Host system of my qemu-1.0-rc3 test is Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.2 amd64.
With qemu-2.1.2 it is Debian 8.1 amd64.
Both had access to the Internet when the guest was installed.
Preparations on guest system Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.3 i386
There appears no /dev/sr for the passthrough drive. Thus libburn will not
list it by its drive search function. One may use it nevertheless. But
xorriso will only do so if prefix "mmc:" is used with the address:
The drive will be listed by libburn if there is a symbolic link /dev/sr*
pointing to it. On Debian 6, this link persists only if it is created
by an udev rule.
libburn on Linux needs rw-permission for the drive's device node.
The virtual device /dev/vda is in group "disk". Usual for CD drives is
group "cdrom", to which i (or the Debian installer ?) have added my
normal user when i installed the guest system.
Like with the symbolic link, such a change persists on Debian 6 only as
Note that the sequence of xorriso arguments matters. They are commands
which get performed one after the other.
This differs from the behavior of mkisofs, cdrecord, et.al.,
which parse all arguments and then perform actions in a hardcoded
Writing happens automatically if ISO filetree changes are pending
at the end of the program run. This is like with other burn tools.
(There is a command -commit for intermediate writing e.g. in dialog
... xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 1.0% done in 2 seconds ) ... xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 95.4% done in 36 seconds ) xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 37 seconds ) ... Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording Media status : is blank Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4489m free
Do not worry if the pacifier messages show no neat percentage progress.
Some drives report "1.0%" until they are done. Some report "1.0%"
Writing a DAO session:
Use one or more moderately sized directories as input. Here: /usr/bin.
Terminate the list of -add arguments by argument --.
It is important to have command -close on among the arguments.
$ xorriso -md5 on -outdev /dev/sr1 -close on -add /usr/bin --
should report on stderr
... xorriso : UPDATE : 594 files added in 1 seconds ... xorriso : UPDATE : Thank you for being patient. Working since 2 seconds. xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 32s 0.1% fifo 100% buf 0% 0.1xD ... xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 2704s 5.1% fifo 11% buf 0% 3.9xD ... xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 20208s 38.2% fifo 52% buf 99% 4.0xD ... xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 52885s 100.0% fifo 0% buf 99% 0.0xD ISO image produced: 52735 sectors Written to media : 52885 sectors at LBA 0 Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
Do not worry if there is no progress to see for a few dozen seconds
at the beginning.
The run will last at least as long as writing of 1 GB would need.
If you write less data, then there will be a lot of zero progress
messages at the end of writing.
Checkreading the result:
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / --
The word "sorry" sets the severity class of the event message, which is
emitted in case of MD5 mismatch. (See man xorriso, "Exception processing".)
This should report on stderr
... Drive current: -indev '/dev/sr1' Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording Media status : is written , is closed Media summary: 1 session, 52885 data blocks, 103m data, 0 free Volume id : 'ISOIMAGE' xorriso : UPDATE : 568079 content bytes read in 5 seconds xorriso : UPDATE : 17074k content bytes read in 10 seconds ... xorriso : UPDATE : 103.7m content bytes read in 35 seconds File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
and the exit value should be 0, if no mismatch was reported.
A mismatch message would look like
... MD5 MISMATCH: '/usr/bin/ncursesw5-config' ... Mismatch detected between file contents and MD5 checksums. xorriso : SORRY : Event triggered by MD5 comparison mismatch xorriso : NOTE : Tolerated problem event of severity 'SORRY' xorriso : NOTE : -return_with SORRY 32 triggered by problem severity SORRY
and the exit value would be non-zero.
Blanking to multi-session capability:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -blank as_needed
This will need as long as writing the DVD-RW up to its end.
Blanking option as_needed lets xorriso decide what to do in order
to make the medium writable from scratch. With DVD-RW it will decide for
The report on stderr should end by
... xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 98.9% done in 902 seconds ) xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 903 seconds ) xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 904 seconds ) Blanking done xorriso : NOTE : Re-assessing -outdev '/dev/sr1' Drive current: -outdev '/dev/sr1' Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording Media status : is blank Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4489m free
Writing multiple sessions (DVD-RW write type Incremental):
This time do not perform command -close on, so that the medium
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -add /usr/lib -- ... xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 105280s 98.6% fifo 0% buf 77% 3.5xD xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 106796s 100.0% fifo 0% buf 62% 2.2xD xorriso : UPDATE : Closing track/session. Working since 44 seconds ... xorriso : UPDATE : Closing track/session. Working since 77 seconds ISO image produced: 106646 sectors Written to media : 106800 sectors at LBA 0 Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
Checkread like after the DAO test:
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / -- ... xorriso : UPDATE : 204.0m content bytes read in 63 seconds File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
Writing the second session looks like the first one. Just use another
set of input files to get a visible change in the ISO 9660 file tree:
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -add /usr/bin -- ... Written to media : 53408 sectors at LBA 135488 Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
And checkread the whole tree of files (i.e. both sessions):
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / -- ... xorriso : UPDATE : 307.8m content bytes read in 89 seconds File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
At the end of writing a final session, the medium can be closed.
It will not take more writing unless it gets blanked or formatted.
So use command -close on to demand closing after writing.
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -close on -add /usr/sbin -- ... Written to media : 16160 sectors at LBA 195056 Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / -- ... Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording Media status : is written , is closed Media summary: 3 sessions, 176368 data blocks, 344m data, 4064m free ... xorriso : UPDATE : 337.7m content bytes read in 97 seconds File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
If the drive tray can move by itself, you may now eject the medium:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -eject all
Other applicable media types:
These test runs for sequential DVD-RW may be performed on CD-RW with the
same xorriso arguments. Be aware that /usr/lib will hardly fit on a CD.
So choose smaller directories for CD.
-blank deformat_quickest addresses a peculiarity of DVD-RW.
It will work on other media like -blank fast.
Except the blanking runs, the tests may also be performed on BD-R, DVD-R,
DVD+R, and CD-R. But you would waste two media by this.
The first session on CD will always be written with write type SAO,
further sessions will be written with TAO.
CD-R and DVD-R have a simulation mode. It can be enabled by xorriso
command -dummy on, but of course it will not produce readable results.
So this simulation is usable only for first sessions on blank media.
Now for formatted overwritable media:
All blank, write and check runs of above tests "Writing multiple sessions"
may also be performed with DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, formatted DVD-RW, and BD-RE.
There is no way to close formatted media. The command -close on
gets silently ignored.
The write methods and states of formatted media differ from those of
sequential media. But xorriso presents to the user a unified
multi-session usage model, under the assumption that all emulated
sessions contain ISO 9660 filesystem images, which successively
build on each other.
So from the view of xorriso commands, the only task which makes
them differ from sequential media, is to apply optional formatting
A special case are BD-R, which xorriso may format but will not bring
into (pseudo-) overwritable state. Formatted BD-R perform Defect
Management by default, which checkreads during writing and replaces
The mandatory formatting of unused DVD+RW and BD-RE is done by xorriso
automatically. Just start a normal write run. DVD-RAM are sold formatted.
xorriso treats overwritable media with a valid ISO 9660 filesystem as
appendable media. To make then writable from scratch, apply
-blank as_needed, which will actually write a few bytes into the PVD
(superblock) of the ISO filesystem to invalidate it.
De-formatting is only possible with DVD-RW. E.g. by -blank deformat.
Format DVD-RW for overwriting without intermediate blanking,
or format BD-R for Defect Management:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -format as_needed
should report on stderr
... xorriso : UPDATE : Formatting ( 99.0% done in 912 seconds ) Formatting done xorriso : NOTE : Re-assessing -outdev '/dev/sr1' Drive current: -outdev '/dev/sr1' Media current: DVD-RW restricted overwrite Media status : is blank Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4488m free
As with blanking, one should not worry if the progress messages show
unplausible percentages. Some drives are more equal than others.
Formatting is said to be much stress to the medium. -format option
as_needed applies it only to yet unformatted media.
When performing above write tests, take care to use -blank as_needed
rather than -blank deformat_quickest. Else you will get a sequential
unformatted DVD-RW rather than a formatted DVD-RW which xorriso is
willing to write from scratch.
There is no use in a separate "DAO" test on overwritable media anyway.
Change the formatted size of a BD-RE:
First learn about formatted size and proposals of other sizes.
(One can issue own wishes, too. See in man xorriso, command -format.)
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -list_formats
should tell on stdout
... Format status: formatted, with 23610.0 MiB BD Spare Area: 0 blocks consumed, 131072 blocks available Format idx 0 : 00h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB Format idx 1 : 01h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB Format idx 2 : 30h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB Format idx 3 : 30h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB Format idx 4 : 30h , 12088320s , 23610.0 MiB Format idx 5 : 31h , 12219392s , 23866.0 MiB
So lets go back from 23610.0 MiB to the default size of 23098.0 MiB
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -format by_index_2 -blank as_needed ... Media summary: 2 sessions, 105470 data blocks, 206m data, 22.4g free
Although the heads of the old sessions might remain readable after
-format, better do not rely on this and a append -blank as_needed to
avoid any data corruption.
If you want to keep the data, then make at least a checkread run.
Check whether the size has changed:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -list_formats
should tell on stdout
... Format status: formatted, with 23098.0 MiB BD Spare Area: 0 blocks consumed, 393216 blocks available ...