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cdrskin.c , Copyright 2006 Thomas Schmitt <>
Provided under GPL. See future commitment below.
A cdrecord compatible command line interface for libburn.
This project is neither directed against original cdrecord nor does it exploit
any source code of said program. It rather tries to be an alternative method
to burn CD which is not based on the same code as cdrecord.
See also :
Interested users of cdrecord are encouraged to contribute further option
implementations as they need them. Contributions will get published under GPL
but it is essential that the authors allow a future release under LGPL and/or
BSD license.
There is a script test/ which may be installed between
the cdrecord command and real cdrecord in order to learn about the options
used by your favorite cdrecord frontend. Edit said script and install it
according to the instructions given inside.
The implementation of an option would probably consist of
- necessary structure members for structs CdrpreskiN and/or CdrskiN
- code in Cdrpreskin_setup() and Cdrskin_setup() which converts
argv[i] into CdrpreskiN/CdrskiN members (or into direct actions)
- removal of option from ignore list "ignored_partial_options" resp.
"ignored_full_options" in Cdrskin_setup()
- functions which implement the option's run time functionality
- eventually calls of those functions in Cdrskin_run()
- changes to be made within Cdrskin_burn() or Cdrskin_blank() or other
existing methods
See option blank= for an example.
About compliance with *strong urge* of API towards burn_drive_scan_and_grab()
For a more comprehensive example of the advised way to behave with libburn
see test/libburner.c .
cdrskin was the initiator of the whitelist functionality within libburn.
Now it has problems to obviously comply with the new API best practice
presciptions literally. Therefore this explanation:
On start it restricts the library to a single drive if it already knows the
persistent address by option dev= . This is done with a combination of
burn_drive_add_whitelist() and burn_drive_scan(). Not compliant to the
literal strong urge but in fact exactly fulfilling the reason for that
urge in the API: any scanned drive might be opened exclusively after
burn_drive_scan(). It is kernel dependent wether this behavior is on, off
or switchable. The sysdamin will want it on - but only for one drive.
So with dev=... cdrskin complies to the spirit of the strong urge.
Without dev=... it has to leave out the whitelist in order to enable bus
scanning and implicit drive address 0. A tradition of 9 months shall not
be broken. So burns without dev= will stay possible - but harmless only
on single drive systems.
Burns without dev= resp. with dev=number are harmless on multi-drive systems.
This is because Cdrskin_grab_drive() either drops the unwanted drives or
it enforces a restart of the library with the desired drive's persistent
address. This restart then really uses the strongly urged function
Thus, cdrskin complies with the new spirit of API by closing down libburn
or by dropping unused drives as soon as the persistent drive address is
known and the drive is to be used with a long running operation. To my
knowlege all long running operations in cdrskin need a grabbed drive.
This spaghetti approach seems necessary to keep small the impact of new API
urge on cdrskin's stability. cdrskin suffers from having donated the body
parts which have been transplanted to libburn in order to create
burn_drive_scan_and_grab() . The desired sysadmin friendlyness was already
achieved by most cdrskin runs. The remaining problem situations should now
be defused by releasing any short time grabbed flocks of drives during the
restart of libburn.
This program is currently copyright Thomas Schmitt only.
The copyrights of several components of are willfully
tangled at toplevel to form an irrevocable commitment to true open source
We have chosen the GPL for legal compatibility and clearly express that it
shall not hamper the use of our software by non-GPL applications which show
otherwise the due respect to the open source community.
See toplevel README and cdrskin/README for that commitment.
For a short time, this place showed a promise to release a BSD license on
mere request. I have to retract that promise now, and replace it by the
promise to make above commitment reality in a way that any BSD conformant
usage in due open source spirit will be made possible somehow and in the
particular special case. I will not raise public protest if you spawn yourself
a BSD license from an (outdated) cdrskin.c which still bears that old promise.
Note that this extended commitment is valid only for cdrskin.[ch],
cdrfifo.[ch] and cleanup.[ch], but not for as a whole.
cdrskin is originally inspired by libburn-0.2/test/burniso.c :
(c) Derek Foreman <> and Ben Jansens <>
Compilation within cdrskin-* :
cd cdrskin
cc -g -I.. -DCdrskin_build_timestamP='...' \
-o cdrskin cdrskin.c cdrfifo.c cleanup.c \
-L../libburn/.libs -lburn -lpthread
cd ..
cc -g -I. -DCdrskin_build_timestamP='...' \
-o cdrskin/cdrskin cdrskin/cdrskin.c cdrskin/cdrfifo.c cdrskin/cleanup.c \
libburn/async.o libburn/crc.o libburn/debug.o libburn/drive.o \
libburn/file.o libburn/init.o libburn/lec.o \
libburn/mmc.o libburn/options.o libburn/sbc.o libburn/sector.o \
libburn/sg.o libburn/spc.o libburn/source.o libburn/structure.o \
libburn/toc.o libburn/util.o libburn/write.o \
libburn/libdax_audioxtr.o libburn/libdax_msgs.o \
/** The official program version */
#ifndef Cdrskin_prog_versioN
#define Cdrskin_prog_versioN "0.2.7"
/** The source code release timestamp */
#include "cdrskin_timestamp.h"
#ifndef Cdrskin_timestamP
#define Cdrskin_timestamP "-none-given-"
/** The binary build timestamp is to be set externally by the compiler */
#ifndef Cdrskin_build_timestamP
#define Cdrskin_build_timestamP "-none-given-"
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_versioN
#undef Cdrskin_libburn_versioN
/** use this to accomodate to the CVS version as of Feb 20, 2006
#define Cdrskin_libburn_cvs_A60220_tS 1
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_cvs_A60220_tS
#define Cdrskin_libburn_versioN "0.2.tsA60220"
#define Cdrskin_libburn_no_burn_preset_device_opeN 1
#ifndef Cdrskin_oldfashioned_api_usE
#define Cdrskin_oldfashioned_api_usE 1
#endif /* Cdrskin_libburn_cvs_A60220_tS */
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_0_2_6
#define Cdrskin_libburn_versioN "0.2.6"
#define Cdrskin_libburn_from_pykix_svN 1
#endif /* Cdrskin_libburn_0_2_6 */
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_0_2_7
#define Cdrskin_libburn_versioN "0.2.7"
#define Cdrskin_libburn_from_pykix_svN 1
#define Cdrskin_atip_speed_is_oK 1
#define Cdrskin_no_aftergrab_loopS 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_get_profilE 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_set_start_bytE 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_wrote_welL 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_bd_formattinG 1
#endif /* Cdrskin_libburn_0_2_7 */
#ifndef Cdrskin_libburn_versioN
#define Cdrskin_libburn_versioN "0.2.6"
#define Cdrskin_libburn_from_pykix_svN 1
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_from_pykix_svN
#ifndef Cdrskin_oldfashioned_api_usE
#define Cdrskin_libburn_does_ejecT 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_drive_get_adR 1
#define Cdrskin_progress_track_does_worK 1
#define Cdrskin_is_erasable_on_load_does_worK 1
#define Cdrskin_grab_abort_does_worK 1
#define Cdrskin_allow_libburn_taO 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_is_enumerablE 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_convert_fs_adR 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_convert_scsi_adR 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_burn_msgS 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_burn_aborT 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_cleanup_handleR 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_audioxtR 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_get_start_end_lbA 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_burn_disc_unsuitablE 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_read_atiP 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_buffer_progresS 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_pretend_fulL 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_multI 1
#define Cdrskin_libburn_has_buffer_min_filL 1
#ifdef Cdrskin_new_api_tesT
/* put macros under test caveat here */
#define Cdrskin_allow_sao_for_appendablE 1
#endif /* Cdrskin_new_api_tesT */
#endif /* ! Cdrskin_oldfashioned_api_usE */
#endif /* Cdrskin_libburn_from_pykix_svN */
/* These macros activate cdrskin workarounds for deficiencies resp.
problematic features of libburn which hopefully will change in
future. */
/** Work around the fact that neither /dev/sg0 (kernel 2.4 + ide-scsi) nor
/dev/hdc (kernel 2.6) get ejected by */
#ifndef Cdrskin_libburn_does_ejecT
#define Cdrskin_burn_drive_eject_brokeN 1
/** Work around the fact that after loading media speed report is wrong */
#ifndef Cdrskin_atip_speed_is_oK
#define Cdrskin_atip_speed_brokeN 1
/** Work around the fact that burn_drive_get_status() always reports to do
track 0 in */
#ifndef Cdrskin_progress_track_does_worK
#define Cdrskin_progress_track_brokeN 1
/** Work around the fact that a drive interrupted at burn_drive_grab() never
leaves status BURN_DRIVE_GRABBING in */
#ifndef Cdrskin_grab_abort_does_worK
#define Cdrskin_grab_abort_brokeN 1
/** Work around the fact that a freshly loaded tray with media reports
arbitrary media erasability in */
#ifndef Cdrskin_is_erasable_on_load_does_worK
#define Cdrskin_is_erasable_on_load_is_brokeN 1
/** reports of big trouble without
padding any track to a full sector
#define Cdrskin_all_tracks_with_sector_paD 1
/** A macro which is able to eat up a function call like printf() */
#ifdef Cdrskin_extra_leaN
#define ClN(x)
#define ClN(x) x
/** Verbosity level for pacifying progress messages */
#define Cdrskin_verbose_progresS 1
/** Verbosity level for command recognition and execution logging */
#define Cdrskin_verbose_cmD 2
/** Verbosity level for reporting of debugging messages */
#define Cdrskin_verbose_debuG 3
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include "../libburn/libburn.h"
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_has_audioxtR
#include "../libburn/libdax_audioxtr.h"
#ifdef Cdrskin_libburn_has_cleanup_handleR
#define Cleanup_set_handlers burn_set_signal_handling
#define Cleanup_app_handler_T burn_abort_handler_t
#include "cleanup.h"
/** The size of a string buffer for pathnames and similar texts */
#define Cdrskin_strleN 4096
/** The maximum length +1 of a drive address */
#ifndef Cdrskin_oldfashioned_api_usE
#define Cdrskin_adrleN BURN_DRIVE_ADR_LEN
#define Cdrskin_adrleN 80
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Imported from scdbackup-0.8.5/src/cd_backup_planer.c */
/** Macro for creation of arrays of objects (or single objects) */
#define TSOB_FELD(typ,anz) (typ *) malloc((anz)*sizeof(typ));
/** Convert a text so that eventual characters special to the shell are
made literal. Note: this does not make a text terminal-safe !
@param in_text The text to be converted
@param out_text The buffer for the result.
It should have size >= strlen(in_text)*5+2
@param flag Unused yet
@return For convenience out_text is returned
char *Text_shellsafe(char *in_text, char *out_text, int flag)
int l,i,w=0;
/* enclose everything by hard quotes */
l= strlen(in_text);
out_text[w++]= '\'';
/* escape hard quote within the text */
out_text[w++]= '\'';
out_text[w++]= '"';
out_text[w++]= '\'';
out_text[w++]= '"';
out_text[w++]= '\'';
} else {
out_text[w++]= in_text[i];
out_text[w++]= '\'';
out_text[w++]= 0;
/** Convert a text into a number of type double and multiply it by unit code
[kmgtpe] (2^10 to 2^60) or [s] (2048). (Also accepts capital letters.)
@param text Input like "42", "2k", "3.14m" or "-1g"
@param flag Bitfield for control purposes:
bit0= return -1 rathern than 0 on failure
@return The derived double value
double Scanf_io_size(char *text, int flag)
bit0= default value -1 rather than 0
int c;
double ret= 0.0;
ret= -1.0;
c= text[strlen(text)-1];
if(c=='k' || c=='K') ret*= 1024.0;
if(c=='m' || c=='M') ret*= 1024.0*1024.0;
if(c=='g' || c=='G') ret*= 1024.0*1024.0*1024.0;
if(c=='t' || c=='T') ret*= 1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0;
if(c=='p' || c=='P') ret*= 1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0;
if(c=='e' || c=='E') ret*= 1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0*1024.0;
if(c=='s' || c=='S') ret*= 2048.0;
/** Return a double representing seconds and microseconds since 1 Jan 1970 */
double Sfile_microtime(int flag)
struct timeval tv;
struct timezone tz;
return((double) (tv.tv_sec+1.0e-6*tv.tv_usec));
#ifndef Cdrskin_extra_leaN
/** Read a line from fp and strip LF or CRLF */
char *Sfile_fgets(char *line, int maxl, FILE *fp)
int l;
char *ret;
ret= fgets(line,maxl,fp);
if(ret==NULL) return(NULL);
l= strlen(line);
if(l>0) if(line[l-1]=='\r') line[--l]= 0;
if(l>0) if(line[l-1]=='\n') line[--l]= 0;
if(l>0) if(line[l-1]=='\r') line[--l]= 0;
/** Destroy a synthetic argument array */
int Sfile_destroy_argv(int *argc, char ***argv, int flag)
int i;
if(*argc>0 && *argv!=NULL){
free((char *) *argv);
*argc= 0;
*argv= NULL;
/** Read a synthetic argument array from a list of files.
@param progname The content for argv[0]
@param filenames The paths of the filex from where to read
@param filenamecount The number of paths in filenames
@param argc Returns the number of read arguments (+1 for progname)
@param argv Returns the array of synthetic arguments
@param argidx Returns source file indice of argv[] items
@param arglno Returns source file line numbers of argv[] items
@param flag Bitfield for control purposes:
bit0= read progname as first argument from line
bit1= just release argument array argv and return
bit2= tolerate failure to open file
@return 1=ok , 0=cannot open file , -1=cannot create memory objects
int Sfile_multi_read_argv(char *progname, char **filenames, int filename_count,
int *argc, char ***argv, int **argidx, int **arglno,
int flag)
int ret,i,pass,maxl=0,l,argcount=0,line_no;
char buf[Cdrskin_strleN];
free((char *) *argidx);
free((char *) *arglno);
*argidx= *arglno= NULL;
for(pass=0;pass<2;pass++) {
argcount= 1;
maxl= strlen(progname)+1;
else {
(*argv)[0]= (char *) malloc(strlen(progname)+1);
{ret= -1; goto ex;}
} else {
argcount= 0;
maxl= 1;
for(i=0; i<filename_count;i++) {
fp= fopen(filenames[i],"rb");
if(fp==NULL) {
{ret= 0; goto ex;}
#ifdef Cdrskin_new_api_tesT
fprintf(stderr,"cdrskin: DEBUG : Reading arguments from file '%s'\n",
line_no= 0;
while(Sfile_fgets(buf,sizeof(buf)-1,fp)!=NULL) {
l= strlen(buf);
if(l==0 || buf[0]=='#')
maxl= l;
} else {
if(argcount >= *argc)
(*argv)[argcount]= (char *) malloc(l+1);
{ret= -1; goto ex;}
(*argidx)[argcount]= i;
(*arglno)[argcount]= line_no;
fclose(fp); fp= NULL;
*argc= argcount;
if(argcount>0) {
*argv= (char **) malloc(argcount*sizeof(char *));
*argidx= (int *) malloc(argcount*sizeof(int));
*arglno= (int *) malloc(argcount*sizeof(int));
if(*argv==NULL || *argidx==NULL || *arglno==NULL)
{ret= -1; goto ex;}
for(i=0;i<*argc;i++) {
(*argv)[i]= NULL;
(*argidx)[i]= -1;
(*arglno)[i]= -1;
ret= 1;
/** Combine environment variable HOME with given filename
@param filename Address relative to $HOME
@param fileadr Resulting combined address
@param fa_size Size of array fileadr
@param flag Unused yet
@return 1=ok , 0=no HOME variable , -1=result address too long
int Sfile_home_adr_s(char *filename, char *fileadr, int fa_size, int flag)
char *home;
home= getenv("HOME");
#endif /* ! Cdrskin_extra_leaN */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/** Address translation table for users/applications which do not look
for the output of -scanbus but guess a Bus,Target,Lun on their own.
/** The maximum number of entries in the address translation table */
#define Cdradrtrn_leN 256
/** The address prefix which will prevent translation */
#define Cdrskin_no_transl_prefiX "LITERAL_ADR:"
struct CdradrtrN {
char *from_address[Cdradrtrn_leN];
char *to_address[Cdradrtrn_leN];
int fill_counter;
#ifndef Cdrskin_extra_leaN
/** Create a device address translator object */
int Cdradrtrn_new(struct CdradrtrN **trn, int flag)
struct CdradrtrN *o;
int i;
(*trn)= o= TSOB_FELD(struct CdradrtrN,1);
for(i= 0;i<Cdradrtrn_leN;i++) {
o->from_address[i]= NULL;
o->to_address[i]= NULL;
o->fill_counter= 0;
/** Release from memory a device address translator object */
int Cdradrtrn_destroy(struct CdradrtrN **o, int flag)
int i;
struct CdradrtrN *trn;
trn= *o;
for(i= 0;i<trn->fill_counter;i++) {
free((char *) trn);
*o= NULL;
/** Add a translation pair to the table
@param trn The translator which shall learn
@param from The user side address
@param to The cdrskin side address
@param flag Bitfield for control purposes:
bit0= "from" contains from+to address, to[0] contains delimiter
int Cdradrtrn_add(struct CdradrtrN *trn, char *from, char *to, int flag)
char buf[2*Cdrskin_adrleN+1],*from_pt,*to_pt;
int cnt;
cnt= trn->fill_counter;
if(flag&1) {
to_pt= strchr(buf,to[0]);
*(to_pt)= 0;
from_pt= buf;
} else {
from_pt= from;
to_pt= to;
if(strlen(from)>=Cdrskin_adrleN || strlen(to)>=Cdrskin_adrleN)
trn->from_address[cnt]= malloc(strlen(from_pt)+1);
trn->to_address[cnt]= malloc(strlen(to_pt)+1);
if(trn->from_address[cnt]==NULL ||
/** Apply eventual device address translation
@param trn The translator
@param from The address from which to translate
@param driveno With backward translation only: The libburn drive number
@param to The result of the translation
@param flag Bitfield for control purposes:
bit0= translate backward
@return <=0 error, 1=no translation found, 2=translation found,
3=collision avoided
int Cdradrtrn_translate(struct CdradrtrN *trn, char *from, int driveno,
char to[Cdrskin_adrleN], int flag)
int i,ret= 1;
char *adr;
to[0]= 0;
adr= from;
goto backward;
strlen(Cdrskin_no_transl_prefiX))==0) {
adr= adr+strlen(Cdrskin_no_transl_prefiX);
ret= 2;
} else {
if(i<trn->fill_counter) {
adr= trn->to_address[i];
ret= 2;
if(strcmp(from,trn->to_address[i])==0 &&
if(i<trn->fill_counter) {
ret= 2;
} else {
if(strlen(from)+strlen(Cdrskin_no_transl_prefiX)<Cdrskin_adrleN) {
ret= 3;
#endif /* Cdrskin_extra_leaN */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------- */
#ifndef Cdrskin_extra_leaN
/* Program is to be linked with cdrfifo.c */
#include "cdrfifo.h"
#else /* ! Cdrskin_extra_leaN */
/* Dummy */
struct CdrfifO {
int dummy;
#endif /* Cdrskin_extra_leaN */
/* --------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/** cdrecord pads up to 600 kB in any case.
libburn yields blank result on tracks <~ 600 kB
cdrecord demands 300 sectors = 705600 bytes for -audio */
static double Cdrtrack_minimum_sizE= 300;
/** This structure represents a track resp. a data source */
struct CdrtracK {
struct CdrskiN *boss;
int trackno;
char source_path[Cdrskin_strleN];
int source_fd;
int is_from_stdin;
double fixed_size;
double padding;
int set_by_padsize;
int sector_pad_up; /* enforce single sector padding */
int track_type;
double sector_size;
int track_type_by_default;
int swap_audio_bytes;
/* wether the data source is a container of defined size with possible tail */
int extracting_container;
/** Optional fifo between input fd and libburn. It uses a pipe(2) to transfer
data to libburn.
int fifo_enabled;
/** The eventual own fifo object managed by this track object. */
struct CdrfifO *fifo;
/** fd[0] of the fifo pipe. This is from where libburn reads its data. */
int fifo_outlet_fd;
int fifo_size;
int fifo_start_at;
/** The possibly external fifo object which knows the real input fd and
the fd[1] of the pipe. */
struct CdrfifO *ff_fifo;
/** The index number if fifo follow up fd item, -1= own fifo */
int ff_idx;
struct burn_track *libburn_track;
int Cdrtrack_destroy(struct CdrtracK **o, int flag);
int Cdrtrack_set_track_type(struct CdrtracK *o, int track_type, int flag);
/** Create a track resp. data source object.
@param track Returns the address of the new object.
@param boss The cdrskin control object (corresponds to session)
@param trackno The index in the cdrskin tracklist array (is not constant)
@param flag Bitfield for control purposes:
bit0= set fifo_start_at to 0
bit1= track is originally stdin
int Cdrtrack_new(struct CdrtracK **track, struct CdrskiN *boss,
int trackno, int flag)
struct CdrtracK *o;
int ret,skin_track_type;
int Cdrskin_get_source(struct CdrskiN *skin, char *source_path,
double *fixed_size, double *padding,
int *set_by_padsize, int *track_type,
int *track_type_by_default, int *swap_audio_bytes,
int flag);
int Cdrskin_get_fifo_par(struct CdrskiN *skin, int *fifo_enabled,
int *fifo_size, int *fifo_start_at, int flag);
(*track)= o= TSOB_FELD(struct CdrtracK,1);
o->boss= boss;
o->trackno= trackno;
o->source_path[0]= 0;
o->source_fd= -1;
o->is_from_stdin= !!(flag&2);
o->fixed_size= 0.0;
o->padding= 0.0;
o->set_by_padsize= 0;
o->sector_pad_up= Cdrskin_all_tracks_with_sector_paD;
o->track_type= BURN_MODE1;
o->sector_size= 2048.0;
o->track_type_by_default= 1;
o->swap_audio_bytes= 0;
o->extracting_container= 0;
o->fifo_enabled= 0;
o->fifo= NULL;
o->fifo_outlet_fd= -1;
o->fifo_size= 0;
o->fifo_start_at= -1;
o->ff_fifo= NULL;
o->ff_idx= -1;
o->libburn_track= NULL;
ret= Cdrskin_get_source(boss,o->source_path,&(o->fixed_size),&(o->padding),
goto failed;
#ifndef Cdrskin_extra_leaN