests do this specifically:
\-undamaged, \-lba_range with negative start_lba, \-has_no_acl, \-has_no_xattr,
\-has_no_aaip, \-has_no_filter .
\fB\-and\fR :
Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
\fB\-or\fR :
Matches if at least one of both neighboring tests or expressions matches.
\fB\-sub\fR ... \fB\-subend\fR or \fB(\fR ... \fB)\fR :
Enclose a sub expression which gets evaluated first before it
is processed by neighboring operators.
Normal precedence is: \-not, \-or , \-and.
\fB\-if\fR ... \fB\-then\fR\ ... \fB\-elseif\fR ... \fB\-then\fR ...
\fB\-else\fR ... \fB\-endif\fR :
Enclose one or more sub expressions. If the \-if expression matches, then
the \-then expression is evaluated as the result of the whole expression
up to \-endif. Else the next \-elseif expression is evaluated and if it matches,
its \-then expression. Finally in case of no match, the \-else expression
is evaluated.
There may be more than one \-elseif. Neither \-else nor \-elseif are mandatory.
If \-else is missing and would be hit, then the result is a non\-match.
\-if\-expressions are the main use case for above test \-decision.
Default action is \fBecho\fR,
i.e. to print the address of the found file. Other actions are certain
\fBxorriso\fR commands which get performed on the found files.
These commands
may have specific parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
\fBchown\fR and \fBchown_r\fR
change the ownership and get the user id
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chown thomas \-\-
\fBchgrp\fR and \fBchgrp_r\fR
change the group attribute and get the group id
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chgrp_r staff \-\-
\fBchmod\fR and \fBchmod_r\fR
change access permissions and get a mode string
as parameter. E.g.: \-exec chmod a\-w,a+r \-\-
\fBalter_date\fR and \fBalter_date_r\fR
change the timestamps. They get a type
character and a timestring as parameters.
E.g.: \-exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" \-\-
prints file information like shell command ls \-dl.
performs command \-compare with the found file address as
iso_rr_path and the corresponding file address below its parameter
disk_path_start. For this the iso_rr_path of the \-find command gets
replaced by the disk_path_start.
E.g.: \-find /thomas \-exec compare /home/thomas \-\-
performs command \-update with the found file address as
iso_rr_path. The corresponding file address is determined like with above
action "compare".
is like update but does not delete the found file if it is missing on disk.
It may be run several times and records with all visited files whether their
counterpart on disk has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.
Finally, a \-find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that
saw no counterpart on disk.
Up to the next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge" all newly inserted files will
get marked as having a disk counterpart.
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is not a directory
with files in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
removes the found iso_rr_path from the image, including whole
directory trees.
removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by one or more previous actions
"update_merge" and saw no counterpart on disk in any of them. The marking from
the update actions is removed in any case.
removes an eventual marking from action "update_merge".
classifies files whether they hit a data block that is
marked as damaged. The result is printed together with the address
of the first damaged byte, the maximum span of damages, file size, and the
path of the file.
prints files which are associated to image data blocks.
It tells the logical block address, the block number, the byte size,
and the path of each file. There may be reported more than one
line per file if the file is very large. In this case each line has a
different extent number in column "xt".
prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result channel.
attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new
ACL is given in text form as defined with command \-setfacl.
E.g.: \-exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::\-,m::rw \-\-
prints xattr name\-value pairs from user namespace
to the result channel.
prints xattr name\-value pairs from any namespace
except ACL to the result channel. This is mostly for debugging of
namespace "isofs".
\fBlist_extattr\fR mode
prints a script to the result channel, which would use FreeBSD command
setextattr to set the file's xattr name\-value pairs of user namespace.
Parameter mode controls the form of the output of names and values.
Default mode "e" prints harmless characters in shell quotation marks,
but represents texts with octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded
echo \-e command.
Mode "q" prints any characters in shell quotation marks. This might not be
terminal\-safe but should work in script files.
Mode "r" uses no quotation marks. Not safe.
Mode "b" prints backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
E.g. \-exec list_extattr e \-\-
Command \-backslash_codes does not affect the output.
prints the MD5 sum, if recorded, together with file path.
compares the MD5 sum, if recorded, with the file content
and reports if mismatch.
E.g.: \-find / \-not \-pending_data \-exec check_md5 FAILURE \-\-
equips a data file with an MD5 sum of its content. Useful to
upgrade the files in the loaded image to full MD5 coverage by the next
commit with \-md5 "on".
E.g.: \-find / \-type f \-not \-has_md5 \-exec make_md5 \-\-
sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
E.g.: \-find / \-has_xattr \-exec setfattr \-\-remove\-all '' \-\-
adds, changes, or removes HFS+ creator and type attributes.
E.g.: \-exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
E.g.: \-find /my/dir \-prune \-exec set_hfs_crtp \-\-delete \-
prints the HFS+ creator and type attributes together with the iso_rr_path,
if the file has such attributes at all.
E.g.: \-exec get_hfs_crtp
applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are roles which can be attributed to
up to four directories and a data file:
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder".
They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "intel_bootfile"
is the one that would apply to a data file. All others apply to directories.
The \-find run will end as soon as the first blessing is issued. The previous
bearer of the blessing will lose it then.
No file object can bear more than one blessing.
E.g.: \-find /my/blessed/directory \-exec set_hfs_bless p
Further there is blessing "none" or "n" which revokes any blessing from
the found files. This \-find run will not stop when the first match is reached.
E.g.: \-find / \-has_hfs_bless any \-exec set_hfs_bless none
prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path, if the file is blessed
at all.
E.g.: \-exec get_hfs_bless
applies or removes filters.
E.g.: \-exec set_filter \-\-zisofs \-\-
applies the rules of mkisofs \-r to the file object:
user id and group id become 0, all r\-permissions get granted, all w denied.
If there is any x\-permission, then all three x get granted.
s\- and t\-bits get removed.
attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
The number may range from \-2147483648 to 2147483647. The higher it is, the
lower will be the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image.
Currently the boot catalog has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion.
Normally it should occupy the block with the lowest possible address.
Data files get added or loaded with initial weight 0.
E.g.: \-exec sort_weight 3 \-\-
shows the content stream chain of a data file.
brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr", "joliet",
"hfsplus", "off". They may be combined. E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
\-find / \-disk_name *_secret \-exec hide on
prints a lower and an upper estimation of the number of blocks which the
found files together will occupy in the emerging ISO image.
This does not account for the superblock,
for the directories in the \-find path, or for image padding.
performs another run of \-find on the matching file address.
It accepts the same params as \-find, except iso_rr_path.
\-find / \-name '???' \-type d \-exec find \-name '[abc]*' \-exec chmod a\-w,a+r \-\-
.B Filters for data file content:
\fBFilters\fR may be installed between data files in the ISO image and their
content source outside the image. They may also be used vice versa between
data content in the image and target files on disk.
Built\-in filters are "\-\-zisofs" and
"\-\-zisofs\-decode". The former is to be
applied via \-set_filter, the latter is automatically applied if zisofs
compressed content is detected with a file when loading the ISO image.
Another built\-in filter pair is "\-\-gzip"
and "\-\-gunzip" with suffix ".gz".
They behave about like external gzip and gunzip but avoid forking a process
for each single file. So they are much faster if there are many small files.
\fB\-external_filter\fR name option[:option] program_path [arguments] --
Register a content filter by associating a name with a program path,
program arguments, and some behavioral options. Once registered it can be
applied to multiple data files in the ISO image, regardless whether their
content resides in the loaded ISO image or in the local filesystem.
External filter processes may produce synthetic file content by reading the
original content from stdin and writing to stdout whatever they want.
They must deliver the same output on the same input in repeated runs.
Options are:
"default" means that no other option is intended.
"suffix=..." sets a file name suffix. If it is not empty then it will be
appended to the file name or removed from it.
"remove_suffix" will remove a file name suffix
rather than appending it.
"if_nonempty" will leave 0\-sized files unfiltered.
"if_reduction" will try filtering and revoke it if the content size does not
"if_block_reduction" will revoke if the number of 2 kB blocks does not shrink.
"used=..." is ignored. Command \-status shows it with the number of
files which currently have the filter applied.
\-external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \\
/usr/bin/bzip2 \-\-
\-external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \\
/usr/bin/bunzip2 \-\-
\fB\-unregister_filter\fR name
Remove an \-external_filter registration. This is only possible if the filter
is not applied to any file in the ISO image.
Irrevocably ban commands \-external_filter and \-unregister_filter,
but not \-set_filter. Use this to prevent external filtering in general or
when all intended filters are registered.
External filters may also be banned totally at compile time of
By default they are banned if \fBxorriso\fR runs under setuid permission.
\fB\-set_filter\fR name iso_rr_path [***]
Apply an \-external_filter or a built\-in filter to the given data files in the
ISO image.
If the filter suffix is not empty , then it will be applied to the file name.
Renaming only happens if the filter really gets attached and is not revoked by
its options.
By default files which already bear the suffix will not get filtered. The
others will get the suffix appended to their names.
If the filter has option "remove_suffix", then the filter will only be
applied if the suffix is present and can be removed.
Name oversize or collision caused by suffix change will prevent filtering.
With most filter types this command will immediately run the filter once for
each file in order to determine the output size.
Content reading operations like \-extract , \-compare and image generation will
perform further filter runs and deliver filtered content.
At image generation time the filter output must still be the same as the
output from the first run. Filtering for image generation does not happen
with files from the loaded ISO image if the write method of growing is in
effect (i.e \-indev and \-outdev are identical).
The reserved filter name "\-\-remove\-all\-filters" revokes
filtering. This will revoke suffix renamings as well.
Use "\-\-remove\-all\-filters+" to
prevent any suffix renaming.
Attaching or detaching filters will not alter the state of \-changes_pending.
If the filter manipulations shall be the only changes in a write run, then
explicitely execute \-changes_pending "yes".
\fB\-set_filter_r\fR name iso_rr_path [***]
Like \-set_filter but affecting all data files below eventual directories.
.B Writing the result, drive control:
(see also paragraph about settings below)
Discard the manipulated ISO image and reload it from \-indev.
(Use \-rollback_end if immediate program end is desired.)
\fB\-changes_pending\fR "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
Write runs are performed only if a change of the image has been made
since the image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the program will
start a write run for pending changes when it ends normally (i.e. not by abort
and not by command \-rollback_end).
The command \-changes_pending can be used to override the automatically
determined state. This is mainly useful for setting state "yes" despite
no real changes were made. The sequence \-changes_pending "no" \-end
is equivalent to the command \-rollback_end. State "mkisofs_printed"
is caused by emulation command \-as mkisofs if option \-print\-size is present.
The pseudo\-state "show_status" can be used to print the current state to result
Image loading or manipulations which happen after this command will again
update automatically the change status of the image.
Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if \-outdev is readable, make it
the new \-dev and load the image from there.
Switch to growing mode.
(A subsequent \-outdev will activate modification mode or blind growing.)
\-commit is performed automatically at end of program if there
are uncommitted manipulations pending.
So, to perform a final write operation with no new \-dev
and no new loading of image, rather execute command \-end.
If you want to go on without image loading, execute \-commit_eject "none".
To eject after write without image loading, use \-commit_eject "all".
To suppress a final write, execute \-rollback_end.
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few
minutes after all data have been transmitted.
\fBxorriso\fR and the drives are in a client\-server relationship.
The drives have much freedom about what to do with the media.
Some combinations of drives and media simply do not work,
despite the promises by their vendors.
If writing fails then try other media or another drive. The reason
for such failure is hardly ever in the code of the various
burn programs but you may well try some of those listed below
under SEE ALSO.
\fB\-eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"
Eject the medium in \-indev, resp. \-outdev, resp. both drives.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
\fB\-commit_eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
Combined \-commit and \-eject. When writing has finished do not make
\-outdev the new \-dev, and load no ISO image. Rather eject
\-indev and/or \-outdev. Give up any non\-ejected drive.
\fB\-blank\fR mode
Make media ready for writing from scratch (if not \-dummy is activated).
This affects only the \-outdev not the \-indev.
If both drives are the same and if the ISO image was altered
then this command leads to a FAILURE event.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
"as_needed" cares for used CD\-RW, DVD\-RW and for used overwriteable media
by applying \-blank "fast". It applies \-format "full" to yet unformatted
DVD\-RAM and BD\-RE. Other media in blank state are gracefully ignored.
Media which cannot be made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE
"fast" makes CD\-RW and unformatted DVD\-RW re\-usable, or invalidates
overwriteable ISO images. "all" might work more thoroughly and need more time.
"deformat" converts overwriteable DVD\-RW into unformatted ones.
"deformat_quickest" is a faster way to deformat or blank DVD\-RW
but produces media which are only suitable for a single session.
Some drives announce this state by not offering feature 21h,
but some drives offer it anyway.
If feature 21h is missing, then \fBxorriso\fR
will refuse to write on DVD\-RW if not command \-close is set to "on".
The progress reports issued by some drives while blanking are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Blanking was successful if no SORRY event or
worse occured.
Mode may be prepended by "force:" in order to override the evaluation
of the medium state by libburn. E.g. "force:fast".
Blanking will nevertheless only succeed if the drive is willing to do it.
\fB\-format\fR mode
Convert unformatted DVD\-RW into overwriteable ones, "de\-ice" DVD+RW, format
newly purchased BD\-RE or BD\-R, re\-format DVD\-RAM or BD\-RE.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>
"as_needed" formats yet unformatted DVD\-RW, DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or blank
unformatted BD\-R. Other media are left untouched.
"full" (re\-)formats DVD\-RW, DVD+RW, DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or blank unformatted BD\-R.
"fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
"by_index_" selects a format out of the descriptor list issued by command
\-list_formats. The index number from that list is to be appended to the
mode word. E.g: "by_index_3".
"fast_by_index_" does the same as "by_index_" but tries to be quicker.
"by_size_" selects a format out of the descriptor list which provides at
least the given size. That size is to be appended to the mode word.
E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with Defect Management.
"fast_by_size_" does the same as "by_size_" but tries to be quicker.
The formatting action has no effect on media if \-dummy is activated.
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium,
if ever. But it is a reason for re\-formatting if:
DVD\-RW was deformatted by \-blank,
DVD+RW has read failures (re\-format before next write),
DVD\-RAM or BD\-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
BD\-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first use.
Formatting activates Defect Management which tries to catch and repair
bad spots on media during the write process at the expense of half speed
even with flawless media.
The progress reports issued by some drives while formatting are
quite unrealistic. Do not conclude success or failure from the
reported percentages. Formatting was successful if no SORRY event
or worse occured. Be patient with apparently frozen progress.
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for
the current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s")
and the same size in MiB.
MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are:
"00h" general formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD\-RAM,
"26h" for DVD+RW, "30h" for BD\-RE with reserve space,
"31h" for BD\-RE without reserve space, "32h" for BD\-R.
Smaller format size with DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or BD\-R means more reserve space.
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the output drive with
the loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired
speed as possible.
At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"
are the best guesses for lower and upper speed limit.
"Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may appear only with CD
and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
\fB\-close_damaged\fR "as_needed"|"force"
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the medium
as damaged. This may apply to CD\-R, CD\-RW, DVD\-R, DVD\-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL,
or BD\-R media. It is indicated by warning messages when the drive gets
acquired, and by a remark "but next track is damaged" with the line
"Media status :" of command \-toc.
The setting of command \-close determines whether the medium stays appendable.
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not reported as
damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation even with media which
appear undamaged.
No image changes are allowed to be pending before this command is performed.
After closing was attempted, both drives are given up.
\fB\-list_profiles\fR "in"|"out"|"all"
Put out a list of media types supported by \-indev, resp. \-outdev, resp. both.
The currently recognized type is marked by text "(current)".
.B Settings for result writing:
Rock Ridge info will be generated by default.
ACLs will be written according to the setting of command \-acl.
\fB\-joliet\fR "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge
\fB\-hfsplus\fR "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image
and mark it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area,
the first 32 KiB of the image.
This may collide with data submitted by \-boot_image system_area=.
The first 8 bytes of the System Area get overwritten by
{ 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02, 0xff, 0xff }
which can be executed as x86 machine code without negative effects.
So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 bytes
should contain no essential commands.
The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by APM entries.
The first one covers the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem
metadata. The second one marks the range from HFS+ metadata to the end
of file content data. If more ISO image data follow, then a third partition
entry gets produced. Other features of xorriso might cause the need for
more APM entries.
The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add\-on sessions produced by the
multi\-session method of growing. An existing ISO image may nevertheless
be the base for a new image produced by the method of modifying.
If \-hfsplus is enabled when \-indev or \-dev gets executed, then AAIP
attributes get loaded from the input image and checked for information about
HFS creator, filetype, or blessing. If found, then they get enabled as
settings for the next image production.
Therefore it is advisable to perform \-hfsplus "on" before \-indev or \-dev.
Information about HFS creator, type, and blessings gets stored by xorriso
if \-hfsplus is enabled at \-commit time. It is stored as copy outside the
HFS+ partition, but rather along with the Rock Ridge information.
xorriso does not read any information from the HFS+ meta data.
Be aware that HFS+ is case\-insensitive although it can record file names
with upper\-case and lower\-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr
name tree may collide in the HFS+ name tree. In this case they get changed
by adding underscore characters and counting numbers. In case of very long
names, it might be necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".
\fB\-rockridge\fR "on"|"off"
Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the ISO 9660 file
objects. The multi\-session capabilities of xorriso depend much on the naming
fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is strongly discouraged to deviate from
default setting "on".
\fB\-compliance\fR rule[:rule...]
Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA\-119 and its
contemporary extensions. In some
cases it is worth to deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs of the intended
reader system or to get unofficial extra features.
There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If they
are mentioned with this command then their rule gets added to the relaxation
list. This list can be erased by rules "strict" or "clear". It can be reset
to its start setting by "default". All of the following relaxation rules
can be revoked individually by appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
Rule keywords are:
"iso_9660_level="number chooses level 1 with ECMA\-119 names of the form 8.3
and \-file_size_limit <= 4g \- 1, or level 2 with ECMA\-119 names up to
length 32 and the same \-file_size_limit, or level 3 with ECMA\-119 names up to
length 32 and \-file_size_limit >= 400g \-200k. If necessary \-file_size_limit
gets adjusted.
"allow_dir_id_ext" allows ECMA\-119 names of directories to have a name extension
as with other file types. It does not force dots and it omits the version
number, though. This is a bad tradition of mkisofs which violates ECMA\-119.
Especially ISO level 1 only allows 8 characters in a directory name and
not 8.3.
"omit_version" does not add versions (";1") to ECMA\-119 and Joliet file names.
"only_iso_version" does not add versions (";1") to Joliet file names.
"deep_paths" allows ECMA\-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
"long_paths" allows ECMA\-119 file paths longer than 255 characters.
"long_names" allows up to 37 characters with ECMA\-119 file names.
"no_force_dots" does not add a dot to ECMA\-119 file names which have none.
"no_j_force_dots" does not add a dot to Joliet file names which have none.
"lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
"7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7\-bit characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
Not allowed are 0x0 and '/'. If not "lowercase" is enabled, then lowercase
letters get converted to uppercase.
"full_ascii" allows all 8\-bit characters except 0x0 and '/'
in ECMA\-119 file names.
"untranslated_names" might be dangerous for inadverted reader programs
which rely on the restriction to at most 37 characters in ECMA\-119 file names.
This rule allows ECMA\-119 file names up to 96 characters with no character
conversion. If a file name has more characters, then image production will
fail deliberately.
"untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a smaller limit
for the length of file names. 0 disables this feature, \-1 chooses maximum
length limit, numbers larger than 0 give the desired length limit.
"joliet_long_names" allows Joliet leaf names up to 103 characters rather
than 64.
"joliet_long_paths" allows Joliet paths longer than 240 characters.
"always_gmt" stores timestamps in GMT representation with timezone 0.
"rec_mtime" records with non\-RockRidge directory entries the disk file's
mtime and not the creation time of the image. This applies to the ECMA\-119
tree (plain ISO 9660), to Joliet, and to ISO 9660:1999. "rec_time" is
default. If disabled, it gets automatically re\-enabled by \-as mkisofs emulation
when a pathspec is encountered.
"new_rr" uses Rock Ridge version 1.12 (suitable for GNU/Linux but not for older
FreeBSD or for Solaris). This implies "aaip_susp_1_10_off" which may be changed
by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10".
Default is "old_rr" which uses Rock Ridge version 1.10. This implies also
"aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10_off".
"aaip_susp_1_10" allows AAIP to be written as unofficial extension of RRIP
rather than as official extension under SUSP\-1.12.
"no_emul_toc" saves 64 kB with the first session on overwriteable media
but makes the image incapable of displaying its session history.
"iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory tree
compliant to ISO 9660:1999. It can record long filenames for readers which
do not understand Rock Ridge.
"old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the range
of [0,31] to files with no own data content. The new way is to have
a dedicated block to which all such files will point.
Default setting is
Note: The term "ECMA\-119 name" means the plain ISO 9660 names and attributes
which get visible if the reader ignores Rock Ridge.
\fB\-rr_reloc_dir\fR name
Specify the name of the relocation directory in which deep directory subtrees
shall be placed if \-compliance is set to "deep_paths_off" or "long_paths_off".
A deep directory is one that has a chain of 8 parent directories (including
root) above itself, or one that contains a file with an ECMA\-119 path of more
than 255 characters.
The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interpreted
as Rock Ridge tree. It will appear as re\-arranged if only ECMA\-119
information is considered.
The default relocation directory is the root directory. By giving a non\-empty
name with \-rr_reloc_dir, a directory in the root directory may get this role.
If that directory does not already exist at \-commit time, then it will get
created and marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefact. At least on
GNU/Linux it will not be displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer than
255 bytes.
\fB\-volid\fR text
Specify the volume ID, which most operating systems will consider to be
the volume name of the image or medium.
\fBxorriso\fR accepts any text up to 32 characters,
but according to rarely obeyed specs stricter rules apply:
ECMA\-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A\-Z0\-9_]. Like:
Joliet allows 16 UCS\-2 characters. Like:
"Windows name"
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as the name of the
mount point when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default "ISOIMAGE"
or to "", then the volume ID of the loaded image will become the effective
volume id for the next write run. But as soon as command \-volid is performed
afterwards, this pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
Consider this when setting \-volid "ISOIMAGE" before executing \-dev, \-indev,
or \-rollback.
If you insist in \-volid "ISOIMAGE", set it again after those commands.
\fB\-volset_id\fR text
Set the volume set ID string to be written with the next \-commit.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-publisher\fR text
Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the person or organisation who specified what shall be recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-application_id\fR text
Set the application ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the specification of how the data are recorded.
Permissible are up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
which is normally written as \-preparer_id. It is a wrong tradition to write
the program ID as \-application_id.
\fB\-system_id\fR text
Set the system ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the system which can recognize and act upon the content of the
System Area in image blocks 0 to 15.
Permissible are up to 32 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-volume_date\fR type timestring
Set one of the four overall timestamps for subsequent image writing.
Available types are:
"c" time when the volume was created.
"m" time when volume was last modified.
"x" time when the information in the volume expires.
"f" time since when the volume is effectively valid.
"uuid" sets a timestring that overrides "c" and "m" times literally.
It must consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with
YYYY between 1970 and 2999. Time zone is GMT.
It is supposed to match this GRUB line:
search \-\-fs\-uuid \-\-set YYYY\-MM\-DD\-hh\-mm\-ss\-cc
E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
Timestrings for the other types may be given as with command \-alter_date.
They are prone to timezone computations. The timestrings "default" or
"overridden" cause default settings: "c" and "m" will show the current time
of image creation. "x" and "f" will be marked as insignificant.
"uuid" will be deactivated.
\fB\-copyright_file\fR text
Set the copyright file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains a copyright
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-abstract_file\fR text
Set the abstract file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains an abstract
statement about the image content.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
\fB\-biblio_file\fR text
Set the biblio file name to be written with the next \-commit. This should
be the ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains bibliographic
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by
image loading.
Set the preparer ID string to be written with the next \-commit. This may
identify the person or other entity which controls the preparation of the data
which shall be recorded. Normally this should be the ID of \fBxorriso\fR
and not of the person or program which operates \fBxorriso\fR.
Please avoid to change it. Permissible are up to 128 characters.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of
\fBxorriso\fR which is default at program startup.
Unlike other ID strings, this setting is not influenced by image loading.
\fB\-out_charset\fR character_set_name
Set the character set to which file names get converted when writing an
image. See paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations.
When loading the written image after \-commit the setting of \-out_charset
will be copied to \-in_charset.
\fB\-uid\fR uid
User id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.
\fB\-gid\fR gid
Group id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.
\fB\-zisofs\fR option[:options]
Set global parameters for zisofs compression. This data format is recognized
and transparently uncompressed by some Linux kernels. It is to be applied
via command \-set_filter with built\-in filter "\-\-zisofs".
Parameters are:
"level="[0\-9] zlib compression: 0=none, 1=fast,..., 9=slow
"block_size="32k|64k|128k size of compression blocks
"by_magic=on" enables an expensive test at image generation time which checks
files from disk whether they already are zisofs compressed, e.g. by program
"default" same as "level=6:block_size=32k:by_magic=off"
\fB\-speed\fR number[k|m|c|d|b]
Set the burn speed. Default is 0 = maximum speed.
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a
desired throughput per second in MMC compliant kB (= 1000)
or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x\-speed factor can be set explicity
by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
medium in the \-outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as upper limit
for their own decision.
\fB\-stream_recording\fR "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management of defects on DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE,
or BD\-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged media usable. But it reduces
write speed to half nominal speed even if the medium is in perfect shape.
For the case of flawless media, one may use \-stream_recording "on" to get
full speed.
"full" tries full speed with all write operations, whereas "on" does this
only above byte address 32s. One may give a number of at least 16s
in order to set an own address limit.
"data" causes full speed to start when superblock and directory entries are
written and writing of file content blocks begins.
\fB\-dvd_obs\fR "default"|"32k"|"64k"
GNU/Linux specific:
Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to DVD
or BD media. A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with bus systems which
show latency problems. The default depends on media type, on command
\-stream_recording , and on compile time options.
\fB\-stdio_sync\fR "on"|"off"|number
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to stdio: pseudo drives.
This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of
pending data for slow devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".
Forced output can be disabled by "off".
\fB\-dummy\fR "on"|"off"
If "on" then simulate burning or refuse with FAILURE event if
no simulation is possible, do neither blank nor format.
\fB\-fs\fR number["k"|"m"]
Set the size of the fifo buffer which smoothens the data
stream from ISO image generation to media burning. Default
is 4 MiB, minimum 64 kiB, maximum 1 GiB.
The number may be followed by letter "k" or "m"
which means unit is kiB (= 1024) or MiB (= 1024 kiB).
\fB\-close\fR "on"|"off"
If "on" then mark the written medium as not appendable
any more (if possible at all with the given type of target media).
This is the contrary of cdrecord, wodim, cdrskin command \-multi,
and is one aspect of growisofs option \-dvd\-compat.
\fB\-write_type\fR "auto"|"tao"|"sao/dao"
Set the write type for the next burn run. "auto" will select SAO with blank
CD media, DAO with blank DVD\-R[W] if \-close is "on", and elsewise CD TAO or the
equivalent write type of the particular DVD/BD media.
Choosing TAO or SAO/DAO explicitely might cause the burn run to fail if the
desired write type is not possible with the given media state.
\fB\-padding\fR number["k"|"m"]|"included"|"appended"
Append the given number of extra bytes to the image stream.
This is a traditional remedy for a traditional bug in block
device read drivers. Needed only for CD recordings in TAO mode.
Since one can hardly predict on what media an image might end up,
\fBxorriso\fR adds the traditional 300k of padding by default to
all images.
For images which will never get to a CD it is safe to use \-padding 0 .
Normally padding is not written as part of the ISO image but appended
after the image end. This is \-padding mode "appended".
Emulation command \-as "mkisofs" and command \-jigdo cause padding to be
written as part of the image.
The same effect is achieved by \-padding mode "included".
.B Bootable ISO images:
Contrary to published specifications many BIOSes will load an El Torito
record from the first session on media and not from the last one, which
gets mounted by default. This makes no problems with overwriteable media,
because they appear to inadverted readers as one single session.
But with multi\-session media CD\-R[W], DVD\-R[W], DVD+R, it implies that the
whole bootable system has to reside already in the first session and that
the last session still has to bear all files which the booted system expects
after mounting the ISO image.
If a boot image from ISOLINUX or GRUB is known to be present on media then
it is advised to patch it
when a follow\-up session gets written. But one should not rely on the
capability to influence the bootability of the existing sessions, unless one
can assume overwriteable media.
There are booting mechanisms which do not use an El Torito record but rather
start at the first bytes of the image: PC\-BIOS MBR for hard\-disk\-like devices,
MIPS Volume Header for old SGI computers, DEC Boot Block for old DECstation,
SUN Disk Label for SPARC machines.
The boot firmware EFI may use programs which are located in a FAT filesystem
and announced by an MBR partition table entry.
\fB\-boot_image\fR "any"|"isolinux"|"grub"
Define the handling of a set of El Torito boot images which
has been read from an existing ISO image or define how to make a prepared
boot image file set bootable. Such file sets get produced by ISOLINUX or GRUB.
Each \-boot_image command has two parameters: type and setting. More than one
\-boot_image command may be used to define the handling of one or more boot
images. Sequence matters.
Types \fBisolinux\fR and \fBgrub\fR care for known peculiarities.
Type \fBany\fR makes
no assumptions about the origin of the boot images.
El Torito boot images of any type can be newly inserted, or discarded,
or patched, or kept unaltered.
Whether to patch or to keep depends on whether
the boot images contain boot info tables.
A boot info table needs to be patched when the boot image gets newly
introduced into the ISO image or if an existing image gets relocated.
This is automatically done if type "isolinux" or "grub"
is given, but not with "any".
If patching is enabled, then boot images from previous sessions will
be checked whether they seem to bear a boot info table. If not,
then they stay unpatched. This check is not infallible. So if
you do know that the images need no patching, use "any" "keep".
"grub" "patch" will not patch EFI images (platform_id=0xef).
Most safe is the default: \-boot_image "any" "discard".
Advised for GRUB : \-boot_image "grub" "patch"
For ISOLINUX : \-boot_image "isolinux" "patch"
\fBshow_status\fR will print what is known about the loaded boot images
and their designated fate.
A \fBbootspec\fR is a word of the form name=value. It is used to describe
the parameters of a boot image by an El Torito record or a MBR.
The names "dir", "bin_path", "efi_path" lead to El Torito bootable images.
Name "system_area" activates a given file as MBR.
On all media types this is possible within the first session. In further
sessions an existing boot image can get replaced by a new one, but depending
on the media type this may have few effect at boot time. See above.
The boot image and its supporting files have to be added to the ISO image by
normal means (image loading, \-map, \-add, ...). In case of ISOLINUX the files
should reside either in ISO image directory /isolinux or in /boot/isolinux .
In that case it suffices to use as bootspec the text "dir=/isolinux" or
"dir=/boot/isolinux". E.g.:
\-boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux
which bundles these individual settings:
\-boot_image isolinux bin_path=/boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin
\-boot_image isolinux cat_path=/boot/isolinux/
\-boot_image isolinux load_size=2048
\-boot_image any boot_info_table=on
An El Torito boot catalog file gets inserted into the ISO image with address
\fBcat_path=\fR at \-commit time.
It is subject to normal \-overwrite and \-reassure processing if there is already
a file with the same name.
The catalog lists the boot images and is read by the boot facility to choose
one of the boot images. But it is not necessary that it appears in the
directory tree at all. One may hide it in all trees by \fBcat_hidden=on\fR.
Other possible values are "iso_rr", "joliet", "hfsplus", and the default "off".
\fBbin_path=\fR depicts a boot image file, a binary program which is to be
started by the hardware boot facility (e.g. the BIOS) at boot time.
\fBefi_path=\fR depicts a boot image file that is ready for EFI booting.
Its load_size is determined automatically, no boot info table gets
written, no boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
\fBemul_type=\fR can be one of "no_emulation", "hard_disk", "diskette".
It controls the boot medium emulation code of a boot image.
The default "no_emulation" is suitable for ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
\fBload_size=\fR is a value which depends on the boot image.
Default 2048 should be overridden only if a better value is known.
\fBboot_info_table=on\fR may be used to apply patching to a boot image which
is given by "any" "bin_path=". "boot_info_table=off" disables patching.
\fBplatform_id=\fR defines by two hex digits the Platform ID of the
boot image. "00" is 80x86 PC\-BIOS, "01" is PowerPC, "02" is Mac, "ef" is EFI.
\fBid_string=\fRtext|56_hexdigits defines the ID string of the boot catalog
section where the boot image will be listed. If the value consists of 56
characters [0\-9A\-Fa\-f] then it is converted into 28 bytes, else the first
28 characters become the ID string.
The ID string of the first boot image becomes the overall catalog ID.
It is limited to 24 characters. Other id_strings become section IDs.
\fBsel_crit=\fRhexdigits defines the Selection Criteria of the boot image.
Up to 20 bytes get read from the given characters [0\-9A\-Fa\-f].
They get attributed to the boot image entry in the catalog.
\fBnext\fR ends the definition of a boot image and starts a new one.
Any following \-bootimage bootspecs will affect the new image.
The first "next" discards loaded boot images and their catalog.
\fBdiscard\fR gives up an existing boot catalog and its boot images.
\fBkeep\fR keeps or copies boot images unaltered and writes a new catalog.
\fBpatch\fR applies patching to existing boot images
if they seem to bear a boot info table.
\fBsystem_area=\fRdisk_path copies at most 32768 bytes from the given
disk file to the very start of the ISO image.
This System Area is reserved for system dependent boot software, e.g. an MBR
which can be used to boot from USB stick or hard disk.
Other than a El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added
to the ISO image.
\-boot_image isolinux system_area= implies "partition_table=on".
\fBpartition_table=on\fR causes a simple partition table to be written
into bytes 446 to 511 of the System Area.
With type "isolinux" it shows a partition that begins at byte 0 and it causes
the LBA of the first boot image to be written into the MBR. For the first
session this works only if also "system_area=" and "bin_path=" or "dir="
is given.
With types "any" and "grub" it shows a single
partition which starts at byte 512 and ends where the ISO image ends.
This works with or without system_area= or boot image.
Bootspecs chrp_boot_part=, prep_boot_part=, and efi_boot_part= overwrite
this entry in the MBR partition table.
In follow\-up sessions the existing System Area is preserved by default.
If types "isolinux" or "grub" are set to "patch", then "partition_table=on"
is activated without new boot image.
In this case the existing System Area gets checked whether it bears addresses
and sizes as if it had been processed by "partition_table=on". If so,
then those parameters get updated when the new System Area is written.
Special "system_area=/dev/zero" causes 32k of NUL\-bytes.
Use this to discard an MBR which was loaded with the ISO image.
\fBchrp_boot_part=on\fR causes a single partition in MBR which covers
the whole ISO image and has type 0x41. This is not compatible with any
other feature that produces MBR partition entries. It makes GPT unrecognizable.
\fBprep_boot_part=\fR inserts the content of a data file into the image and
marks it by an MBR partition of type 0x96. The parts of the ISO image before
and after this partition will be covered by further MBR partitions.
The data file is supposed to contain ELF executable code.
\fBefi_boot_part=\fR inserts the content of a data file into the image and
marks it by a GPT partition. If not chrp_boot_part=on, then the first partition
in MBR will have type 0xee to announce the presence of GPT.
The data file is supposed to contain a FAT filesystem.
Instead of a disk_path, the word \-\-efi\-boot\-image may be given.
It exposes in GPT the content of the first El Torito EFI boot image as
EFI system partition. EFI boot images are introduced by bootspec efi_path=.
The affected EFI boot image cannot show up in HFS+ because it is stored
outside the HFS+ partition.
\fBpartition_offset=\fR2kb_block_adr causes a partition table with a single
partition that begins at the given block address. This is counted in 2048 byte
blocks, not in 512 byte blocks. If the block address is non\-zero then it must
be at least 16. A non\-zero partition offset causes two superblocks to be
generated and two sets of directory trees. The image is then mountable from its
absolute start as well as from the partition start.
The offset value of an ISO image gets preserved when a new session is added.
So the value defined here is only in effect if a new ISO image gets written.
\fBpartition_hd_cyl=\fRnumber gives the number of heads per cylinder for
the partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 255.
\fBpartition_sec_hd=\fRnumber gives the number of sectors per head for
the partition table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 63.
The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl * 512 is the cylinder size.
It should be divisible by 2048 in order to allow exact alignment.
If it is too small to describe the image size by at most 1024 cylinders,
then appropriate values of partition_hd_cyl are chosen with
partition_sec_hd 32 or 63. If the image is larger than 8,422,686,720 bytes,
then the cylinder size constraints cannot be fulfilled.
\fBpartition_cyl_align=\fRmode controls image size alignment to an integer
number of cylinders. It is prescribed by isohybrid specs and it seems to
please program fdisk. Cylinder size must be divisible by 2048.
Images larger than 8,323,596,288 bytes cannot be aligned.
Mode "auto" is default. Alignment by padding happens only with
"isolinux" "partition_table=on".
Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with "partition_table=on" for any type.
Mode "all" is like "on" but also pads up partitions from \-append_partition
to an aligned size.
Mode "off" disables alignment for any type.
\fBmips_path=\fRiso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to be a
MIPS Big Endian boot file and causes production of a MIPS Big Endian Volume
Header. This is mutually exclusive with production of other boot blocks
like MBR.
It will overwrite the first 512 bytes of any data provided by system_area=.
Up to 15 boot files can be declared by mips_path=.
\fBmipsel_path=\fRiso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to be the
MIPS Little Endian boot file. This is mutually exclusive with other boot
It will overwrite the first 512 bytes of any data provided by system_area=.
Only a single boot file can be declared by mipsel_path=.
\fBsparc_label=\fRtext causes the production of a SUN Disk Label with the
given text as ASCII label. This boot block format allows to append images
for partitions 2 to 8. Partition 1 will always be the ISO image.
See command \-append_partition.
The first 512 bytes of any data provided by system_area= will be overwritten.
\fBmips_discard\fR and \fBsparc_discard\fR revoke any boot file
declarations made by mips_path= or mipsel_path=. They also disable production
of SUN Disk Label.
This removes the ban on production of other boot blocks.
\fBhfsplus_serial=\fRhexstring sets a string of 16 digits "0" to "9"
and letters "a" to "f", which will be used as unique serial number of
an emerging HFS+ filesystem.
\fBhfsplus_block_size=\fRnumber sets the allocation block size to
be used when producing HFS+ filesystems. Permissible are 512, 2048, or 0.
The latter lets the program decide.
\fBapm_block_size=\fRnumber sets the block size to be used when
describing partitions by an Apple Partition Map. Permissible are 512, 2048,
or 0. The latter lets the program decide.
Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GPT, and that
size 2048 will not be mountable \-t hfsplus at least by older Linux kernels.
\fB\-append_partition\fR partition_number type_code disk_path
Cause a prepared filesystem image to be appended to the ISO image and to be
described by a partition table entry in a boot block at the start of the
emerging ISO image. The partition entry will bear the size of the submitted
file rounded up to the next multiple of 2048 bytes or to the next multiple
of the cylinder size.
Beware of subsequent multi\-session runs. The appended partition will get
Partitions may be appended with boot block type MBR and with SUN Disk Label.
With MBR:
partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole ISO image into
the unclaimed space before partition 1. So together with most \fBxorriso\fR
MBR features, number 2 would be the most natural choice.
The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux",
or a hexadecimal number between 0x00 and 0xff. Not all those numbers will
yield usable results. For a list of codes search the Internet for
"Partition Types" or run fdisk command "L".
The disk_path must provide the necessary data bytes at commit time.
An empty disk_path disables this feature for the given partition number.
With SUN Disk Label (selected by \-boot_image any sparc_label=):
partition_number may be 2 to 8. Number 1 will always be the ISO image.
Partition start addresses are aligned to 320 KiB. The type_code does not
matter. Submit 0x0.
Partition image name "." causes the partition to become a copy of the next
lower valid one.
.B Jigdo Template Extraction:
From man genisoimage:
"Jigdo is a tool to help in the distribution of large files like CD and
DVD images; see for more details. Debian CDs
and DVD ISO images are published on the web in jigdo format to allow
end users to download them more efficiently."
\fBxorriso\fR can produce a .jigdo and a .template file together with a
single\-session ISO image.
The .jigdo file contains checksums and symbolic file addresses.
The .template file contains the compressed ISO image with reference tags
instead of the content bytes of the listed files.
Input for this process are the normal arguments for a \fBxorriso\fR session
on a blank \-outdev, and a .md5 file which lists those data files which may be
listed in the .jigdo file and externally referenced in the .template file.
Each designated file is represented in the .md5 file by a single text line:
MD5 as 32 hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2 blanks,
symbolic file address
The file address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename as the
disk_path of the file which it shall match. The directory path of
the file address is decisive for To=From mapping, not for file recognition.
After To=From mapping, the file address gets written into the .jigdo
file. Jigdo restore tools will convert these addresses into really
reachable data source addresses from which they can read.
If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then \fBxorriso\fR will
refuse to
write to non\-blank targets, it will disable multi\-session emulation, and
padding will be counted as part of the ISO image.
\fB\-jigdo\fR parameter_name value
Clear Jigdo Template Extraction parameter list or add a parameter to that list.
The alias names are the corresponding genisoimage options. They are accepted
as parameter names as well. Especially they are recognized by the \-as mkisofs
emulation command.
Parameter \fBclear\fR with any value empties the whole list.
No .jigdo and .template file will be produced.
\fBtemplate_path\fR sets the disk_path for the .template file with the
holed and compressed ISO image copy.
Alias: \-jigdo\-template
\fBjigdo_path\fR sets the disk_path for the .jigdo file with the checksums
and download addresses for filling the holes in .template.
Alias: \-jigdo\-jigdo
\fBmd5_path\fR sets the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file.
Alias: \-md5\-list
\fBmin_size\fR sets the minimum size for a data file to be listed
in the .jigdo file and being a hole in the .template file.
Alias: \-jigdo\-min\-file\-size
\fBexclude\fR adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared
with the absolute disk_path of any data file. A match causes the file to
stay in .template in any case.
Alias: \-jigdo\-exclude
\fBdemand_md5\fR adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared
with the absolute disk_path of any data file that was not found in the .md5
list. A match causes a MISHAP event.
Alias: \-jigdo\-force\-md5
\fBmapping\fR adds a string pair of the form To=From to the parameter list.
If a data file gets listed in the .jigdo file, then it is referred by the
file address from its line in the .md5 file. This file address gets checked
whether it begins with the From string. If so, then this string will be
replaced by the To string and a ':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo
file. The From string should end by a '/' character.
Alias: \-jigdo\-map
\fBcompression\fR chooses one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression of
the template file. The jigdo file is put out uncompressed.
Alias: \-jigdo\-template\-compress
\fBchecksum_iso\fR chooses one or more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256", "sha512"
for the auxiliary "# Image Hex" checksums in the jigdo file. The value may e.g.
look like "md5,sha1,sha512". Value "all" chooses all available algorithms.
Note that MD5 stays always enabled.
Alias: \-checksum_algorithm_iso
\fBchecksum_template\fR is like checksum_iso but for "# Template Hex".
Alias: \-checksum_algorithm_template
.B Character sets:
File names are strings of non\-zero bytes with 8 bit each. Unfortunately
the same byte string may appear as different peculiar national characters
on differently nationalized terminals.
The meanings of byte codes are defined in \fBcharacter sets\fR which have
names. Shell command iconv \-l lists them.
Character sets should not matter as long as only english alphanumeric
characters are used for file names or as long as all writers and readers
of the media use the same character set.
Outside these constraints it may be necessary to let \fBxorriso\fR
convert byte codes.
There is an input conversion from input character set to the local character
set which applies when an ISO image gets loaded. A conversion from local
character set to the output character set is performed when an
image tree gets written. The sets can be defined independently by commands
\-in_charset and \-out_charset. Normally one will have both identical, if ever.
If conversions are desired then \fBxorriso\fR needs to know the name of the
local character set. \fBxorriso\fR can inquire the same info as
shell command
"locale" with argument "charmap". This may be influenced by environment
variables LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG and should match the expectations of
the terminal.
The default output charset is the local character set of the terminal where
\fBxorriso\fR runs. So by default no conversion happens between local
names and emerging names in the image. The situation stays ambigous and the
reader has to riddle what character set was used.
By command \-auto_charset it is possible to attribute the output charset name
to the image. This makes the situation unambigous. But if your terminal
character set does not match the character set of the local file names,
then this attribute can become plainly wrong and cause problems at read time.
To prevent this it is necessary to check whether the terminal properly
displays all intended filenames. Check especially the exotic national
To enforce recording of a particular character set name without any conversion
at image generation time, set \-charset and \-local_charset to the desired name,
and enable \-backslash_codes to avoid evil character display on your terminal.
\fB\-charset\fR character_set_name
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an
image and to which to convert when writing an image.
\fB\-local_charset\fR character_set_name
Override the system assumption of the local character set name.
If this appears necessary, one should consider to set \-backslash_codes to
"on" in order to avoid dangerous binary codes being sent to the terminal.
.B Exception processing:
Since the tasks of \fBxorriso\fR are manifold and prone to external
influence, there
may arise the need for \fBxorriso\fR to report and handle problem events.
Those events get classified when they are detected by one of the software
modules and forwarded to reporting and evaluation modules which decide about
reactions. Event classes are sorted by severity:
"NEVER" The upper end of the severity spectrum.
"ABORT" The program is being aborted and on its way to end.
"FATAL" The main purpose of the run failed
or an important resource failed unexpectedly.
"FAILURE" An important part of the job could not be performed.
"MISHAP" A FAILURE which can be tolerated during ISO image generation.
"SORRY" A less important part of the job could not be performed.
"WARNING" A situation is suspicious of being not intended by the user.
"HINT" A proposal to the user how to achieve better results.
"NOTE" A harmless information about noteworthy circumstances.
"UPDATE" A pacifier message during long running operations.
"DEBUG" A message which would only interest the program developers.
"ALL" The lower end of the severity spectrum.
\fB\-abort_on\fR severity
Set the severity threshold for events to abort the program.
It may become necessary to abort the program anyway, despite
the setting by this command. Expect not many "ABORT" events to
be ignorable.
A special property of this command is that it works preemptive if given as
program start argument. I.e. the first \-abort_on setting among the
start arguments is in effect already when the first operations of
\fBxorriso\fR begin. Only "\-abort_on" with dash "\-" is recognized that way.
\fB\-return_with\fR severity exit_value
Set the threshold and exit_value to be returned at program end if no abort
has happened. This is to allow \fBxorriso\fR to go on after problems
but to get a failure indicating exit value from the program, nevertheless.
Useful is a value lower than the \-abort_on threshold, down to "WARNING".
exit_value may be either 0 (indicating success to the starter of the program)
or a number between 32 and 63. Some other exit_values are used by
\fBxorriso\fR if it decides to abort the program run:
1=abort due to external signal
2=no program arguments given
3=creation of \fBxorriso\fR main object failed
4=failure to start libburnia\ libraries
5=program abort during argument processing
6=program abort during dialog processing
\fB\-report_about\fR severity
Set the threshold for events to be reported.
Regardless what is set by \-report_about, messages get always reported if they
reach the severity threshold of \-abort_on .
Event messages are sent to the info channel "I" which is usually stderr
but may be influenced by command \-pkt_output.
Info messages which belong to no event get attributed severity "NOTE".
A special property of this command is that the first \-report_about setting
among the start arguments is in effect already when the first operations
of \fBxorriso\fR begin. Only "\-report_about" with dash "\-" is
recognized that way.
\fB\-signal_handling\fR mode
Control the installation of a signal handler which shall react on external
signals (e.g. from program "kill" or from keys Ctrl+C) or on signals
caused by severe program errors.
Mode "on" is the default. It uses the signal handler of libburn which produces
ugly messages but puts much effort in releasing optical drives
before \fBxorriso\fR ends.
Mode "off" as first \-signal_handling among the start arguments prevents all
own signal precautions of \fBxorriso\fR. Inherited signal
handler settings stay as they are.
It works like "sig_dfl" if given after other signal handling was already
established at program start.
Mode "sig_dfl" uses the system provided default handling of signals, which is
normally a sudden abort of the program. To prevent stuck drives, the
libburn handler is used during burning, blanking, and formatting on MMC drives.
Mode "sig_ign" tries to ignore as many signal types as possible. This imposes
the risk that \fBxorriso\fR refuses to end until externally kill \-9
if performed.
kill \-9 then imposes the risk that the drive is left in unusable state and
needs poweroff to be reset. So during burning, blanking, and formatting
wait for at least their normal run time before killing externally.
A special property of this command is that the first \-signal_handling setting
among the start arguments is in effect already when the first operations
of \fBxorriso\fR begin. Only "\-signal_handling" with dash "\-" is
recognized that way.
\fB\-error_behavior\fR occasion behavior
Control the program behavior at problem event occasions.
For now this applies to occasions "image_loading" which is given while
an image tree is read from the input device, and to "file_extraction" which
is given with osirrox commands like \-extract.
With "image_loading" there are three behaviors available:
"best_effort" goes on with reading after events with severity below FAILURE
if the threshold of command \-abort_on allows this.
"failure" aborts image tree reading on first event of at least SORRY.
It issues an own FAILURE event.
This is the default.
"fatal" acts like "failure" but issues the own event as FATAL.
With occasion "file_extraction" there are three behaviors:
"keep" maintains incompletely extracted files on disk. This is the default.
"delete" removes files which encountered errors during content extraction.
"best_effort" starts a revovery attempt by means of \-extract_cut if the
file content stems from the loaded ISO image and is not filtered.
.B Dialog mode control:
\fB\-dialog\fR "on"|"off"|"single_line"
Enable or disable to enter dialog mode after all program arguments are
In dialog mode input lines get prompted via readline or from stdin.
If no \-abort_on severity was set when dialog starts, then "NEVER" is set
to avoid abort in most cases of wrong input or other problems. Before dialog
begins, the default is "FAILURE" which e.g. aborts on unknown commands.
Mode "on" supports input of newline characters within quotation marks and
line continuation by trailing backslash outside quotation marks.
Mode "single_line" does not.
\fB\-page\fR length width
Describe terminal to the text pager. See also above, paragraph Result pager.
If parameter length is nonzero then the user gets prompted after that
number of terminal lines. Zero length disables paging.
Parameter width is the number of characters per terminal line. It is used
to compute the number of terminal lines which get occupied by an output line.
A usual terminal width is 80.
\fB\-use_readline\fR "on"|"off"
If "on" then use readline for dialog. Else use plain stdin.
See also above, paragraph Dialog, Readline, Result pager.
\fB\-reassure\fR "on"|"tree"|"off"
If "on" then ask the user for "y" or "n":
before deleting or overwriting any file in the ISO image,
before overwriting any disk file during restore operations,
before rolling back pending image changes,
before committing image changes to media,
before changing the input drive,
before blanking or formatting media,
before ending the program.
With setting "tree" the reassuring prompt will appear for an eventual
directory only once and not for each file in its whole subtree.
Setting "off" silently kills any kind of image file object resp. performs
above irrevocable actions.
To really produce user prompts, command \-dialog needs to be set to "on".
Note that the prompt does not appear in situations where file removal
is forbidden by command \-overwrite. \-reassure only imposes an additional
curb for removing existing file objects.
Be aware that file objects get deleted from the ISO image immediately
after confirmation. They are gone even if the running command gets aborted
and its desired effect gets revoked. In case of severe mess\-up, consider to
use \-rollback to revoke the whole session.
.B Drive and media related inquiry actions:
Show list of available MMC drives with the addresses of
their libburn standard device files.
This is only possible when no ISO image changes are pending.
After this command was executed, there is no drive current
and no image loaded.
In order to be visible, a device has to offer rw\-permissions
with its libburn standard device file. Thus it might be only the
who is able to see all drives.
Drives which are occupied by other processes get not shown.
Like \-devices, but presenting the drives with addresses of symbolic links
which point to the actual device files.
Modern GNU/Linux systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot to boot.
The udev daemon is supposed to create links which always point to the
same drive, regardless of its system address.
The command \-device_links shows the addresses of such links if they begin
by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd".
Precedence is: "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".
Show media specific tables of content. This is the session history
of the medium, not the ISO image directory tree.
In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may happen that
only a single session gets shown. But if the first session on the
overwriteable media was written by \fBxorriso\fR then a complete
session history can be emulated.
A drive which is incapable of writing may show any media as CD\-ROM or DVD\-ROM
with only one or two sessions on it. The last of these sessions is supposed
to be the most recent real session then.
Some read\-only drives and media show no usable session history at all.
Command \-rom_toc_scan might help.
If input device and output device are both aquired and not the same,
then both tables\-of\-content get shown.
\fB\-toc_of\fR "in"|"out"|"all"[":short"]
Like command \-toc but explicitely choosing which drive's table\-of\-content
to show. "in" shows \-indev or \-dev, "out" shows \-outdev or \-dev,
"all" shows the same as \-toc.
If ":short" is appended to the drive choosing word, then only a short
summary of drive state and medium content is printed.
As further difference to \-toc, this command does not emit FAILURE events
if the desired drive is not aquired.
\fB\-mount_cmd\fR drive entity id path
Emit an appropriate command line for mounting the ISO session
indicated by drive, entity and id.
The result will be different on GNU/Linux and on FreeBSD.
drive can be "indev" or "outdev" to indicate already acquired drives,
or it can be the path of a not yet acquired drive.
Prefix "stdio:" for non\-MMC drives is not mandatory.
entity must be either "sbsector" with the superblock sector address as id,
or "track" with a track number as id, or "session" with a session number,
or "volid" with a search pattern for the volume id, or "auto" with any text
as id.
path will be used as mount point and must already exist as a directory on disk.
The command gets printed to the result channel. See command \-mount
for direct execution of this command.
\fB\-mount_opts\fR option[:option...]
Set options which influence \-mount and \-mount_cmd. Currently there is only
option "exclusive" which is default and its counterpart "shared". The latter
causes \fBxorriso\fR not to give up the affected drive with command \-mount.
On GNU/Linux it adds mount option "loop" which may allow to mount several
sessions of the same block device at the same time. One should not write
to a mounted optical medium, of course. Take care to umount all sessions
before ejecting.
\fB\-session_string\fR drive entity id format
Print to the result channel a text which gets composed according to
format and the parameters of the addressed session.
Formats "linux:"path or "freebsd:"path produce the output of \-mount_cmd
for the given operating systems.
In other texts \fBxorriso\fR will substitute the following parameter names.
An optional prefix "string:" will be removed.
"%device%" will be substituted by the mountable device path of the drive
"%sbsector%" will be substituted by the session start sector.
"%track%", "%session%", "%volid%" will be substituted by track number,
session number, resp. volume id of the depicted session.
Print the foreseeable consumption of 2048 byte blocks
by next \-commit. This can last a while as a \-commit gets
prepared and only in last moment is revoked by this command.
The result depends on several settings and also on the kind of output device.
If no \-jidgo options are set and not command \-as "mkisofs" was used,
then \-padding (300 kB by default) is not counted as part of the image size.
Print available space on the output medium and the free space after
subtracting already foreseeable consumption by next \-commit.
Print various ID strings which can be found in loaded ISO images. Some of
them may be changed by commands like \-volid or \-publisher. For these
IDs \-pvd_info reports what would be written with the next \-commit.
.B Navigation in ISO image and disk filesystem:
\fB\-cd\fR iso_rr_path
Change the current working directory in the ISO image.
This is prepended to iso_rr_paths which do not begin with '/'.
It is possible to set the working directory to a path which does not exist
yet in the ISO image. The necessary parent directories will be created when
the first file object is inserted into that virtual directory.
Use \-mkdir if you want to enforce the existence of the directory already at
first insertion.
\fB\-cdx\fR disk_path
Change the current working directory in the local filesystem.
To be prepended to disk_paths which do not begin with '/'.
Tell the current working directory in the ISO image.
Tell the current working directory in the local filesystem.
\fB\-ls\fR iso_rr_pattern [***]
List files in the ISO image which match shell patterns
(i.e. with wildcards '*' '?' '[a\-z]').
If a pattern does not begin with '/' then it is compared with addresses
relative to \-cd.
Directories are listed by their content rather than as single file item.
Pattern expansion may be disabled by command \-iso_rr_pattern.
\fB\-lsd\fR iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like \-ls but listing directories as themselves and not by their content.
This resembles shell command ls \-d.
\fB\-lsl\fR iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like \-ls but also list some of the file attributes.
The output format resembles shell command ls \-ln.
File type 'e' indicates the El Torito boot catalog.
If the file has non\-trivial ACL, then a '+' is appended to the permission info.
If the file is hidden, then 'I' for "iso_rr", 'J' for "joliet", 'A'
for "hfsplus", resp. 'H' for multiple hiding gets appended.
Together with ACL it is 'i', 'j', 'a', resp. 'h'.
\fB\-lsdl\fR iso_rr_pattern [***]