Replaced several occurences of the word "media" by "medium"

master
Thomas Schmitt 11 years ago
parent 554a64112d
commit 46b7c643f0
  1. 136
      xorriso/xorriso.1
  2. 287
      xorriso/xorriso.info
  3. 160
      xorriso/xorriso.texi
  4. 30
      xorriso/xorrisofs.1
  5. 83
      xorriso/xorrisofs.info
  6. 30
      xorriso/xorrisofs.texi

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
.\" First parameter, NAME, should be all caps
.\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
.\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
.TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.1.7, Oct 24, 2011"
.TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.1.7, Oct 26, 2011"
.\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
.\"
.\" Some roff macros, for reference:
@ -126,9 +126,9 @@ of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points of each
session. The mount programs recognize block devices which represent
CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
.br
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole media
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium
which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular media
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
.br
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
@ -147,7 +147,7 @@ See paragraph Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.
\fBxorriso\fR adopts the concept of multi\-session by loading an
image directory tree if present,
by allowing to manipulate it by several actions,
and by writing the new image to the target media.
and by writing the new image to the target medium.
.br
The first session of a \fBxorriso\fR run begins by the definition of
the input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ an output drive is defined. This is achieved by option \-dev on blank media
or by option \-outdev on media in any state.
.br
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the media in the output drive must get into
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
.PP
If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image gets loaded
@ -236,10 +236,10 @@ as foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation of input
and output drive determines which write method will be used.
They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
.PP
The method of \fBgrowing\fR adds new data to the existing media. These
data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
The method of \fBgrowing\fR adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on media and with many types of
previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older sessions.
.br
Growing is achieved by option \-dev.
@ -253,7 +253,7 @@ On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media
but to blank media only.
.br
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with
filesystem objects as source and/or target media.
filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
.br
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and
if option \-grow_blindly is set to its default "off".
@ -870,14 +870,14 @@ Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read\-only media.
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi\-session DVD or BD. If on such a system \fBxorriso\fR has no own MMC
capabilities then it may still find that session from a scanned table of
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM media with setting "on".
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
.br
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwriteable media
can hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables
the elsewise trustworthy table\-of\-content scan for those media.
.br
To be in effect, the \-rom_toc_scan setting has to be made before the \-*dev
command which aquires drive and media.
command which aquires drive and medium.
.TP
\fB\-calm_drive\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives stay alert
@ -1043,7 +1043,7 @@ composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
\fB\-cut_out\fR disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO
image.
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single media, or if
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if
it exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB \- 1 for old operating systems,
or the limit of 4 GiB \- 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels
seem to read properly files >= 4 GiB \- 1.
@ -1342,11 +1342,11 @@ Default is "on".
\fB\-rm\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
.br
Note: This does not free any space on the \-indev media, even if
the deletion is committed to that same media.
Note: This does not free any space on the \-indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
.br
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
media in modification mode.
medium in modification mode.
.TP
\fB\-rm_r\fR iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image.
@ -1965,7 +1965,7 @@ To suppress a final write, execute \-rollback_end.
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the media for a few
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few
minutes after all data have been transmitted.
\fBxorriso\fR and the drives are in a client\-server relationship.
The drives have much freedom about what to do with the media.
@ -1977,7 +1977,7 @@ burn programs but you may well try some of those listed below
under SEE ALSO.
.TP
\fB\-eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"
Eject the media in \-indev, resp. \-outdev, resp. both drives.
Eject the medium in \-indev, resp. \-outdev, resp. both drives.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
.TP
\fB\-commit_eject\fR "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
@ -2046,7 +2046,7 @@ E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with Defect Management.
.br
The formatting action has no effect on media if \-dummy is activated.
.br
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a media,
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium,
if ever. But it is a reason for re\-formatting if:
.br
DVD\-RW was deformatted by \-blank,
@ -2067,7 +2067,7 @@ or worse occured. Be patient with apparently frozen progress.
.TP
\fB\-list_formats\fR
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for
the current media. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
the current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s")
and the same size in MiB.
.br
@ -2080,7 +2080,7 @@ Smaller format size with DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE, or BD\-R means more reserve space.
.TP
\fB\-list_speeds\fR
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the output drive with
the loaded media. This does not necessarily mean that the media is writable
the loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
@ -2095,13 +2095,13 @@ are the best guesses for lower and upper speed limit.
and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
.TP
\fB\-close_damaged\fR "as_needed"|"force"
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the media
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the medium
as damaged. This may apply to CD\-R, CD\-RW, DVD\-R, DVD\-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL,
or BD\-R media. It is indicated by warning messages when the drive gets
aquired, and by a remark "but next track is damaged" with the line
"Media status :" of command \-toc.
.br
The setting of option \-close determines whether the media stays appendable.
The setting of option \-close determines whether the medium stays appendable.
.br
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not reported as
damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation even with media which
@ -2226,7 +2226,7 @@ ECMA 119 demands ASCII characters out of [A\-Z0\-9_]. Like: "IMAGE_23"
Joliet allows 16 UCS\-2 characters. Like: "Windows name"
.br
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as name of the
mount point when the media is inserted into a playful computer system.
mount point when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.
.br
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default "ISOIMAGE"
or to "", then the volume ID of the loaded image will become the effective
@ -2368,7 +2368,7 @@ Example speeds:
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
.br
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the
media in the \-outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
medium in the \-outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
.br
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take
the speed value given by the burn program only as upper limit
@ -2377,7 +2377,7 @@ for their own decision.
\fB\-stream_recording\fR "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management of defects on DVD\-RAM, BD\-RE,
or BD\-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged media usable. But it reduces
write speed to half nominal speed even if the media is in perfect shape.
write speed to half nominal speed even if the medium is in perfect shape.
For the case of flawless media, one may use \-stream_recording "on" to get
full speed.
.br
@ -2413,7 +2413,7 @@ The number may be followed by letter "k" or "m"
which means unit is kiB (= 1024) or MiB (= 1024 kiB).
.TP
\fB\-close\fR "on"|"off"
If "on" then mark the written media as not appendable
If "on" then mark the written medium as not appendable
any more (if possible at all with the given type of target media).
.br
This is the contrary of cdrecord, wodim, cdrskin option \-multi,
@ -2547,10 +2547,10 @@ started by the hardware boot facility (e.g. the BIOS) at boot time.
.br
\fBefi_path=\fR depicts a boot image file that is ready for EFI booting.
Its load_size is determined automatically, no boot info table gets
written, no boot media gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
written, no boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
.br
\fBemul_type=\fR can be one of "no_emulation", "hard_disk", "diskette".
It controls the boot media emulation code of a boot image.
It controls the boot medium emulation code of a boot image.
The default "no_emulation" is suitable for ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
.br
\fBload_size=\fR is a value which depends on the boot image.
@ -3102,8 +3102,8 @@ Precedence is: "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".
.TP
\fB\-toc\fR
.br
Show media specific table of content. This is the media session history,
not the ISO image directory tree.
Show media specific table of content. This is the session history
of the medium, not the ISO image directory tree.
.br
In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may happen that
only a single session gets shown. But if the first session on the
@ -3142,7 +3142,7 @@ option "exclusive" which is default and its counterpart "shared". The latter
causes \fBxorriso\fR not to give up the affected drive with command \-mount.
On GNU/Linux it adds mount option "loop" which may allow to mount several
sessions of the same block device at the same time. One should not write
to a mounted optical media, of course. Take care to umount all sessions
to a mounted optical medium, of course. Take care to umount all sessions
before ejecting.
.TP
\fB\-session_string\fR drive entity id format
@ -3172,7 +3172,7 @@ If no \-jidgo options are given and not command \-as "mkisofs" was used,
then \-padding (300 kB by default) is not counted as part of the image size.
.TP
\fB\-tell_media_space\fR
Print available space on output media and the free space after
Print available space on the output medium and the free space after
subtracting already foreseeable consumption by next \-commit.
.TP
\fB\-pvd_info\fR
@ -3394,10 +3394,10 @@ and based on extra data on the media. If a drive returns data then one can
quite trust that they are valid. But at some degree of read problems the
correction will fail and the drive is supposed to indicate error.
.br
\fBxorriso\fR can scan the media for readable data blocks, classify them
\fBxorriso\fR can scan a medium for readable data blocks, classify them
according
to their read speed, save them to a file, and keep track of successfuly saved
blocks for further tries on the same media.
blocks for further tries on the same medium.
.br
By option \-md5 checksums may get recorded with data files and whole
sessions. These checksums are reachable only via indev and a loaded image.
@ -3467,7 +3467,7 @@ does not read any media but loads the file given by option
sector_map= and processes this virtual outcome.
.br
\fBwhat="disc"\fR
scans the payload range of a media without respecting track gaps.
scans the payload range of a medium without respecting track gaps.
.br
\fBwhat="image"\fR
similar to "disc", but restricts scanning to the range of the ISO 9660 image,
@ -3514,7 +3514,7 @@ recorded MD5 checksums. Severity "ALL" disables this event.
tries to read the file given by disk_path as
sector bitmap and to store such a map file after the scan run.
The bitmap tells which blocks have been read successfully in previous runs.
It allows to do several scans on the same media, even with intermediate
It allows to do several scans on the same medium, even with intermediate
eject, in order to collect readable blocks whenever the drive is lucky enough
to produce them. The stored file contains a human readable TOC of tracks
and their start block addresses, followed by binary bitmap data.
@ -3860,7 +3860,7 @@ It ignores most other options of cdrecord and cdrskin but refuses on
\-audio, \-scanbus, and on blanking modes unknown to \fBxorriso\fR.
.br
The scope is only a single data track per session to be written
to blank, overwriteable, or appendable media. The media gets closed if
to blank, overwriteable, or appendable media. The medium gets closed if
closing is applicable and not option \-multi is present.
.br
If an input drive was aquired, then it is given up.
@ -3927,7 +3927,7 @@ nn% done, estimate finish Tue Jul 15 20:13:28 2008
Set the parameter "name" for a scdbackup checksum record.
It will be appended in an scdbackup checksum tag to the \-md5 session tag if
the image starts at LBA 0. This is the case if it gets written as first
session onto a sequential media, or piped into a program, named pipe or
session onto a sequential medium, or piped into a program, named pipe or
character device.
.br
If list_path is not empty then the record will also be appended to the
@ -4165,21 +4165,21 @@ Use text as name of this program and perform \-help.
.B Overview of examples:
As superuser learn about available drives
.br
Blank media and compose a new ISO image as batch run
Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
.br
A dialog session doing about the same
.br
Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same media
Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
.br
Copy modified ISO image from one media to another
Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
.br
Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto media and make it bootable
Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
.br
Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
.br
Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
.br
Burn an existing ISO image file to media
Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
.br
Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
.br
@ -4193,7 +4193,7 @@ Incremental backup of a few directory trees
.br
Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
.br
Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged media
Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
.SS
.B As superuser learn about available drives
On Linux or FreeBSD consider to give rw\-permissions to those users or groups
@ -4209,13 +4209,13 @@ $ xorriso \-device_links
.br
2 \-dev '/dev/cdrw3' rwrw\-\- : 'HL\-DT\-ST' 'BDDVDRW_GGC\-H20L'
.SS
.B Blank media and compose a new ISO image as batch run
Aquire drive /dev/sr2, make media ready for writing a new image,
.B Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
Aquire drive /dev/sr2, make medium ready for writing a new image,
fill the image with the files from hard disk directories /home/me/sounds
and /home/me/pictures.
.br
Because no \-dialog "on" is given, the program will then end by writing the
session to media.
session to the medium.
.br
$ xorriso \-outdev /dev/sr2 \\
.br
@ -4269,7 +4269,7 @@ The drive is acquired by option \-dev rather than \-outdev in order to see
the message about its current content. By option \-blank this content is
made ready for being overwritten and the loaded ISO image is made empty.
.br
In order to be able to eject the media, the session needs to be committed
In order to be able to eject the medium, the session needs to be committed
explicitly.
.br
.B $ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on
@ -4315,13 +4315,13 @@ enter option and arguments :
.br
.br
.SS
.B Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same media
.B Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
Load image from drive.
Remove (i.e. hide) directory /sounds and its subordinates.
Rename directory /pictures/confidential to /pictures/restricted.
Change access permissions of directory /pictures/restricted.
Add new directory trees /sounds and /movies.
Burn to the same media, check whether the tree can be loaded, and eject.
Burn to the same medium, check whether the tree can be loaded, and eject.
.br
$ xorriso \-dev /dev/sr2 \\
.br
@ -4343,7 +4343,7 @@ $ xorriso \-dev /dev/sr2 \\
.br
\-commit \-eject all
.SS
.B Copy modified ISO image from one media to another
.B Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
Load image from input drive. Do the same manipulations as in the previous
example. Aquire output drive and blank it. Burn the modified image as
first and only session to the output drive.
@ -4358,10 +4358,10 @@ $ xorriso \-indev /dev/sr2 \\
.br
\-commit \-eject all
.SS
.B Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto media and make it bootable
.B Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
The user has already created a suitable file tree on disk and copied the
ISOLINUX files into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of that tree.
Now \fBxorriso\fR can burn an El Torito bootable media:
Now \fBxorriso\fR can burn an El Torito bootable medium:
.br
$ xorriso \-outdev /dev/sr0 \-blank as_needed \\
.br
@ -4414,7 +4414,7 @@ $ xorriso \-outdev \- \\
.br
| gzip >image.iso.gz
.SS
.B Burn an existing ISO image file to media
.B Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
Actually this works with any kind of data, not only ISO images:
.br
$ xorriso \-as cdrecord \-v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed image.iso
@ -4441,11 +4441,11 @@ $ xorriso \-as mkisofs \-M /dev/sr0 \-C $m prepared_for_iso/tree2 | \\
.br
Always eject the drive tray between sessions. The old sessions
get read via /dev/sr0. Its device driver might not be aware
of the changed content before it loads the media again.
of the changed content before it loads the medium again.
In this case the previous session would not be loaded and the
new session would contain only the newly added files.
.br
For the same reason do not let \fBxorriso\fR \-as cdrecord load the media,
For the same reason do not let \fBxorriso\fR \-as cdrecord load the medium,
but rather do this manually or by a program that reads from /dev/sr0.
.br
This example works for multi\-session media only.
@ -4561,9 +4561,9 @@ $ xorriso \\
.br
\-commit \-toc \-check_md5 FAILURE \-\- \-eject all
.br
To be used several times on the same media, whenever an update of
the two disk trees to the media is desired. Begin with blank media and start
a new blank media when the run fails due to lack of remaining space on
To be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of
the two disk trees to the medium is desired. Begin with a blank medium and
update it until he run fails gracefully due to lack of remaining space on
the old one.
.br
This makes sense if the full backup leaves substantial remaining capacity
@ -4614,22 +4614,24 @@ The cloned tree will have a name like /2011_02_12_155700.
.sp 1
Sessions on multi\-session media are separated by several MB of unused blocks.
So with small sessions the payload capacity can become substantially lower
than the overall media capacity. If the remaining space on media does not
suffice for the next gap, the drive is supposed to close the media
than the overall media capacity. If the remaining space on a medium does not
suffice for the next gap, the drive is supposed to close the medium
automatically.
.br
.sp 1
\fBBetter do not use your youngest backup for \-update_r\fR.
Have at least two media which you use alternatingly. So only older backups
get endangered by the new write operation, while the newest backup is
stored safely on a different media.
Always have a blank media ready to perform a full backup in case the update
attempt fails due to insufficient remaining capacity.
stored safely on a different medium.
.br
Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the update
attempt fails due to insufficient remaining capacity. This failure will
not spoil the old medium, of course.
.SS
.B Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
This is an alternative to mounting the media and using normal file operations.
This is an alternative to mounting the medium and using normal file operations.
.br
First check which backup sessions are on the media:
First check which backup sessions are on the medium:
.br
$ xorriso \-outdev /dev/sr0 \-toc
.br
@ -4658,7 +4660,7 @@ $ xorriso \-for_backup \\
The final command \-rollback_end prevents an error message about the altered
image being discarded.
.SS
.B Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged media
.B Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
.br
$ xorriso \-abort_on NEVER \-indev /dev/sr0 \\
.br

@ -106,8 +106,8 @@ the entry points of each session. The mount programs recognize block
devices which represent CD media and will by default mount the image in
the last session.
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole
media which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions. So in
the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular media
medium which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions. So in
the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
*growing*.
@ -123,7 +123,7 @@ Blind Growing below.
`xorriso' adopts the concept of multi-session by loading an image
directory tree if present, by allowing to manipulate it by several
actions, and by writing the new image to the target media. The first
actions, and by writing the new image to the target medium. The first
session of a `xorriso' run begins by the definition of the input drive
with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive. The
session ends by command -commit which triggers writing. A -commit is
@ -206,7 +206,7 @@ valid ISO 9660 image when the first time an output drive is defined.
This is achieved by option -dev on blank media or by option -outdev on
media in any state.
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the media in the output drive must get into
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image
@ -214,12 +214,12 @@ gets loaded as foundation for manipulations and extension. The
constellation of input and output drive determines which write method
will be used. They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
The method of *growing* adds new data to the existing media. These
data comprise of new file content and they override the existing ISO
9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on media and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older
sessions.
The method of *growing* adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the
existing ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide
files from previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and
with many types of optical media it is quite easy to recover them by
mounting older sessions.
Growing is achieved by option -dev.
The write method of *modifying* produces compact filesystem images
@ -230,7 +230,7 @@ deformat_quickest, DVD-R DL, named pipes, character devices, sockets.
On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable
media but to blank media only.
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work
with filesystem objects as source and/or target media.
with filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same
and if option -grow_blindly is set to its default "off". This is
achieved by options -indev and -outdev.
@ -807,13 +807,13 @@ activate them only after image loading.
session of multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system `xorriso'
has no own MMC capabilities then it may still find that session
from a scanned table of content. Setting "force" handles any media
like a ROM media with setting "on".
like a ROM medium with setting "on".
On the other hand the emulation of session history on
overwriteable media can hamper reading of partly damaged media.
Setting "off:emul_off" disables the elsewise trustworthy
table-of-content scan for those media.
To be in effect, the -rom_toc_scan setting has to be made before
the -*dev command which aquires drive and media.
the -*dev command which aquires drive and medium.
-calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives
@ -972,7 +972,7 @@ filesystem.
-cut_out disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in
the ISO image. This may be necessary if the disk file is larger
than a single media, or if it exceeds the traditional limit of 2
than a single medium, or if it exceeds the traditional limit of 2
GiB - 1 for old operating systems, or the limit of 4 GiB - 1 for
newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels seem to read properly
files >= 4 GiB - 1.
@ -1228,10 +1228,10 @@ whether they stem from the loaded image or were newly inserted.
-rm iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev media, even if
the deletion is committed to that same media.
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
media in modification mode.
medium in modification mode.
-rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image. See
@ -1753,7 +1753,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first few
minutes or that the drive gnaws on the media for a few minutes
minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few minutes
after all data have been transmitted. `xorriso' and the drives
are in a client-server relationship. The drives have much freedom
about what to do with the media. Some combinations of drives and
@ -1764,7 +1764,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
ALSO.
-eject "in"|"out"|"all"
Eject the media in -indev, resp. -outdev, resp. both drives.
Eject the medium in -indev, resp. -outdev, resp. both drives.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
-commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
@ -1824,7 +1824,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
The formatting action has no effect on media if -dummy is
activated.
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a
media, if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
medium, if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
DVD+RW has read failures (re-format before next write),
DVD-RAM or BD-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
@ -1839,9 +1839,9 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
-list_formats
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output
drive for the current media. The list gives the index number after
"Format idx", a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks
(like "2236704s") and the same size in MiB.
drive for the current medium. The list gives the index number
after "Format idx", a MMC format code, the announced size in
blocks (like "2236704s") and the same size in MiB.
MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are: "00h" general
formatting, "01h" increases reserve space for DVD-RAM, "26h" for
DVD+RW, "30h" for BD-RE with reserve space, "31h" for BD-RE
@ -1851,10 +1851,10 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
-list_speeds
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the output drive with
the loaded media. This does not necessarily mean that the media is
writable or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially
the lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously
advertise speeds for other media.
the loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium
is writable or that these speeds are actually achievable.
Especially the lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media
obviously advertise speeds for other media.
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.
The drive is supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to
the desired speed as possible.
@ -1865,11 +1865,11 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Writing, Next: SetWrite, Prev: Filter, Up: Options
-close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported
the media as damaged. This may apply to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R,
the medium as damaged. This may apply to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R,
DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, or BD-R media. It is indicated by warning
messages when the drive gets aquired, and by a remark "but next
track is damaged" with the line "Media status :" of command -toc.
The setting of option -close determines whether the media stays
The setting of option -close determines whether the medium stays
appendable.
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not
reported as damaged. Mode "force" attempts the close operation
@ -1978,7 +1978,7 @@ will be written according to the setting of option -acl.
"IMAGE_23"
Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like: "Windows name"
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as name
of the mount point when the media is inserted into a playful
of the mount point when the medium is inserted into a playful
computer system.
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default
"ISOIMAGE" or to "", then the volume ID of the loaded image will
@ -2101,7 +2101,7 @@ will be written according to the setting of option -acl.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the media
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the medium
in the -outdev will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the
speed value given by the burn program only as upper limit for
@ -2111,7 +2111,7 @@ will be written according to the setting of option -acl.
Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management of defects on
DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or BD-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged
media usable. But it reduces write speed to half nominal speed
even if the media is in perfect shape. For the case of flawless
even if the medium is in perfect shape. For the case of flawless
media, one may use -stream_recording "on" to get full speed.
"full" tries full speed with all write operations, whereas "on"
does this only above byte address 32s. One may give a number of at
@ -2144,8 +2144,8 @@ will be written according to the setting of option -acl.
kiB).
-close "on"|"off"
If "on" then mark the written media as not appendable any more (if
possible at all with the given type of target media).
If "on" then mark the written medium as not appendable any more
(if possible at all with the given type of target media).
This is the contrary of cdrecord, wodim, cdrskin option -multi,
and is one aspect of growisofs option -dvd-compat.
@ -2252,10 +2252,10 @@ filesystem and announced by an MBR partition table entry.
boot time.
*efi_path=* depicts a boot image file that is ready for EFI
booting. Its load_size is determined automatically, no boot info
table gets written, no boot media gets emulated, platform_id is
table gets written, no boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is
0xef.
*emul_type=* can be one of "no_emulation", "hard_disk", "diskette".
It controls the boot media emulation code of a boot image. The
It controls the boot medium emulation code of a boot image. The
default "no_emulation" is suitable for ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD
cdboot.
*load_size=* is a value which depends on the boot image. Default
@ -2719,8 +2719,8 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Inquiry, Next: Navigate, Prev: DialogCtl, Up: Opti
"dvd", "cdrom", "cd".
-toc
Show media specific table of content. This is the media session
history, not the ISO image directory tree.
Show media specific table of content. This is the session history
of the medium, not the ISO image directory tree.
In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may
happen that only a single session gets shown. But if the first
session on the overwriteable media was written by `xorriso' then a
@ -2754,7 +2754,8 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Inquiry, Next: Navigate, Prev: DialogCtl, Up: Opti
drive with command -mount. On GNU/Linux it adds mount option
"loop" which may allow to mount several sessions of the same block
device at the same time. One should not write to a mounted optical
media, of course. Take care to umount all sessions before ejecting.
medium, of course. Take care to umount all sessions before
ejecting.
-session_string drive entity id format
Print to the result channel a text which gets composed according to
@ -2779,7 +2780,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Inquiry, Next: Navigate, Prev: DialogCtl, Up: Opti
image size.
-tell_media_space
Print available space on output media and the free space after
Print available space on the output medium and the free space after
subtracting already foreseeable consumption by next -commit.
-pvd_info
@ -2985,9 +2986,9 @@ by the drives and based on extra data on the media. If a drive returns
data then one can quite trust that they are valid. But at some degree
of read problems the correction will fail and the drive is supposed to
indicate error.
`xorriso' can scan the media for readable data blocks, classify them
`xorriso' can scan a medium for readable data blocks, classify them
according to their read speed, save them to a file, and keep track of
successfuly saved blocks for further tries on the same media.
successfuly saved blocks for further tries on the same medium.
By option -md5 checksums may get recorded with data files and whole
sessions. These checksums are reachable only via indev and a loaded
image. They work independently of the media type and can detect
@ -3043,7 +3044,7 @@ transmission errors.
does not read any media but loads the file given by option
sector_map= and processes this virtual outcome.
what="disc"
scans the payload range of a media without respecting track
scans the payload range of a medium without respecting track
gaps.
what="image"
similar to "disc", but restricts scanning to the range of the
@ -3085,7 +3086,7 @@ transmission errors.
tries to read the file given by disk_path as sector bitmap
and to store such a map file after the scan run. The bitmap
tells which blocks have been read successfully in previous
runs. It allows to do several scans on the same media, even
runs. It allows to do several scans on the same medium, even
with intermediate eject, in order to collect readable blocks
whenever the drive is lucky enough to produce them. The
stored file contains a human readable TOC of tracks and their
@ -3392,8 +3393,8 @@ said programs trigger comparable actions.
It ignores most other options of cdrecord and cdrskin but refuses
on -audio, -scanbus, and on blanking modes unknown to `xorriso'.
The scope is only a single data track per session to be written to
blank, overwriteable, or appendable media. The media gets closed if
closing is applicable and not option -multi is present.
blank, overwriteable, or appendable media. The medium gets closed
if closing is applicable and not option -multi is present.
If an input drive was aquired, then it is given up. This is only
allowed if no image changes are pending.
dev= must be given as `xorriso' device address. Addresses like
@ -3443,7 +3444,7 @@ said programs trigger comparable actions.
Set the parameter "name" for a scdbackup checksum record. It will
be appended in an scdbackup checksum tag to the -md5 session tag if
the image starts at LBA 0. This is the case if it gets written as
first session onto a sequential media, or piped into a program,
first session onto a sequential medium, or piped into a program,
named pipe or character device.
If list_path is not empty then the record will also be appended to
the data file given by this path.
@ -3660,21 +3661,21 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: Examples, Next: Files, Prev: Options, Up: Top
* Menu:
* ExDevices:: As superuser learn about available drives
* ExCreate:: Blank media and compose a new ISO image as batch run
* ExCreate:: Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
* ExDialog:: A dialog session doing about the same
* ExGrowing:: Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same media
* ExModifying:: Copy modified ISO image from one media to another
* ExBootable:: Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto media and make it bootable
* ExGrowing:: Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
* ExModifying:: Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
* ExBootable:: Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
* ExCharset:: Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
* ExPseudo:: Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
* ExCdrecord:: Burn an existing ISO image file to media
* ExCdrecord:: Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
* ExMkisofs:: Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
* ExGrowisofs:: Let `xorriso' work underneath growisofs
* ExException:: Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
* ExTime:: Examples of input timestrings
* ExIncBackup:: Incremental backup of a few directory trees
* ExRestore:: Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
* ExRecovery:: Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged media
* ExRecovery:: Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExDevices, Next: ExCreate, Prev: Frontend, Up: Examples
@ -3695,14 +3696,14 @@ $ xorriso -device_links

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExCreate, Next: ExDialog, Prev: ExDevices, Up: Examples
10.2 Blank media and compose a new ISO image as batch run
=========================================================
10.2 Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
==========================================================
Aquire drive /dev/sr2, make media ready for writing a new image, fill
Aquire drive /dev/sr2, make medium ready for writing a new image, fill
the image with the files from hard disk directories /home/me/sounds and
/home/me/pictures.
Because no -dialog "on" is given, the program will then end by writing
the session to media.
the session to the medium.
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
-blank as_needed \
@ -3743,7 +3744,7 @@ characters.
The drive is acquired by option -dev rather than -outdev in order to see
the message about its current content. By option -blank this content is
made ready for being overwritten and the loaded ISO image is made empty.
In order to be able to eject the media, the session needs to be
In order to be able to eject the medium, the session needs to be
committed explicitly.
$ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on
@ -3775,14 +3776,15 @@ $ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExGrowing, Next: ExModifying, Prev: ExDialog, Up: Examples
10.4 Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same media
=======================================================
10.4 Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
========================================================
Load image from drive. Remove (i.e. hide) directory /sounds and its
subordinates. Rename directory /pictures/confidential to
/pictures/restricted. Change access permissions of directory
/pictures/restricted. Add new directory trees /sounds and /movies.
Burn to the same media, check whether the tree can be loaded, and eject.
Burn to the same medium, check whether the tree can be loaded, and
eject.
$ xorriso -dev /dev/sr2 \
-rm_r /sounds -- \
@ -3798,8 +3800,8 @@ $ xorriso -dev /dev/sr2 \

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExModifying, Next: ExBootable, Prev: ExGrowing, Up: Examples
10.5 Copy modified ISO image from one media to another
======================================================
10.5 Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
=======================================================
Load image from input drive. Do the same manipulations as in the
previous example. Aquire output drive and blank it. Burn the modified
@ -3814,12 +3816,12 @@ $ xorriso -indev /dev/sr2 \

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExBootable, Next: ExCharset, Prev: ExModifying, Up: Examples
10.6 Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto media and make it bootable
===================================================================
10.6 Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
====================================================================
The user has already created a suitable file tree on disk and copied the
ISOLINUX files into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of that tree. Now
`xorriso' can burn an El Torito bootable media:
`xorriso' can burn an El Torito bootable medium:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
-map /home/me/ISOLINUX_prepared_tree / \
@ -3879,8 +3881,8 @@ $ xorriso -outdev - \

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExCdrecord, Next: ExMkisofs, Prev: ExPseudo, Up: Examples
10.9 Burn an existing ISO image file to media
=============================================
10.9 Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
==============================================
Actually this works with any kind of data, not only ISO images:
@ -3908,10 +3910,10 @@ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
Always eject the drive tray between sessions. The old sessions get read
via /dev/sr0. Its device driver might not be aware of the changed
content before it loads the media again. In this case the previous
content before it loads the medium again. In this case the previous
session would not be loaded and the new session would contain only the
newly added files.
For the same reason do not let `xorriso' -as cdrecord load the media,
For the same reason do not let `xorriso' -as cdrecord load the medium,
but rather do this manually or by a program that reads from /dev/sr0.
This example works for multi-session media only. Add cdrskin option
@ -4018,10 +4020,10 @@ $ xorriso \
-update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /personal_mail \
-commit -toc -check_md5 FAILURE -- -eject all
To be used several times on the same media, whenever an update of the
two disk trees to the media is desired. Begin with blank media and start
a new blank media when the run fails due to lack of remaining space on
the old one.
To be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of the
two disk trees to the medium is desired. Begin with a blank medium and
update it until he run fails gracefully due to lack of remaining space
on the old one.
This makes sense if the full backup leaves substantial remaining
capacity on media and if the expected changes are much smaller than the
full backup. To apply zisofs compression to those data files which get
@ -4064,15 +4066,16 @@ The cloned tree will have a name like /2011_02_12_155700.
Sessions on multi-session media are separated by several MB of unused
blocks. So with small sessions the payload capacity can become
substantially lower than the overall media capacity. If the remaining
space on media does not suffice for the next gap, the drive is supposed
to close the media automatically.
space on a medium does not suffice for the next gap, the drive is
supposed to close the medium automatically.
*Better do not use your youngest backup for -update_r*. Have at least
two media which you use alternatingly. So only older backups get
endangered by the new write operation, while the newest backup is
stored safely on a different media. Always have a blank media ready to
perform a full backup in case the update attempt fails due to
insufficient remaining capacity.
stored safely on a different medium.
Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the
update attempt fails due to insufficient remaining capacity. This
failure will not spoil the old medium, of course.

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExRestore, Next: ExRecovery, Prev: ExIncBackup, Up: Examples
@ -4080,9 +4083,9 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: ExRestore, Next: ExRecovery, Prev: ExIncBackup, Up
10.15 Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
===================================================================
This is an alternative to mounting the media and using normal file
This is an alternative to mounting the medium and using normal file
operations.
First check which backup sessions are on the media:
First check which backup sessions are on the medium:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -toc
@ -4106,8 +4109,8 @@ altered image being discarded.

File: xorriso.info, Node: ExRecovery, Prev: ExRestore, Up: Examples
10.16 Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged media
=================================================
10.16 Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
==================================================
$ xorriso -abort_on NEVER -indev /dev/sr0 \
@ -4396,12 +4399,12 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: CommandIdx, Next: ConceptIdx, Prev: Legal, Up: Top
* -print prints result text line: Scripting. (line 99)
* -print_info prints message text line: Scripting. (line 102)
* -print_mark prints synchronizing text line: Scripting. (line 105)
* -print_size predicts image size: Inquiry. (line 79)
* -print_size predicts image size: Inquiry. (line 80)
* -prog sets program name: Frontend. (line 30)
* -prog_help prints help text: Frontend. (line 33)
* -prompt prompts for enter key: Scripting. (line 110)
* -publisher sets publisher id: SetWrite. (line 113)
* -pvd_info shows image id strings: Inquiry. (line 92)
* -pvd_info shows image id strings: Inquiry. (line 93)
* -pwd tells working directory in ISO: Navigate. (line 20)
* -pwdx tells working directory on disk: Navigate. (line 23)
* -quoted_not_list sets exclusions: SetInsert. (line 72)
@ -4420,7 +4423,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: CommandIdx, Next: ConceptIdx, Prev: Legal, Up: Top
* -scdbackup_tag enables scdbackup checksum tag: Emulation. (line 168)
* -scsi_log reports SCSI commands: Scripting. (line 147)
* -session_log logs written sessions: Scripting. (line 138)
* -session_string composes session info line: Inquiry. (line 66)
* -session_string composes session info line: Inquiry. (line 67)
* -set_filter applies filter to file: Filter. (line 60)
* -set_filter_r applies filter to file tree: Filter. (line 85)
* -setfacl sets ACL in ISO image: Manip. (line 73)
@ -4441,7 +4444,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: CommandIdx, Next: ConceptIdx, Prev: Legal, Up: Top
* -stdio_sync controls stdio buffer: SetWrite. (line 245)
* -stream_recording controls defect management: SetWrite. (line 226)
* -system_id sets system id: SetWrite. (line 128)
* -tell_media_space reports free space: Inquiry. (line 88)
* -tell_media_space reports free space: Inquiry. (line 89)
* -temp_mem_limit curbs memory consumption: Scripting. (line 92)
* -toc shows list of sessions: Inquiry. (line 28)
* -uid sets global ownership: SetWrite. (line 191)
@ -4560,7 +4563,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: ConceptIdx, Prev: CommandIdx, Up: Top
* Image, set volume id, -volid: SetWrite. (line 89)
* Image, set volume set id, -volset_id: SetWrite. (line 108)
* Image, set volume timestamp, -volume_date: SetWrite. (line 135)
* Image, show id strings, -pvd_info: Inquiry. (line 92)
* Image, show id strings, -pvd_info: Inquiry. (line 93)
* Insert, enable overwriting, -overwrite: SetInsert. (line 127)
* Insert, file exclusion absolute, -not_paths: SetInsert. (line 55)
* Insert, file exclusion from file, -not_list: SetInsert. (line 67)
@ -4673,7 +4676,7 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: ConceptIdx, Prev: CommandIdx, Up: Top
* Rock Ridge, _definiton: Extras. (line 6)
* Session, _definition: Model. (line 6)
* Session, altered start address, -displacement: Loading. (line 35)
* Session, info string, -session_string: Inquiry. (line 66)
* Session, info string, -session_string: Inquiry. (line 67)
* Session, issue mount command, -mount: Restore. (line 126)
* Session, log when written, -session_log: Scripting. (line 138)
* Session, mount command line, -mount_cmd: Inquiry. (line 41)
@ -4703,12 +4706,12 @@ File: xorriso.info, Node: ConceptIdx, Prev: CommandIdx, Up: Top
* Write, defect management, -stream_recording: SetWrite. (line 226)
* Write, enable Joliet, -joliet: SetWrite. (line 10)
* Write, fifo size, -fs: SetWrite. (line 255)
* Write, free space, -tell_media_space: Inquiry. (line 88)
* Write, free space, -tell_media_space: Inquiry. (line 89)
* Write, log problematic disk files, -errfile_log: Scripting. (line 118)
* Write, log written sessions, -session_log: Scripting. (line 138)
* Write, padding image, -padding: SetWrite. (line 268)
* Write, pending ISO image, -commit: Writing. (line 13)
* Write, predict image size, -print_size: Inquiry. (line 79)
* Write, predict image size, -print_size: Inquiry. (line 80)
* Write, set speed, -speed: SetWrite. (line 211)
* Write, simulation, -dummy: SetWrite. (line 251)
* xattr, _definiton: Extras. (line 54)
@ -4725,56 +4728,56 @@ Tag Table:
Node: Top420
Node: Overview1375
Node: Model3264
Node: Media6148
Node: Methods8814
Node: Drives11363
Node: Extras14676
Node: Processing18393
Node: Dialog21863
Node: Options23526
Node: AqDrive25134
Node: Loading28171
Node: Insert42438
Node: SetInsert52143
Node: Manip60711
Node: CmdFind69438
Node: Filter81543
Node: Writing85881
Node: SetWrite93874
Node: Bootable107920
Node: Jigdo121138
Node: Charset125384
Node: Exception128143
Node: DialogCtl134256
Node: Inquiry136843
Node: Navigate141687
Node: Verify149945
Node: Restore158610
Node: Emulation165515
Node: Scripting175318
Node: Frontend182483
Node: Examples183782
Node: ExDevices184953
Node: ExCreate185612
Node: ExDialog186886
Node: ExGrowing188148
Node: ExModifying188950
Node: ExBootable189451
Node: ExCharset190000
Node: ExPseudo190820
Node: ExCdrecord191718
Node: ExMkisofs192033
Node: ExGrowisofs193371
Node: ExException194506
Node: ExTime194960
Node: ExIncBackup195419
Node: ExRestore199343
Node: ExRecovery200301
Node: Files200869
Node: Seealso202167
Node: Bugreport202890
Node: Legal203471
Node: CommandIdx204401
Node: ConceptIdx219497
Node: Media6151
Node: Methods8817
Node: Drives11386
Node: Extras14699
Node: Processing18416
Node: Dialog21886
Node: Options23549
Node: AqDrive25157
Node: Loading28194
Node: Insert42463
Node: SetInsert52169
Node: Manip60737
Node: CmdFind69467
Node: Filter81572
Node: Writing85910
Node: SetWrite93911
Node: Bootable107961
Node: Jigdo121181
Node: Charset125427
Node: Exception128186
Node: DialogCtl134299
Node: Inquiry136886
Node: Navigate141749
Node: Verify150007
Node: Restore158674
Node: Emulation165579
Node: Scripting175384
Node: Frontend182549
Node: Examples183848
Node: ExDevices185025
Node: ExCreate185684
Node: ExDialog186966
Node: ExGrowing188229
Node: ExModifying189034
Node: ExBootable189537
Node: ExCharset190089
Node: ExPseudo190909
Node: ExCdrecord191807
Node: ExMkisofs192124
Node: ExGrowisofs193464
Node: ExException194599
Node: ExTime195053
Node: ExIncBackup195512
Node: ExRestore199498
Node: ExRecovery200458
Node: Files201028
Node: Seealso202326
Node: Bugreport203049
Node: Legal203630
Node: CommandIdx204560
Node: ConceptIdx219656

End Tag Table

<
@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
@c man .\" First parameter, NAME, should be all caps
@c man .\" Second parameter, SECTION, should be 1-8, maybe w/ subsection
@c man .\" other parameters are allowed: see man(7), man(1)
@c man .TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.1.7, Oct 24, 2011"
@c man .TH XORRISO 1 "Version 1.1.7, Oct 26, 2011"
@c man .\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
@c man .\"
@c man .\" Some roff macros, for reference:
@ -222,9 +222,9 @@ of the operating systems the addresses of the entry points of each
session. The mount programs recognize block devices which represent
CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
@*
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole media
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium
which governs the data contents in all recorded sessions.
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular media
So in the view of the mount program all sessions of a particular medium
together form a single filesystem image.
@*
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as
@ -245,7 +245,7 @@ See paragraph Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.
@command{xorriso} adopts the concept of multi-session by loading an
image directory tree if present,
by allowing to manipulate it by several actions,
and by writing the new image to the target media.
and by writing the new image to the target medium.
@c man .br
The first session of a @command{xorriso} run begins by the definition of
the input drive with the ISO image or by the definition of an output drive.
@ -342,7 +342,7 @@ an output drive is defined. This is achieved by option -dev on blank media
or by option -outdev on media in any state.
@*
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files.
Before it can be written, the media in the output drive must get into
Before it can be written, the medium in the output drive must get into
blank state if it was not blank already.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@ -353,10 +353,10 @@ They have quite different capabilities and constraints.
@c man .PP
@sp 1
@cindex Growing, _definition
The method of @strong{growing} adds new data to the existing media. These
data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
The method of @strong{growing} adds new data to the existing data on the
medium. These data comprise of new file content and they override the existing
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge directory tree. It is possible to hide files from
previous sessions but they still exist on media and with many types of
previous sessions but they still exist on the medium and with many types of
optical media it is quite easy to recover them by mounting older sessions.
@*
Growing is achieved by option -dev.
@ -372,7 +372,7 @@ On the other hand modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media
but to blank media only.
@*
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with
filesystem objects as source and/or target media.
filesystem objects as source and/or target medium.
@*
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and
if option -grow_blindly is set to its default "off".
@ -1099,14 +1099,14 @@ Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read-only media.
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system @command{xorriso} has no own MMC
capabilities then it may still find that session from a scanned table of
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM media with setting "on".
content. Setting "force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
@*
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwriteable media
can hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables
the elsewise trustworthy table-of-content scan for those media.
@*
To be in effect, the -rom_toc_scan setting has to be made before the -*dev
command which aquires drive and media.
command which aquires drive and medium.
@c man .TP
@item -calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
@kindex -calm_drive reduces drive activity
@ -1312,7 +1312,7 @@ composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.
@cindex Insert, piece of data file, -cut_out
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO
image.
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single media, or if
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if
it exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB - 1 for old operating systems,
or the limit of 4 GiB - 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels
seem to read properly files >= 4 GiB - 1.
@ -1654,11 +1654,11 @@ Default is "on".
@cindex Delete, from ISO image, -rm
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
@*
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev media, even if
the deletion is committed to that same media.
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if
the deletion is committed to that same medium.
@*
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different
media in modification mode.
medium in modification mode.
@c man .TP
@item -rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
@kindex -rm_r deletes trees from ISO image
@ -2367,7 +2367,7 @@ To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.
Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several
types of media that there is no progress visible for the first
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the media for a few
few minutes or that the drive gnaws on the medium for a few
minutes after all data have been transmitted.
@command{xorriso} and the drives are in a client-server relationship.
The drives have much freedom about what to do with the media.
@ -2381,7 +2381,7 @@ under SEE ALSO.
@item -eject "in"|"out"|"all"
@kindex -eject ejects drive tray
@cindex Drive, eject tray, -eject
Eject the media in -indev, resp. -outdev, resp. both drives.
Eject the medium in -indev, resp. -outdev, resp. both drives.
Note: It is not possible yet to effectively eject disk files.
@c man .TP
@item -commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
@ -2456,7 +2456,7 @@ E.g: "by_size_4100m". This applies to media with Defect Management.
@*
The formatting action has no effect on media if -dummy is activated.
@*
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a media,
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium,
if ever. But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
@*
DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
@ -2479,7 +2479,7 @@ or worse occured. Be patient with apparently frozen progress.
@kindex -list_formats lists available formats
@cindex Media, list formats, -list_formats
Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for
the current media. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
the current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx",
a MMC format code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s")
and the same size in MiB.
@*
@ -2494,7 +2494,7 @@ Smaller format size with DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or BD-R means more reserve space.
@kindex -list_speeds lists available write speeds
@cindex Media, list write speeds, -list_speeds
Put out a list of speed values as reported by the output drive with
the loaded media. This does not necessarily mean that the media is writable
the loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable
or that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the
lists reported with empty drive or with ROM media obviously advertise
speeds for other media.
@ -2511,13 +2511,13 @@ and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
@item -close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
@kindex -close_damaged closes damaged track and session
@cindex Damaged track and session, close, -close_damaged
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the media