Added a wiki page about xorriso on qemu. Online: wiki/QemuXorriso

master
Thomas Schmitt 11 years ago
parent 8ebbc825b0
commit 3340ef84db
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      doc/qemu_xorriso.wiki
  2. 2
      xorriso/xorriso_timestamp.h

@ -0,0 +1,510 @@
This text describes how to set up a qemu virtual machine so that xorriso
on its guest GNU/Linux can operate a CD, DVD or BD recorder of the host
system.
The options follow proposals of Paolo Bonzini on qemu-devel mailing list.
My compliments for his patient guidance.
This worked with a qemu git clone which was made few days before the
release candidate v1.0-rc0 was tagged.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
qemu start command :
{{{
$ qemu \
-enable-kvm \
-nographic \
-m 512 \
-net nic,model=ne2k_pci \
-net user,hostfwd=tcp::5557-:22 \
-hda /dvdbuffer/i386-install.qemu \
-drive file=/dev/sr2,if=none,id=scsicd \
-device virtio-blk,drive=scsicd,logical_block_size=2048,physical_block_size=2048 \
-cdrom .../some_image.iso
}}}
With this setup of -drive and -device it is necessary to have a readable
medium in the drive, when qemu gets started. Else it will refuse to start
with a message about missing medium or with an i/o error if the medium
is blank.
The guest system is accessible via ssh and scp at port 5557 of the
host system.
'''/dev/sr2''' is the address of the DVD drive which is handed over to the
guest system.
'''.../some_image.iso''' may be any readable file which shall serve as
virtual DVD-ROM. qemu is not happy without such a thing.
'''/dvdbuffer/i386-install.qemu''' is the disk image, where the guest operating
system was installed.
{{{
$ qemu-img create /dvdbuffer/i386-install.qemu 8G
$ qemu \
-enable-kvm \
-m 512 \
-net nic,model=ne2k_pci \
-hda /dvdbuffer/i386-install.qemu \
-cdrom debian-6.0.3-i386-netinst.iso \
-boot d
}}}
Host system of my test is Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.2 amd64,
which had access to the Internet when the guest was installed.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Preparations on guest system Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.3 i386
There appears no /dev/sr for the passthrough drive. Since libburn
on Linux currently insists in finding a /dev/sr which points to the
drive, there is need for an udev rule.
/lib/udev/rules.d/50-udev-default.rules:
{{{
KERNEL=="vda", SYMLINK+="sr1"
}}}
libburn on Linux needs rw-permission for the drive's device node.
The virtual device /dev/vda is in group "disk". Usual for CD drives is
group "cdrom", to which i (or the Debian installer ?) have added my
normal user when i installed the guest system.
In /lib/udev/rules.d/91-permissions.rules:
{{{
KERNEL=="vda", GROUP="cdrom"
}}}
This should yield
{{{
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 3 Nov 8 11:19 /dev/sr1 -> vda
brw-rw---- 1 root cdrom 254, 0 Nov 8 11:19 /dev/vda
}}}
Beginning with libburnia release 1.1.8, the tests will also be
possible with dynamically linked xorriso which comes with libisoburn
and needs installed libburn and libisofs. That's what packages of
Debian and other distros deliver.
For now, one needs GNU xorriso from a recent development tarball
{{{
http://scdbackup.sourceforge.net/xorriso-1.1.7.tar.gz
}}}
Do
{{{
$ tar xzf xorriso-1.1.7.tar.gz
$ cd xorriso-1.1.7
$ ./configure && make
}}}
Either do as superuser
{{{
# make install
}}}
or execute it where it was built as
{{{
$ ./xorriso/xorriso ...arguments...
}}}
After compilation, this binary does not depend on files in the build
directory. You may move it to any other location.
The version must be >= 1.1.7, Version timestamp >= 2011.11.09.111414
{{{
$ xorriso -version
}}}
tells the versions of its components on stdout:
{{{
...
xorriso version : 1.1.7
Version timestamp : 2011.11.09.111414
...
}}}
For details about the following xorriso commands, read
{{{
man xorriso
man ./xorriso/xorriso.1
}}}
or with the same content
{{{
info xorriso
info ./xorriso/xorriso.info
}}}
Or read the [http://scdbackup.sourceforge.net/man_1_xorriso_devel.html online man page of xorriso].
Note that the sequence of xorriso arguments matters. They are commands
which get performed one after the other.
This differs from the behavior of mkisofs, cdrecord, et.al.,
which parse all arguments and then perform actions in a hardcoded
sequence.
Writing happens automatically if ISO filetree changes are pending
at the end of the program run. This is like with other burn tools.
(There is a command -commit for intermediate writing e.g. in dialog
mode.)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Listing accessible drives:
{{{
$ xorriso -devices
}}}
shows on stdout:
{{{
0 -dev '/dev/sr0' rwrw-- : 'QEMU ' 'QEMU DVD-ROM'
1 -dev '/dev/sr1' rwrw-- : 'Optiarc ' 'BD RW BD-5300S'
}}}
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The burn tests are presented here for unformatted DVD-RW media.
The xorriso commands apply also to other types of optical media.
See "Other applicable media types:" further below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Inspecting drive and medium:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -toc
}}}
should show on stdout something like
{{{
Drive current: -dev '/dev/sr1'
Drive type : vendor 'Optiarc' product 'BD RW BD-5300S' revision '1.04'
Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording
Media product: RITEKW04 , Ritek Corp
Media status : is written , is closed
Media blocks : 306592 readable , 0 writable , 2298496 overall
TOC layout : Idx , sbsector , Size , Volume Id
ISO session : 1 , 0 , 106696s , ISOIMAGE
ISO session : 2 , 135536 , 108385s , ISOIMAGE
ISO session : 3 , 250240 , 56202s , ISOIMAGE
Media summary: 3 sessions, 271744 data blocks, 531m data, 0 free
}}}
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Blanking to single session capability:
This medium has to be blanked before further writing. For the DAO
test, one can save time by fast blanking, which xorriso normally
dislikes because the result is not capable of multi-session:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -blank deformat_quickest
}}}
should report on stderr
{{{
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 1.0% done in 2 seconds )
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 95.4% done in 36 seconds )
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 37 seconds )
...
Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording
Media status : is blank
Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4489m free
}}}
Do not worry if the pacifier messages show no neat percentage progress.
Some drives report "1.0%" until they are done. Some report "1.0%"
after "99%".
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Writing a DAO session:
Use one or more moderately sized directories as input. Here: /usr/bin.
Terminate the list of -add arguments by argument "--".
It is important to have command -close "on" among the arguments.
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -outdev /dev/sr1 -close on -add /usr/bin --
}}}
should report on stderr
{{{
...
xorriso : UPDATE : 594 files added in 1 seconds
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Thank you for being patient. Working since 2 seconds.
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 32s 0.1% fifo 100% buf 0% 0.1xD
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 2704s 5.1% fifo 11% buf 0% 3.9xD
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 20208s 38.2% fifo 52% buf 99% 4.0xD
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 52885s 100.0% fifo 0% buf 99% 0.0xD
ISO image produced: 52735 sectors
Written to media : 52885 sectors at LBA 0
Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
}}}
Do not worry if there is no progress to see for a few dozen seconds
at the beginning.
The run will last at least as long as writing of 1 GB would need.
If you write less data, then there will be a lot of zero progress
messages at the end of writing.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Checkreading the result:
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / --
}}}
The word "sorry" sets the severity of the event message, which is
emitted in case of MD5 mismatch. "sorry" will continue the checkreading
after mismatch, "failure" or "fatal" will end the xorriso run.
All three will cause a non-zero exit value of xorriso if a mismatch
occured.
This should report on stderr
{{{
...
Drive current: -indev '/dev/sr1'
Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording
Media status : is written , is closed
Media summary: 1 session, 52885 data blocks, 103m data, 0 free
Volume id : 'ISOIMAGE'
xorriso : UPDATE : 568079 content bytes read in 5 seconds
xorriso : UPDATE : 17074k content bytes read in 10 seconds
...
xorriso : UPDATE : 103.7m content bytes read in 35 seconds
File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
}}}
and the exit value should be 0, if no mismatch was reported.
A mismatch message would look like
{{{
...
MD5 MISMATCH: '/usr/bin/ncursesw5-config'
...
Mismatch detected between file contents and MD5 checksums.
xorriso : SORRY : Event triggered by MD5 comparison mismatch
xorriso : NOTE : Tolerated problem event of severity 'SORRY'
xorriso : NOTE : -return_with SORRY 32 triggered by problem severity SORRY
}}}
and the exit value should be non-zero.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Blanking to multi-session capability:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -blank as_needed
}}}
This will need as long as writing the DVD-RW up to its end.
Blanking option "as_neede" lets xorriso decide what to do in order
to make the medium type writable from scratch.
The report on stderr should end by
{{{
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 98.9% done in 902 seconds )
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 903 seconds )
xorriso : UPDATE : Blanking ( 99.0% done in 904 seconds )
Blanking done
xorriso : NOTE : Re-assessing -outdev '/dev/sr1'
Drive current: -outdev '/dev/sr1'
Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording
Media status : is blank
Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4489m free
}}}
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Writing multiple sessions (DVD-R write type Incremental):
This time do not perform command -close "on", so that the medium
stays writable:
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -add /usr/lib --
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 105280s 98.6% fifo 0% buf 77% 3.5xD
xorriso : UPDATE : Writing: 106796s 100.0% fifo 0% buf 62% 2.2xD
xorriso : UPDATE : Closing track/session. Working since 44 seconds
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Closing track/session. Working since 77 seconds
ISO image produced: 106646 sectors
Written to media : 106800 sectors at LBA 0
Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
}}}
Checkread like after the DAO test:
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / --
...
xorriso : UPDATE : 204.0m content bytes read in 63 seconds
File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
}}}
Writing the second session looks like the first one. Just use another
set of input files to get a visible change in the ISO 9660 file tree:
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -add /usr/bin --
...
Written to media : 53408 sectors at LBA 135488
Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
}}}
And checkread the whole tree of files (i.e. both sessions):
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / --
...
xorriso : UPDATE : 307.8m content bytes read in 89 seconds
File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
}}}
At the end of writing a final session, the medium can be closed.
It will not take more writing unless it gets blanked or formatted.
So use command -close "on" to demand closing after writing.
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -dev /dev/sr1 -close on -add /usr/sbin --
...
Written to media : 16160 sectors at LBA 195056
Writing to '/dev/sr1' completed successfully.
}}}
Checkread
{{{
$ xorriso -md5 on -indev /dev/sr1 -check_md5_r sorry / --
...
Media current: DVD-RW sequential recording
Media status : is written , is closed
Media summary: 3 sessions, 176368 data blocks, 344m data, 4064m free
...
xorriso : UPDATE : 337.7m content bytes read in 97 seconds
File contents and their MD5 checksums match.
}}}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
If the drive tray can move by itself, you may now eject the medium:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -eject all
}}}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other applicable media types:
These test runs for sequential DVD-RW may be performed on CD-RW with the
same xorriso arguments. Be aware that /usr/lib will hardly fit on a CD.
So choose smaller directories for CD.
-blank "deformat_quickest" addresses a peculiarity of DVD-RW.
It will work on other media like -blank "fast".
Except the blanking runs, the tests may also be performed on BD-R, DVD-R,
DVD+R, and CD-R. But you would waste two media by this.
The first session on CD will always be written with write type SAO,
further sessions will be written with TAO.
All four media types have a simulation mode. It can be enabled by xorriso
command -dummy "on", but of course it will not produce readable results.
So this simulation is usable only for first sessions on blank media.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Now for formatted overwritable media.
The write methods and states of formatted media differ from those of
sequential media. But xorriso presents to the user a unified
multi-session usage model, under the assumption that all emulated
sessions contain ISO 9660 filesystem images, which successively
build on each other.
So from the view of xorriso commands, there is only the task of
getting those media formatted, which makes them differ from the
sequential media mentioned above.
A special case are BD-R, which xorriso may format but will not bring
into (pseudo-) overwritable state. Formatted BD-R perform Defect
Management by default, which checkread during writing and replaces
bad block. Nice idea in theory. My practical experience is not so good.
Ill media stay ill media and should be replaced as soon as possible.
Formatting of unused DVD+RW and BD-RE is done by xorriso automatically.
Just start a normal write run. DVD-RAM are sold formatted.
De-formatting is only possible with DVD-RW.
xorriso treats overwritable media with a valid ISO 9660 filesystem as
appendable media. To make then writable from scratch, apply
-blank "as_needed", which will actually write a few bytes into the PVD
(superblock) of the ISO filesystem to invalidate it.
There is no way to close formatted media. The command -close "on"
gets silently ignored.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Format DVD-RW for overwriting without intermediate blanking,
or format BD-R for Defect Management:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -format as_needed
}}}
should report on stderr
{{{
...
xorriso : UPDATE : Formatting ( 99.0% done in 116 seconds )
Formatting done
xorriso : NOTE : Re-assessing -outdev '/dev/sr1'
Drive current: -outdev '/dev/sr1'
Media current: DVD-RW restricted overwrite
Media status : is blank
Media summary: 0 sessions, 0 data blocks, 0 data, 4488m free
}}}
As with blanking, one should not worry if the progress messages show
unplausible percentages. Some drives are more equal than others.
Formatting is said to be much stress to the medium. -format option
"as_needed" applies it only to yet unformatted media.
When performing above write tests, take care to use -blank "as_needed"
rather than -blank "deformat_quickest". Else you will get a sequential
unformatted DVD-RW rather than a formatted DVD-RW which xorriso is
willing to write from scratch.
There is no use in a separate "DAO" test on overwritable media anyway.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Change the formatted size of a BD-RE:
First learn about formatted size and proposals of other sizes.
(One can issue own wishes, too. See in man xorriso, command -format.)
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -list_formats
}}}
should tell on stdout
{{{
...
Format status: formatted, with 23610.0 MiB
BD Spare Area: 0 blocks consumed, 131072 blocks available
Format idx 0 : 00h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB
Format idx 1 : 01h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB
Format idx 2 : 30h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB
Format idx 3 : 30h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB
Format idx 4 : 30h , 12088320s , 23610.0 MiB
Format idx 5 : 31h , 12219392s , 23866.0 MiB
}}}
So lets go back from 23610.0 MiB to the default size of 23098.0 MiB
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -format by_index_2 -blank as_needed
...
Media summary: 2 sessions, 105470 data blocks, 206m data, 22.4g free
}}}
Although the heads of the old sessions might remain readable after
-format, better do not rely on this and a append -blank "as_needed" to
avoid any data corruption.
If you want to keep the data, then make at least a checkread run.
Check whether the size has changed:
{{{
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr1 -list_formats
}}}
should tell on stdout
{{{
...
Format status: formatted, with 23098.0 MiB
BD Spare Area: 0 blocks consumed, 393216 blocks available
Format idx 0 : 00h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB
Format idx 1 : 01h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB
Format idx 2 : 30h , 11826176s , 23098.0 MiB
Format idx 3 : 30h , 11564032s , 22586.0 MiB
Format idx 4 : 30h , 12088320s , 23610.0 MiB
Format idx 5 : 31h , 12219392s , 23866.0 MiB
}}}

@ -1 +1 @@
#define Xorriso_timestamP "2011.11.04.102805"
#define Xorriso_timestamP "2011.11.09.131243"

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