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.TH CDRSKIN 1 "Jan 06, 2012"
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cdrskin \- burns preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD via libburn.
.B cdrskin
.RI [ options | track_source_addresses ]
.\" TeX users may be more comfortable with the \fB<whatever>\fP and
.\" \fI<whatever>\fP escape sequences to invode bold face and italics,
.\" respectively.
\fBcdrskin\fP is a program that provides some of cdrecord's options
in a compatible way for CD media. With DVD and BD it has its own ways.
You do not need to be superuser for its daily usage.
.B Overview of features:
Blanking of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
Burning of data or audio tracks to CD,
either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
or in Session at Once mode for seamless tracks.
Multi session on CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
Single session Disk-at-once on DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL.
Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
on overwriteable DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE
or on data file or block device.
Bus scan, burnfree, speed options, retrieving media info, padding, fifo.
See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.
.B General information paragraphs:
Track recording model
Write mode selection
Recordable CD Media
Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
Drive preparation and addressing
Emulated drives
.B Track recording model:
The input-output entities which get processed are called tracks.
A \fBtrack\fP stores a stream of bytes.
More than one track can be burned by a single run of cdrskin.
In the terms of the MMC standard all tracks written by the same run constitute
a \fBsession\fP.
Normally, each track is initiated by one track source address argument,
which may either be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable file.
Alternatively, option cuefile= may be used to read a session description
from a text file and to read the session content from a single data file.
If no write mode
is given explicitly then one will be chosen which matches the peculiarities
of track sources and the state of the output media.
Some media types can be kept appendable so that further tracks can
be written to them in subsequent runs of cdrskin (see option -multi).
Info about the addresses of burned tracks is kept in a table of
content (TOC) on media and can be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.
This information is also used by the operating systems' CD-ROM read drivers.
In general there are two types of tracks: data and audio. They differ in
sector size, throughput and readability via the systems' CD-ROM drivers
resp. by music CD players. With DVD and BD there is only type data.
If not explicitly option -audio is given, then any track is burned as type
data, unless the track source is a file with suffix ".wav" or ".au" and has a
header part which identifies it as MS-WAVE resp. SUN Audio with suitable
parameters. Such files are burned as audio tracks by default.
While audio tracks just contain a given time span of acoustic vibrations,
data tracks may have an arbitray meaning. Nevertheless, ISO-9660 filesystems
are established as a format which can represent a tree of directories and
files on all major operating systems. Such filesystem images can be
produced by programs mkisofs or genisoimage or xorriso.
They can also be extended by follow-up tracks if prepared properly.
See the man pages of said programs.
cdrskin is able to fulfill the needs about their option -C.
Another type of data track content are archive formats which originally
have been developed for magnetic tapes. Only formats which mark a detectable
end-of-archive in their data are suitable, though. Well tested are
the archivers afio and star. Not suitable seems GNU tar.
.B Write mode selection:
In general there are two approaches for writing media:
A permissive mode depicted by option
.B -tao
which needs no predicted track size and allows to make use of
eventual multi-session capabilities.
A more restrictive mode
.B -sao
(alias -dao) which usually demands a predictable track size and is not
necessarily capable of multi-session. It can be used to write CD-TEXT and
it is the only one that works with option cuefile=.
If none of the options -dao, -tao or -sao is given then the program will
try to choose a write mode which matches the defined recording job,
the capabilities of the drive and the state of the present media.
So the mentioning of write modes in the following paragraphs and in the
examples is not so much a demand that the user shall choose one explicitly,
but rather an illustration of what to expect with particular media types.
.B Recordable CD Media:
CD-R can be initially written only once and eventually extended until they
get closed (or are spoiled because they are overly full). After that they are
read-only. Closing is done automatically unless option
.B -multi
is given which keeps the media appendable.
Write mode
-tao allows to use track sources of unpredictable length (like stdin) and
allows to write further sessions to appendable media.
-sao produces audio sessions with seamless tracks but needs predicted track
sizes and cannot append sessions to media.
CD-RW media can be blanked to make them re-usable for another
round of overwriting. Usually
.B blank=fast
is the appropriate option.
Blanking damages the previous content but does not
make it completely unreadable. It is no effective privacy precaution.
Multiple cycles of blanking and overwriting with random numbers might be
.B Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media:
Currently DVD-RW, DVD-R[DL], DVD+R[DL], and BD-R can be used for the Sequential
recording model. It resembles the model of CD media. Only DVD-RW can be
blanked and re-used from scratch.
DVD-RW are sequential media if they are in state "Sequential Recording".
The media must be either blank or appendable.
Newly purchased DVD-RW and DVD-R media are in this state.
Used DVD-RW get into blank sequential state by option
.B blank=deformat_sequential .
With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
Mode DAO has many restrictions. It does not work with
appendable media, allows no -multi and only a single track. The size of the
track needs to be known in advance. So either its source has to be a disk file
of recognizable size or the size has to be announced explicitly by options
.B tsize=
.B tao_to_sao_tsize= .
DAO is the only mode for DVD-R media which do not offer feature 21h Incremental
Streaming (e.g. DVD-R DL). DAO may also be selected explicitly by option
.B -sao .
Program growisofs uses DAO on sequential DVD-R[W] media for maximum
DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
The other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode if
it is available and if the restrictions of DAO would prevent the job.
Incremental Streaming may be selected explicitly by option
.B -tao
as it resembles much CD TAO by allowing track sources of
unpredicted length and to keep media appendable by option
.B -multi . It does not work with DVD-R DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.
The only restriction towards CD-R[W] is the lack of support for -audio tracks.
Multiple tracks per session are permissible.
The write modes for DVD+R[/DL] and BD-R resemble those with DVD-R except that
each track gets wrapped in an own session. There is no -dummy writing
with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
Quite deliberately write mode -sao insists in the tradition of a predicted
track size and blank media, whereas -tao writes the tracks open ended and
allows appendable media.
BD-R may be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management which
might catch and repair some bad spots at the expense of slow speed
even with flawless media.
.B Note:
Option -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.
Best reader compatibility is achieved without it
(i.e. by single session media).
.B Overwriteable DVD or BD Media:
Currently types DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can be overwritten via
Option -audio is not allowed. Only one track is allowed.
Option -multi cannot mark a recognizable end of overwriteable media.
Therefore -multi is banned unless ISO-9660 images shall be expandable by help
of option
.B --grow_overwriteable_iso .
Without this option or without an ISO-9660 filesystem image present
on media, -toc does not return information about the media content and
media get treated as blank regardless wether they hold data or not.
Currently there is no difference between -sao and -tao. If ever, then -tao
will be the mode which preserves the current behavior.
DVD+RW and DVD-RAM media need no special initial formatting. They offer a
single continuous data area for blockwise random access. BD-RE need
explicit formatting before use. See
.B blank=as_needed
or blank=format_defectmgt .
DVD-RW are sold in state "Sequential Recording". To become suitable for the
Overwriteable DVD recording model they need to get formatted to state
"Restricted Overwrite". Then they behave much like DVD+RW. This formatting
can be done by option
.B blank=format_overwrite .
Several programs like dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim, or cdrskin
can bring a DVD-RW out of overwriteable state so
that it has to be formatted again. If in doubt, just give it a try.
.B Drive preparation and addressing:
The drives, CD, DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via addresses which
are specific to libburn and the operating system. Those addresses get listed
by a run of \fBcdrskin --devices\fP or \fBcdrskin --device_links\fP.
On Linux, they are device files which traditionally do not offer
w-permissions for normal users. Because libburn needs rw-permission,
it might be only the
.B superuser
who is able to get this list without further
It is consensus that \fBchmod a+rw /dev/sr0\fP or \fBchmod a+rw /dev/hdc\fP
is less security sensitive than chmod u+s,a+x /usr/bin/cdrskin. The risk for
the drive is somewhat higher but the overall system is much less at stake.
Consider to restrict rw-access to a single group which bundles the users who
are allowed to use the burner drive (like group "floppy").
For drive permission examples on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris,
see cdrskin/README.
If you only got one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin option
\fBdev=\fP. Else you should use this option to address the drive you want.
cdrskin option dev= not only accepts the listed addresses but also
traditional cdrecord SCSI addresses which consist of three numbers:
Bus,Target,Lun. On Linux there is also a related address family "ATA" which
accesses IDE drives not under control of Linux SCSI drivers:
See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style addresses.
Further are accepted: links to libburn-suitable device files,
device files which have the same major and minor device number,
and device files which have the same SCSI address parameters (e.g. /dev/sg0).
.B Emulated drives:
.B --allow_emulated_drives
enables addressing of pseudo-drives
which get emulated on top of filesystem objects. Regular data files and
block devices result in pseudo-drives which behave much like DVD-RAM.
If the given address does not exist yet but its directory exists, then
it gets created as regular file.
Other file types like character devices or pipes result in pseudo-drives
which behave much like blank DVD-R.
The target file address is given after prefix "stdio:".
E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
Addresses of the form "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special. The
number is read literally and used as open file descriptor. With
dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal standard output of the program is
redirected to stderr and the stream data of a burn run will appear on stdout.
Not good for terminals ! Redirect it.
Pseudo-drives allow -dummy. Their reply with --tell_media_space can be utopic.
-dummy burn runs touch the file but do not modify its data content.
Note: --allow_emulated_drives is restricted to stdio:/dev/null if cdrskin
is run by the
.B superuser
or if it has changed user identity via the
.B setuid
bit of its access permissions. The ban for the superuser can be lifted by a
skillfully created file. See section FILES below.
.BI \-\-help
Show non-cdrecord compatible options.
.BI \-help
Show cdrecord compatible options.
Note that some of the help texts are quite wrong - for cdrecord as well as
for cdrskin (e.g. -format, blank=, -load). They are, nevertheless, traditional
indicators for the availability of the listed options. Some frontend programs
make decisions after reading them.
.BI \-version
Print cdrskin id line, compatibility lure line, libburn version, cdrskin
version, version timestamp, build timestamp (if available), and then exit.
Alphabetical list of options which are intended to be compatible with
original cdrecord by Joerg Schilling:
.BI \-atip
Retrieve some info about media state. With CD-RW print "Is erasable".
With DVD media print "book type:" and a media type text. With BD media
print "Mounted Media:" and media type text.
.BI \-audio
Announces that the subsequent tracks are to be burned as audio.
The source is supposed to be uncompressed headerless PCM, 44100 Hz, 16 bit,
stereo. For little-endian byte order (which is usual on PCs) use option
-swab. Unless marked explicitly by option -data, input files with suffix
".wav" are examined wether they have a header in MS-WAVE format confirming
those parameters and eventually raw audio data get extracted and burned as
audio track. Same is done for suffix ".au" and SUN Audio.
Option -audio may be used only with CD media and not with DVD or BD.
.BI blank= type
Blank a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
This is combinable with burning in the same run of cdrskin.
The type given with blank= selects the particular behavior:
Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If it needs formatting,
then format it. If it is not blank, then try to apply blank=fast.
It is a reason to abort if the media cannot assume thoroughly writeable state,
e.g. if it is non-blank write-once.
This leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format DVD-RW use
blank=format_overwriteable. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
(Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)
The following blank types are specific to particular media familes. Use them if special features are desired.
Blank an entire CD-RW or an unformatted DVD-RW.
(See also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)
Minimally blank an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.
(See also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)
Like blank=all but with the additional ability to blank overwriteable DVD-RW.
This will destroy their formatting and make them sequentially recordable.
Another peculiarity is the ability to blank media which appear already blank.
This is similar to option -force but does not try to blank media other than
recognizable CD-RW and DVD-RW.
(Note: blank=deformat_* are not original cdrecord options.)
Like blank=deformat_sequential but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.
This is faster than full blanking but may yield media incapable of
Incremental Streaming (-tao).
Format a media if it is not formatted yet,
and if cdrskin supports formatting for the media type,
and if formatting will not happen automatically during write.
This currently applies to unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE,
and blank unformatted BD-R.
Eventually the appropriate default formatting is chosen.
If other media or states are encountered then nothing happens.
The following formatting types are more specialized to particular
media families.
Format a DVD-RW to "Restricted Overwrite". The user should bring some patience.
(Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)
Like format_overwrite without creating a 128 MiB trailblazer session.
Leads to "intermediate" state which only allows sequential write
beginning from address 0.
The "intermediate" state ends after the first session of writing data.
For DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full media size
rather than just 128 MiB.
Most traditional formatting is attempted. No data get written.
Much patience is required.
This option treats already formatted media even if not option -force is given.
For DVD+RW this is the only supported explicit formatting type. It provides
complete "de-icing" so no reader slips on unwritten data areas.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve the default amount of spare blocks for
defect management.
The following format_defectmgt_* allow to submit user wishes which
nevertheless have to match one of the available formats. These formats are
offered by the drive after examining the media.
Disable the usual media quality certification in order to save time and
format to default size.
The certification setting persists even if subsequent blank= options override
the size of the format selection.
Whether formatting without certification works properly depends much on the
drive. One should check the "Format status:" from --list_formats afterwards.
Re-enable the usual media quality certification and format to default size.
The certification setting persists like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
Whether there happens certification at all depends much on the media state
and the actually selected format descriptor.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare blocks.
Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare blocks.
It might be necessary to format format_defectmgt_none first in order to get
offered the most minmal spare blocks sizes for format_defectmgt_min.
Format DVD-RAM or BD-RE to the largest available payload in the hope to disable
defect management at all. This may or may not have a speed increasing effect.
Unformatted blank BD-R will be left unformatted.
Format DVD-RAM or BD. The text after "format_defectmgt_payload_" gives a
number of bytes, eventually with suffixes "s", "k", "m". The largest number
of spare blocks will be chosen which allows at least the given payload size.
The number after "format_by_index_" is used as index to the list of available
format descriptors. This list can be obtained by option --list_formats.
The numbers after text "Format idx" are the ones to be used with
format_by_index_. Format descriptor lists are volatile. Do neither eject
nor write the media between the run of --list_formats and the run of
blank=format_by_index_ or else you may get a different format than desired.
Print this list of blanking types.
.BI \-checkdrive
Retrieve some info about the addressed drive and then exit.
Exits with non-zero value if the drive cannot be found and opened.
.BI \-copy
Create the subsequent tracks with permission for an unlimited number of copies.
.BI cuefile= path
Read a session description from a cue sheet file in CDRWIN format.
Base the tracks on a single file which is given in the sheet by command FILE.
To enable CD-TEXT from the cue sheet file, cdrskin option -text has to be
cdrskin currently supports TRACK datatypes AUDIO and MODE1/2048 which may
not be mixed. It ignores commands POSTGAP and PREGAP.
Data source may be of FILE type BINARY, MOTOROLA, or WAVE.
Non-CDRWIN commands ARRANGER, COMPOSER, MESSAGE are supported.
Cue sheet file commands CATALOG and ISRC may be overridden by option mcn=
and by input_sheet_v07t= purpose specifiers "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC".
This does not affect their appearance in CD-TEXT, but only on Q sub-channel.
.BI \-dao
Alias for option -sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode
or DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once mode.
.BI \-data
Subsequent tracks are data tracks. This option is default and only needed
to mark the end of the range of an eventual option -audio or -xa1.
Options -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get mapped to -data, not using the desired CD
sector formats and thus not taking advantage of eventual higher payload.
.BI \-xa1
Subsequent tracks are data tracks with input suitable for CD-ROM XA mode 2
form 1. This differs from -data input by 8 additional header bytes per block.
cdrskin will not write CD-ROM XA but rather strip the header bytes and write as
-data tracks.
.BI dev= target
Set the address of the drive to use. Valid are at least the
addresses listed with options --devices or --device_links,
X,Y,Z addresses listed with option -scanbus,
ATA:X,Y,Z addresses listed with options dev=ATA -scanbus,
and volatile libburn drive numbers (numbering starts at "0").
Other device file addresses which lead to the same drive might work too.
If no dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is assumed. That is the first
drive found being available. Better avoid this ambiguity on systems with more
than one drive.
The special target "help" lists hints about available addressing formats.
Be aware that deprecated option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr may change the meaning
of Bus,Target,Lun addresses.
.BI driveropts= opt
Set "driveropts=noburnfree" to disable the drive's eventual protection
mechanism against temporary lack of source data (i.e. buffer underrun).
A drive that announces no such capabilities will not get them enabled anyway,
even if attempted explicitly via "driveropts=burnfree".
.BI \-dummy
Try to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the inserted
media. There is no warranty that this will work with a particular combination
of drive, media, and write mode. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.
To avoid inadverted real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but
CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], or emulated stdio-drives.
.BI \-eject
Eject the disc after work is done.
.BI \-force
Assume that the user knows better in situations when cdrskin or libburn are
insecure about drive or media state. This includes the attempt to blank
media which are classified as unknown or unsuitable, and the attempt to use
write modes which libburn believes they are not supported by the drive.
Another application is to enforce blanking or re-formatting of media
which appear to be in the desired blank or format state already.
This option enables a burn run with option -dummy even if libburn believes
that drive and media will not simulate the write mode but will write for real.
It enables a burn run where cdrskin expects to exceed the available media
.B Caution:
Use this only when in urgent need.
.BI \-format
Same as blank=format_overwrite_full -force but restricted to DVD+RW.
.BI fs= size
Set the fifo size to the given value. The value may have appended letters which
multiply the preceding number:
"k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
Set size to 0 in order to disable the fifo (default is "4m").
The fifo buffers an eventual temporary surplus of track source data in order to
provide the drive with a steady stream during times of temporary lack of track
source supply.
The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can be
But a large fifo needs substantial time to fill up if not curbed via
option fifo_start_at=size.
.BI gracetime= seconds
Set the grace time before starting to write. (Default is 0)
.BI -immed
Equivalent to:
The name of this cdrecord option stems from the "Immed" bit which can make some
long running drive commands asynchronous and thus eases the load on some
wiring hardware types. Regardless of option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous
commands where possible and appropriate.
.BI index= list
Set a comma separated list of index start address numbers for the next track.
This applies to CD SAO sessions only.
The addresses count sectors from the start of the next track. The first number
is for index 1 and must be 0. The following numbers have to be larger than
their respective predecessors. Up to 99 numbers are allowed.
Sector numbers are computed from Min:Sec:Frame addresses by
Sector = ((Min*60)+Sec)*75+Frame
E.g.: "0,7512,20408" sets index 2 to 01:40:12 and index 3 to 04:32:08.
.BI -inq
Print the identification of the drive and then exit.
.BI -isosize
The next track following this option will try to obtain its source size from
the header information out of the first few blocks of the source data.
If these blocks indicate an ISO-9660 filesystem then its declared size
will be used under the assumption that it is a single session filesystem.
If not, then the burn run will be aborted.
The range of -isosize is exactly one track. Further tracks may be preceded
by further -isosize options, though. At least 15 blocks of padding will be
added to each -isosize track. But be advised to rather use padsize=300k.
This option can be performed on track sources which are regular files or block
devices. For the first track of the session it can be performed on any type
of source if there is a fifo of at least 64 kiB. See option fs= .
.BI isrc= text
Set the ISRC for the next track source to the given text, which must be exactly
13 characters long. It must comply to the format CCOOOYYSSSSS.
CC is the country code. OOO is the owner code. Both may consist of capital
letters A to Z and of decimal digits 0 to 9. YY depicts the year (00 to 99).
SSSSS is the serial number (00000 to 99999).
This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.
.BI -load
Load the media and exit. Exit value is 0 if any kind of media was found, non
zero else. Note: Option -eject will unload the media even if -load is given.
.BI -lock
Like option -load but leave the drive's eject button disabled if there is any
media found and not option -eject is given.
Use program "eject" or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out of the drive.
Runs of programs like cdrecord, growisofs, wodim, cdrskin will not be hampered
and normally enable the drive's eject button when they are done.
.BI mcn= text
Set the CD Media Catalog Number to text, which must be exactly 13 characters
long and should consist of decimal digits.
This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.
.BI minbuf= percentage
Equivalent to:
Percentage is permissible between 25 and 95.
.BI -minfo
Print information about the loaded media. This includes media type, writability
state, and a quite readable table of content.
.BI msifile= path
Run option -msinfo and copy the result line into the file given by path.
Unlike -msinfo this option does not redirect all normal output away from
standard output. But it may be combined with -msinfo to achieve this.
Note: msifile=path is actually an option of wodim and not of cdrecord.
.BI \-msinfo
Retrieve multi-session info for preparing a follow-up session by option -C
of programs mkisofs, genisoimage, or xorriso -as mkisofs.
Print result to standard output.
This option redirects to stderr all message output except the one of option
--tell_media_space and its own result string, which consists of two numbers.
The result string shall be used as argument of option -C with said programs.
It gives the start address of the most recent session and the predicted
start address of the next session to be appended. The string is empty if
the most recent session was not written with option -multi.
To have a chance for working on overwriteable media, this option has to be
accompanied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.
.BI \-multi
This option keeps CD, unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or BD-R appendable
after the current session has been written.
Without it the disc gets closed and may not be written any more - unless it
is a -RW and gets blanked which causes loss of its content.
The following sessions can only be written in -tao mode. -multi is prohibited
with DVD-R[W] DAO write mode and on DVD-R DL media.
Option --prodvd_cli_compatible eventually makes
-multi tolerable but cannot make it work.
In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual ISO-9660
filesystem of a follow-up
session needs to be prepared in a special way by the filesystem formatter
program. mkisofs and genisoimage expect particular info about the situation
which can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
To retrieve an archive file which was written as follow-up session,
you may use option -toc to learn about the "lba" of the desired track number.
This lba is the address of the 2048 byte block where the archive begins.
With overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.
So when adding a new session this end has to be determined from the payload.
Currently only ISO-9660 filesystems can be used that way. See option
.B \--grow_overwriteable_iso
for lifting the ban on -multi.
Note: -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.
.BI \-nocopy
Create subsequent tracks with permission for a single level of copies.
I.e. those copies would then be marked by -scms as offering no permission
for further copies.
.BI \-nopad
Do not add trailing zeros to the data stream. Nevertheless, since there seems
to be no use for audio tracks with incomplete last sector, this option applies
only to data tracks. There it is default.
.BI \-nopreemp
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered without pre-emphasis.
.BI \-pad
Add 30 kiB of trailing zeros to each data track. (This is not sufficient to
avoid problems with various CD-ROM read drivers.)
.BI padsize= size
Add the given amount of trailing zeros to the next data track. This option
gets reset to padsize=0 after that next track is written. It may be set
again before the next track argument. About size specifiers, see option fs=.
.BI \-preemp
Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with pre-emphasis.
.BI \-sao
Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once
(DAO) mode.